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35 
•hi 



' s 



RECORDS OF THE 

INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT 



RECORDS OF THE 



INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT 



OP THE 



GOVERNMENT OF THE NORTH-WEST PROVINCES 

OF INDIA 

DURING THE 

MUTINY OF 185T 



INCLDDINa 

CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT, 
DEHLI, CA WNPORE, AND OTHER PLACES 



PBK8EBVBD BT, AND NOV ARRANGBD UNDBB THB 8UPBBINTBNDBNCB OF 

SIR WILLIAM MUIR, K.C.8.L, D.C.L. 

THEN IN OHABOE OF THE INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT, AND SUBSEQUENTLY 
LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR, NORTH-WEST PROVINCES 



Edited by WILLIAM COLDSTREAM, B.A., I.C.S. 



VOL. I. 



EDINBURGH 
T. & T. CLARK, 38 GEORGE STREET 

1902 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



VOLUME I. 



INTRODUCTION: FAMILY LIFE AT AGRA, AND PRIVATE 

CORRESPONDENCE 



Narrative of Family Life in Fort Agra during Mutiny of 1867 
Letters from Agra to Family in Edinburgh, 18tb May to 20th 
December 1867 ....... 

Letters from Allahabad to Agra, February to March 1868 . 



1-23 

27-49 
60-67 



RECORDS OF INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT 

List of Intelligence Records ...... 23-24 

First Sebibb — Letters mostly addressed down country to Cawn- 

pore, Calcutta, etc— 

Letters of the Honble. J. R. Colvin 61-81 

Letters from Secretary to Government N.W.P., etc. . 81-134 

Second Series — Letters addressed to Dehli and Meerut, August 

to October 1867 ....... 136-160 

Third Series — Letters addressed down country to Calcutta, Cawn- 

pore, etc., 2nd October to 19th November 1867 . 163-273 

Fourth Series — Letters addressed down country to Calcutta, 

Cawnpore, etc, November 1867 to January 1868 . 277-366 

Treatment of European Females in the Mutiny . . 367-379 

Fifth Series — Correspondence with Colonel Qreathed's Moveable 

Column, 1st to 20th October 1867 .... 382-393 

Sixth Series — Memoranda, Depositions of Spies, Items of News 

collected, etc, 31st August to 23rd October 1867 . . 396-432 

Seventh Series — Notes of Intelligence from Letters received in 

Fort Agra, August to September 1867 .... 436-636 
Eighth Series — Extracts from Letters from Cawnpore, Allahabad, 

etc, in September 1867 ...... 639-^664 



Index 



666-669 






25nM6G 



AGRA IN THE MUTINY 



AND 



FAMILY LIFE IN THE FORT, 

A Sketch for the Family, 1896. 
\Ex tracts from the above J\ 



For some time I have been pressed to give the family an 
account of our experience during the Mutiny of 1857. I shrank 
at first from the idea, and put it quite asida By and by, how- 
ever, the reasonableness of the request grew upon me. Five of 
our children were for several months shut up with us in the Fort, 
and for the whole family it was a time of great anxiety. Any- 
thing of a literary or historical character was, of course, out of 
the question ; but it appeared on consideration quite possible, and 
for the above reason right and proper, that I should give a simple 
outline of that eventful period, in so far as it affected us personally. 

Musing thus, I was led to look over the half-dozen volumes 
of Mutiny records which I kept up in 1857 when in charge 
of the Intelligence Department, and which I had cast aside amid 
other old documents relating to my work in India. And I 
turned also to Kaye's accoimt of Agra, in his 8ej>oy War, where 
I was startled to read this long-forgotten passage : — 

"We had wisely organised an Intelligence Department, of 
which William Muir had the chief direction. It was highly 
important at such a time that reliable information should be 
obtained from the Officers of Government themselves, in place 
of the gossip of the bazaars, or the confused statements of 
frightened messengers, and no man could have done the work 
better than Muir. The semi-official or private correspondence 
that came in from day to day was full of the most instructive 
and suggestive detaik. It was said that he was a little over- 
chary in the dissemination of the intelligence he obtained. 
But this can scarcely be regarded as a fault, when we consider 

VOL. L — I 



2 AGRA FORT 

how likely it was, amid such a population as that of the Agra 
Fort, a story once floated would be exaggerated or distorted, 
and might rather add to the anxieties than strengthen the con- 
fidence of our people. There was, in truth, little or nothing of an 
exhilarating character to be communicated, so, perhaps, silence at 
such a time was of better metal than speech." — VoL iii p. 406. 

Beading thus, it dawned upon me that these same old 
neglected books, containing as they do the result of my daily 
correspondence with the officers of the Company throughout 
our beleaguered districts, and still more the often hourly record 
of reports taken at the mouth of messengers and spies, might 
iiave a special interest and value not only for the family, but for 
others desiring to consult them. Besides much personal informa- 
tion, they present a vivid picture of our insulated position at 
Agra, and of the reeking flood of mutiny that poured aroimd ua 
These records had been made over to Kaye, and were used by 
him till, on his untimely death in the middle of his great work, 
they were returned to me and put aside. I have now gone 
carefully over them. How they carry one back to those terrible 
times, and to the singular experience of the Agra Fort when 
we, with five or six thousand souls, were segregated for months 
within its walls from all the world ! 

I mention these Volumes here, simply because they led my 
thoughts back to the days of the Mutiny. In using them for 
my little story, I have only referred to such occasional details 
in them as bear upon our life at Agra, and the dangers that 
beset ua There is no attempt at follow^ing the Mutiny else- 
where. I will notice at the end of this sketch how I propose 
to deal with the Volumes themselvea Meanwhile I proceed to 
the rough-and-ready outline which I have promised to the 
family, of our life and experiences at Agra. 

In January 1857 we (your Mother and I) set out on a 
circuit, which, as Member of the Board, I had to take throughout 
the upper districts of the North- West Provincea And so we 
travelled in camp with the children up the Doab by Meenit 
and Seharunpore, and round by Kumaul and Delhi, returning 
home again by the Groorgaon and Muttra districts on the left 
bank of the Jumna; — that is, through a Country and Cities 
which shortly after were convulsed with outrage and rebellion. 
How quiet and peaceful it all was then! During our tour, 
however, the cartridge trouble had transpired. In February the 
Pandy regiments at Barrackpore began to show disloyalty ; and 



AGRA FORT 3 

from thence, as a kindling centre, factious emissaries were being 
sent all over the land to infect the Hindoo regimenta And 
they felt their power ; for India had been drained of its European 
troops for the Russian War. From Meerut to Calcutta, say 
over 1000 miles, there were but three European corps, — one 
with us, one at Lucknow, and one at Fatna ; while the cities 
teemed with native regimenta No wonder that the Fandies saw 
the game to be all in their own handa It was at the close of 
March that Mungal Fandy was shot, and immediately after the 
Nineteenth Regiment was disbanded. 

About the middle of March, on our return, I met Sir Henry 
Lawrence as he passed through Agra from Rajpootana to 
Lucknow ; and about the end of the month. Sir Henry Durand 
rested with us as he journeyed to take Lawrence's place at Indore. 
I remember conversing with him on the outlook of affaira 
There was anxiety as to the spread of discontent, but no imme- 
diate sense of the volcanic ground on which at the moment the 
Company's rule was standing. As the result of his observations, 
he wrote while with us to Lord Canning, noting especially that 
our General, Folewhele, discountenanced as unwise the anxious 
views of the younger ofl&cers, who felt that the Sepoy corps 
generally were sympathisers with the Nineteenth Regiment.^ 
But it was all too true ; and April passed sullenly away, while 
mutinous messengers were secretly spreading treachery among 
the Fandy regiments everywhere. 

At last came the crash ; and on Sunday the 1 0th May, as 
the Europeans were preparing for church parade at Meerut, the 
great Mutiny broke out. On Monday, 11th, a message was 
received from a lady at Meerut, by her aunt at Agra, warning 
her not to start for Meerut, as the cavalry had risen, set fire to 
the houses, and killed all European officers and soldiers they 
could find ; — a message, as Kaye says, scanty in words but of 
tremendous significance.^ It was the last message the broken 
wires conveyed. For one or two days we were left in ominous 
gloom, till, by degrees, the awful truth transpired with the 
terrible addition of the fall of Dehli and slaughter of every 
European there. During the month, there was mutiny all aroimd. 
The regiments at Ailygurh, Mynpoory, and Etawah, one after 
another, went the way of their wild bloodthirsty brethren, and 
the consternation at Agra was intensa Feople rushed to the 
Fort with all their goods and chattels ; but permission to enter 
was shortly after withdrawn, and then R Drummond's policy 
* Kaye, iii. p. 239. « Ibid, p. 595. 



4 AGRA FORT 

was rigidly adopted of avoiding even ordinary precautions, lest 
the people should construe them into signs of fear and of alarm. 
Had reasonable arrangements been allowed, how much might 
have been saved, not only for the convenience of all who eventu- 
ally took refuge in the Fort, but of valuable records, literature, 
etc At the end of May, Muttra, some thirty miles off, went 
like the rest, and then arose with us the panic of sudden attack 
from its rebel Sepoya There were at this period times of intense 
anxiety, when a day seemed to hang upon one like a year, and 
the thought was of nothing but the danger to the dear ones 
al>out us.^ Driving through the streets, I remember the singular 
feeling as if we had suddenly become strangers in a strange land, 
— as if, in fact, the people were pitifully regarding us as shortly, 
like all around, to be swept away. While the road down country 
was still open and regarded safe for carriage Daks, I at one time 
thought of sending off your Mother and the children to Calcutta, 
escaping thus the danger that was louring upon Agra. Indeed, 
the carriage had been ordered. I dare not think upon it but 
with a shudder, as they would almost certainly have been stopped 
at Cawnpore, — a terrible thought ! Thank God, the danger was 
apprehended in time, and the idea droppal 

As time went on. Volunteer companies were formed. To 
encourage the movement I joined it at first on the dear old 
brown mare, though my duties lay in another direction ; and I 
remember Charlie, then a little lad of seven, following us in play 
with boyish delight, clad in his little uniform, with red kunmier- 
bund and turban round his sola-topee, on his small white pony. 
The Gwalior Bodyguard was a great help to us ; and indeed the 
countenance of Scindia, supported as he was by that grand man, 
my friend Dinkur Eao, was invaluable. But they failed to curb 
their heavy Contingent, which at last, in the middle of June, 
mutinied and massacred our people at Gwalior, of whom but a 
small portion escaped to Agra. Major Macpherson, the Agent, 
was immensely serviceable, keeping us ever en rapport with 
Scindia, and helping us with information from that quarter. 

I have no clear recollection whether I was present in 
Cantonments (some two or three miles off) when Mr. Colvin, 
on the 15th May, addressed the two Native corps, and was 
received by them with a hollow cheer. But I have the most 
vivid picture before my mind of the night of the 30th May, 

^ At fluch times one did not think even of meals, and tlie only thing that 
flourished was the beard. With me, as with many others, it was the begin- 
ning of that luxury. 



AGRA FORT 5 

when, in consequence of the sudden intelligence that the Bhuiii- 
pore troops, who, on the farther side beyond Muttra, were escort- 
ing Harv^ey to Dehli, had mutinied and might at any moment 
come against us, it was determined next morning to disarm our 
Sepoy regiments. At midnight a notice went round for all 
families to betake themselves, by early dawn, to the several 
rendezvous already appointed as places of resort in case of danger. 
Your Mother at once went up to ours (" Loyd's Kothee," at top 
of a hill close by), and slept there with the children ; by the 
morning this house and all about it had become a strange scene, 
crowded with women and shrieking children. Meanwhile, 
Farquhar and I had volunteered to carry the warning of the 
danger over that quarter of the Station that lay next the city. 
It was a singular sight and marvellous lesson that night's experi- 
ence. Some even of the ladies were brave and prepared for all 
risks ; others least expected, even of the other sex, trembled and 
almost fainted for fear. From the Convent to the Mission 
House, we warned every one ; and by the dawn we, like the rest, 
were at our rendezvous. It overlooked the Jail, where part of 
the disarmament was being carried out under our eyes. Fortu- 
nately, both there and in Cantonments, all was safely and well 
accomplished. The Sepoys generally went off to their homes, 
and for the time Agra was relieved of immediate danger. 

And so we entered June. The story of this fateful month at 
Agra is told with wonderful truth by Kaye, whose vivid descrip- 
tion of scenes, and of the character of those concerned, comes to 
my recollection as marvellously accurate and sound. But I have 
not a single note or memorandum of events till the following 
month. Harington, Eeade, and I, had been nominated, in a sort 
of informal way by Mr. Colvin, to keep the wheels of Govern- 
ment in motion. Judicial, Financial, and Revenue, respectively. 
But as tract after tract fell out of our hands, the administration 
collapsed, and the labour of conducting it shrank to nothing; 
there was in fact no Government to conciuct . This was especially 
the case with my department. Every now and then, as things 
seemed to brighten, a little revenue might appear. But at last 
all came to an end, and my occupation was left high and dry ; 
for otherwise I rather kept aside from the Lieutenant-Governor's 
councils, in which a good deal of feeling sometimes transpired. 

Aind thus the month of June wore away, till towards its close 
the Mutineer body from Nemuch and Nusseerabad, instead of, as 
was expected, crossing over to Dehli, were found to be marching 
direct upon us. Then, as they approached, things began to look 



6 AGRA FORT 

so threatening that the women and children were warned (it 
might well have been before) to take refuge in the Fort at once. 
The chamber allotted to us was a long, bare, stone room on the 
lower floor on the east side of the Dewan-Khas, or Palace Square, 
with windows looking into the square. It served, when fitted 
with a few simple pieces of furniture, for all purposes of the day, 
and for the numerous neighbouring friends who took their meals 
with us. At night the farther end, when curtained off for our 
beds, was suitable enough for ourselves and the children. Beyond 
the actual necessaries of life and reasonable comfort, we could 
bring in nothing to our room ; but we managed to save and store 
away what things we chiefly wished to keep.^ It was Wednesday 
the 1st of July that your Mother, with our five children, left the 
dear old house at Hurree Purbut, where we had lived so long, and 
occupied this room. A curious incident here occurred. The Dhai 
who nursed T. . ., shut out by the European guard at the Ummer 
Singh Gate, in terror of her life took refuge under one of the 
Fort bridges, and feared to enter again. But most fortunately for 
the poor child, and for us all, after two days she saw a company 
of native women working at the Fort gate, and, getting one of 
them to let her change clothes with her, thus managed to get 
in as if a cooly woman, and in joy so reached our room. 

I myself, with Thomhill and Farquhar, slept out for the rest 
of the week at the Mofussilite Press, close by the Magistrate's 
house, ready for any emergency. The Mutineer force steadily 
advanced upon us, and our troops were held in readiness to meet 
them. On Sunday morning the 5 th, after breakfasting in the 
Fort, I rode down to the General's house in Cantonments, where 
the leading officers were assembled, to see what was going on. 

At last, after much indecision. General , finding that the 

enemy were already within two or three miles of us, had resolved 
on meeting them at once, and I was deputed with a message to 
see that the Company guarding the Jail were forthwith despatched 
to join the rest of the regiment. It was a trying ride, for every 
creature, man, woman and child, had fled; and all along the 
deserted road, for a couple of miles or more, I met not a single 
soul. Especially as I passed the Ajmere Gate, by which lay the 
enemy's road, I felt, keeping hand on pistol, that at any turn 
their scouts might have been down and had a shot at me. But 

^ I remember the first thing I sent into the Fort for preservation was the 
precious MS. of Wackidi, which, after having used it for my Life of Mahomet^ 
I eventually made over to the India Office Library. A beautiful copy made 
from the same MS. is now in our University Library. 



AGRA FORT 7 

my good old mare earned me swiftly along. After reaching the 
Jail, which was all in confusion while the prisoners were being 
released and led across the river, I delivered my message and 
returned to the Fort. My way now lay through the main street 
of the city, which was in a strange state of excitement and alarm» 
knowing well as the people did that any reverse would plimge 
the whole place into uproar, and p ut both loval and disloval at 
the mercy of miscreants and rebels everywhera But I got safely 
through, to your Mother's intense thankfulness and relief. The 
Durzie afterwards told her that when he saw me riding along the 
street, he felt as if he would never see me again. 

Then followed the anxious watching from the ramparts of the 
Fort, the first intelligence of our force being obliged to retire, and 
the sad sight of the wounded brought in with the re-entering 
troopa Beyond one or two shots to keep the immediate neigh- 
bourhood clear, there was no firing from the Fort ; all were now 
within the walls ; beyond them, everything was in the insurgents' 
handa From the ramparts we could see the bungalows far and 
near — the thatched roofs giving every facility to the incendiaries 
— in a vast blaze during all the night, and the savage Sowars 
cantering round our flaming homea Thank God for the Fort of 
Agra ! What would it not have been for our dear ones on that 
dreadful night without it, but a place of awful peril ! I find that 
on the Monday I began letters to Sir H. Lawrence, and also to 
the Bovibay Times. As the Bombay letter records in detail our 
position at Agra, before and after the battle, and the battle itself, 
I think it will be of interest to quote the greater part of it hera^ 

After describing the composition and advance of the Nemuch 
force, the report continues : — 

" Our position at Agra was in some degree complicated by 
having to guard our monster Jail * by European troops, for the 
Jail nujeebs (armed guard) had gone off in a body towards the 
end of the month. If the 3rd Europeans should be required in 
the field, it would be necessary to draw off the men employed on 
this duty, and the only resource left was to make over the custody 
of the Jail to the Sikh prisoners, who were to be released and 
armed for the purpose. 

^ I subsequently found two previous letters, dated 13th and I6th June, 
addressed to the Bombay Times. These will be found below in the Intelli* 
gence Collection, No. XI., see p. 24. 

' It was the Central Jail for the North- West Provinces, containing a vast 
oollection of the worst prisoners in the land. 



8 AGRA FORT 

" The Kotah contingent — a small force consisting of about 
600 men of all arms, with two guns — reached us in the early 
part of June. It remained encamped for some time between 
this and Muttra, and was then marched across the Junma to 
Sydabad, sixteen miles on the AUygurh road, where it did 
good ser\ice in quieting the country, to such an extent that 
the revenue balances were beginning to come in. As danger 
began to threaten us from the Nemuch troops, this corps was 
gradually drawn in towards Agra, and was marched into the 
native lines of our cantonments on Friday the 3rd July. It was 
generally believed to be sufficiently staunch to hold this position 
with European gims and bayonets close at hand. But some 
little symptoms of disrespect to British officers, and the suspicion 
of them prevalent in the city, were symptomatic of disaffection, 
especially among the Sowars. SyfooUa Khan*s le\y of Keraolee 
horse and foot continued up to this time to be of the utmost 
ser\'ice to us in keeping the Agra district i)eaceful. It was now 
brought close to the city, and encamped on the enemy's 
road. 

" Besides tliese purely military forces, we had an organised 
body of Militia, consisting of unattached officers, civilians, and 
clerks. It numbered 50 or 60 horse and aliout 200 foot. Thev 
had been under drill for only two or three weeks, and were 
generally raw and imperfect in military evolutions. The effect 
of the Contingent mutinying at Gwalior, was slowly but surely to 
draw off the Contingent of horse which had been hitherto assistuig 
us in various quarters. About the end of Jime or beginning of 
July, accordingly, Kaikes* horse at Mynpoory, Alexander's at 
Hatrass, and Burlton's at or about AUygurh, became disaffected, 
not without violence. Pearson's battery of nine-iwunders followed 
them. The result was the arrival of all the European officers of 
those troops at Agra, and the withdrawal of the magistrates of 
Mynpoory, AUygurh, and Muttra from the ix)sitions they had 
hitherto been occupying. Such was our situation wlien tlic 
Nemuch mutineers came down upon us. 

" On Wednesday the 1st of July, we had intelligence that 
they were at Futtehpore Sikri, distant twenty-two miles, and had 
seized our officials there, some of wliom weiit over to them. The 
Tehseeldar seems to have been carried off and maltreated, and 
his arm broken. The Moonsif was made Tehseeldar by th e 
ini^tinpfirg. and the Thannadars and Kesaldar maintained in their 



posts. Arrangements had been in progress for some days, 
judiciously directed by the Lieutenant-Governor, for bringing the 



AGRA FORT 9 

more helpless classes, schools, etc. into the Fort. Almost all the 
ladies who were yet outside, now betook themselves to the Fort ; 
the gentlemen slept in rendezvous outside. 

" A picket of our Militia horse was posted at Pithoulie, three 
or four miles out of Agra. On Saturday the 4th, they brought 
in accounts that the enemy was picketed half-way between this 
and Futtehpore Sikri, and that their advance guard was coming 
on. Upon this, it was resolved that our forces should proceed to 
meet them. The Kotah contingent was to move out in the 
afternoon, and the European regiment at eight in the evening. 
Syfoolla's Keraolee. levy was already in that direction. In the 
afternoon, the Kotah contingent moved and halted outside the 
town, but had hardly done so when they mutinied, the cavalry 
taking the lead, the infantry and artillery passive. Tliey shot 
at their officers, but killed only one sergeant. The corps went 
off towards the enemy. Our Militia pickets happened to be 
near, and, in the midst of a thickening storm, followed up the 
retreating troops, cutting up some, and, what was of more 
importance, bringing back the guns and all the ammimition. 

" Two of our gims, which had been placed with SyfooUa's 
force, were precautionally brought in the night before. The 
force was discontented at this mark of suspicion ; and, on the 
ground of being unsupported, asked leave to go home. This 
was granted, and Syfoolla led them off towards Jugneyr on 
Sunday morning. Some of the horse probably seceded to the 
enemy. We heard nothing more of the Ulwur Durbar troops, 
who promised great things in harassing the mutineers. So we 
were left alone with our 3rd Europeans, the Company of artillery, 
and the Militia. 

" A little before midday on Sunday, our picket came in with 
the intelligence that the enemy was within two or three miles of 
Agra ; their advance guard even pushing in from Shahgimge, 
a suburb close to Government House. Immediate measures were 
taken for an advance by us. The Jail guard of fifty soldiers was 
called in to join the main body,^ and all marched off about one 
o'clock P.M. Two himdred of the 3rd Europeans and a portion 
of the Militia were left behind to guard the Fort. Only about 
five hundred of the former were thus available for the field. 
The Company of artillery, considering that it had only lately 
been horsed, was in an efficient state, and was officered by gallant 
fellows, D*Oyley, Pearson, Lamb, and Fuller. The troops halted 
at Shahgunge for half an hour, to allow the party from the Jail 
^ It was at this time I carried the message to the Jail. 



10 AGRA FORT 

to come up, and to refresh themselves. They then moved 
forward, and, believing the enemy to be in force with their 
artillery commanding the Futtehpore Sikri road, defiled to the 
right of it by the back of a high-walled garden, and took up a 
position beyond. The regiment then formed into line and 
advanced in dchelon with their front bearing obliquely on the 
road, and facing the village of Bhondagaon, in and about which, 
at the distance of one and a half or two miles, we subsequently 
discovered the enemy to be posted. The European infantry 
formed the centre, flanked on the right by half our battery, under 
D'Oyley, and the left by the other half, imder Pearson. The 
Artillery, again, was protected by the Volunteer horse and foot 
to the extreme right and left of our position. In this order we 
advanced till we again approached the road, our extreme left 
nearly resting upon it. Between two and three o'clock, when we 
were about half a mile from Bhondagaon, the Mutineer artillery 
imexpectedly opened upon us from their right. We found it to 
be planted on either side the village, and there are believed to have 
been as many as eleven or twelve guns (six and nine-pounders). 
The Mutineer infantry, some two thousand strong, occupied the 
village ; and large bodies of our well-trained cavalry — some six 
or eight hundred — were scattered around. 

" Our artillery lost little time in replying to the enemy's fire, 
and a fierce cannonade was kept up, — our line advancing till the 
left guns had well crossed the road. The advance continued till 
our infantry came up to the village. About this time the 
cannonade was so hot that they were directed to lie down and 
take such advantage as they could of the shelter of the walls or 
trees to fire upon the village. Meanwhile, two of our tumbrils 
on the left blew up from the enemy's shot — for their guns were 
well served ; and one of our cannon had its carriage destroyed. 
The remaining two guns with their tumbrils executed a rapid 
movement about 60 yards backwards to avoid the contact of 
exploding ammunition, amid the cheers of the enemy ; but they 
soon turned, unliml.)ered, and were at work again. 

" The enemy's horse now appeared in great numbers on our 
left, and at one time made a charge which threatened our guns 
on that side. They were met by our left flank volunteer horse, 
twenty-five in number, who made a brave counter-charge, and 
checked their advance. The Mutineer horse were, however, so 
greatly superior in numbers that, though obliged to stand at 
a safe distance, they crept round our team, and began to harass 
our infantry, but a volley obliged them to retire. If that 



AGRA FORT 11 

immense body of horse had shown any courage, or had been 
at all efficiently handled, it would have seriously affected our 
position. 

" The battery on our right continued to advance ; and our 
mfantry, having entered the village and set fire to it, were now 
in a position to have stormed and entirely dislodged the enemy^ 
when, to the dismay of all, it was announced that our anununi- 
tion, owmg to explosion of the tumbrils and our rapid firing, 
had been entirely expended. There was now no alternative but 
to retire ; and the retreat, in the face of artillery and clouds of 
horse, was executed in an admirable manner. The troops in fact 
retired with all the order and steadiness of a parade, and reached 
the Fort at about 5 P.M. The action lasted full two hours. We 
had 30 killed and about 80 wounded. The enemy's loss we do 
not know ; but although they were under cover of a village, 
their casualties were probably greater than ours. Their brigade- 
major lost his two hands, and is said to have died afterwards. 
The result certainly has been that, although the field was left in 
their hands for a time, they decamped without delay, towards 
Muttra. The fact is that their ammimition was nearly as low as 
ours ; that we were on the eve of a great victory against tremen- 
dous odds ; and that if we had gone out again the next day, well 
supplied with ammimition, we must have driven them from their 
post. Various circumstances, however, prevented this ; among 
others, the disorganisation of our field battery from the desertion 
of the greater portion of our native artillery drivers, so that the 
day after the fight we could only have effectively equipped two 
guns of horse artillery. 

" In criticising the battle, it is the opinion of some of our 
authorities that the' ardent European infantry should have been 
led earlier to a dashing charge at the village, which might have 
been carried and the enemy routed before our ammunition ran so 
low. I do not pretend to judge this point. I am satisfied with 
the final result. Against immense odds we held our own ground 
and pushed forward. All our ammunition was used up. Then 
we quickly retired, and the result was the disappearance of the 
enemy next day. 

" Although no large body of the enemy ventured from their 
camp, the loose cavalry that harassed our rear prowled around 
the outskirts of the City and Station, firing the bungalows and 
cantonments, and giving the signal of licence and plunder to the 
too ready villains of the town. In sight of our retreating 
column, the Normal School — an elegant building, erected by the 



12 AGRA FORT 

late Lieutenant-Governor — was set on fire, and the wild Sowars 
could be discerned from the Fort galloping savagely round it. 
All night the lurid flames of burning houses lighted the heavens. 
Fortunately, by the foresight of the Lieutenant-Governor, the 
whole of the Christian population, with exception of a few too 
venturesome,^ were safe within the Fort. Beyond one or two 
guns, fired in defiance as well as to protect buildings within easy 
range of the Fort, nothing passed that evening. Next morning, 
the Mussulmans of the city, on a rumour that we had almost all 
been killed, were debating whether they should not proceed to 
the enemy's camp and make their peace, when the disaffected 
were confounded and our adherents overjoyed by tidings that tTie 
Mutineer army had gone. We did not know this for some con- 
siderable time, and were preparing ourselves for an attack which 
was noised abroad, probably by the mutineers themselves, to cover 
their departure. But we were ready for any attack ; and even 
if shut in by a siege train — which they had not — ix)ssessed two 
months' provisions in the Fort. 

"Monday and Tuesday were jmssed inactively. We kept 
ourselves shut up in the Fort, though we had positively not a 
man to oppose us. On Wednesday (8th) a demonstration was 
made by marching a colimin through the city, and (I regret to 
say) by plimderinpr the shop of a lar^e Mahometan merchant in 
the military bazaar. Our friends from the city now began to 
come in, and arrangements were set on foot for the reorganisation 
of the police. 

" 20th July. — Our magistrate, the Hon. K. Drummond, had 
preserved an admirable front throughout the disturbances, and 
had maintained the city in perfect peace and security up to the 
time of the appearance of the enemy before our walls. Then, of 
course, when the inhabitants of a town, open and unprotected, 
saw themselves exposed to the ravages of the enemy if he 
chanced to drive back our so much smaller force, the reins of 
ordinary authority were cut asunder. The civil administration 
gave place to the military. 

"At this point, moreover, a peculiarity in the system, 
pursued by Mr. Drummond, was felt to be a serious defect and 
embarrassment. He had not only trusted mainly to the respect- 
able Mahometans for information and advice, but had employed 
them almost exclusively in the Government service, both revenu e 
and police ^ both in high and in low office. However excellent 

* About twenty, I believe, lost their lives that night by not retiring to 
the Fort. 



AGRA FORT 13 

and trustworthy these luen under other circumstances might 
have been, they were now placed in a peculiarly trying position 
from the religious and Mahometan element at this time dominant 
in the Mutineer movement. The whole police officers and men 
(almost all Moslems) quitted their posta The Burkundazes are 
said to have been forward in committing enormities against us 
in the city, and in plunder ; while some of the influential Moslem 
citizens, both in and out of office, are suspected of connivance. 
A few joined the enemy. Many respectable and. I hftlipvp^ 
sjrictly loyaj men, who in our rearrangements would havft ^ yn 
of essential use to us, were repelled and alarmed by the fierce. 
anti-Moslem feeling which they knew pervaded most Civilians 
and almost all the Military leadera Mahometans therefore, 
both high and low, fled in midtitudes from Agra, partly, no 
doubt, conscience stricken, partly through apprehensions just 
described. Crowds, it is said, repaired to the Mutineer camp at 
Muttra, complaining against imaginary cruelties and excesses 
committed by us against them, to whom the General com- 
manding the enemy promised to send a detachment for their 
assistance. 

" Our police having thus vanished, it became necessary, on 
the return of tranquillity, to make new constabulary arrange- 
menta The Lieutenant-Governor (who for a week had been 
entirely prostrated by illness, but was now able partially to 
resume business) determined on the judicious plan of working 
mainly through the Hindoos, whom alone we can, at this 
juncture, as a body depend upon, without displaying any antago- 
nism against or any active distrust of the Mahometans This 
policy, however, ran so counter to Mr. Drummond's previous 
system and agency, that the Government was obliged to super- 
sede him, and appoint another officer to his post. The arrange- 
ments for the security of the city have been thus peacefully and 
effectively carried out. 

" [The correspondence with Bombay here ends by saying 
that the Nemuch troops, being now bound for Dehli, everything 
was quiet at Agra, and our only apprehensions were in regard to 
the mutinous body at Gwalior.] " 

As our troops returned from the battle, the wounded 
were at once carried into the Motee Musjid, the beautiful 
Mosque of the Fort,^ which made a most comfortable hospital. 

^ There is also, if I remember rightly, another small Mosque for the 
more private worship of those of princely rank. 



14 AGRA FORT 

D*Oyley was so badly struck in the stomach that the uniform 
could not be removed from his poor body ; and it was sad to 
see him, as I did, without even the comfort of being able to lie 
down in peace. He did not long survive. Kaye gives a 
charming account of Mra Eaikes' hospital, which Dr. Farquhar 
got her to establish for the sick of the non-military inhabitants : 
the description also of the other ladies by the same corre- 
spondent, I may quote here, specially for its touching notice of 
your Mother : — 

" Here was Lady Outram discussing the thousand and one 
nmiours of the Fort, always cheerful, lightly treating the 
adventures of her walk barefooted for many miles on escaping 
from Allygurh, . . . sometimes borne on her Tauiijon, her son, 
Frank Outram, walking beside her. It was a delight to the 
European soldiers, scattered about Arsenal Square, to see her 
with her serene face, always ready with a kind smile and a kind 
word. In Palace Square was Mrs. (now Lady) Muir, with her 
five children, cheery as a sunbeam, energetic in promoting the 
employment and welfare of the native Christians, with her 
neighbour, Mrs. C. B. Thomhill, enlisting other ladies in good 
work, stirring up the subscriptions for the woimded and destitute 
of the North-Westem Provinces. She and those above-mentioned 
leaders in the social scale, were leaders also in the multiplied 
tasks of urging the well-disposed to active usefulness, relieving 
the poor, providing guardianship for waifs arid strays of humanity, 
visiting and supporting schools, soothing vain alarms, repressing 
the vindictive feeling against the natives of the country, pro- 
moting charity among all." ^ 

The picture is by no means overdrawn. The native 
Christians, several hundreds in number, after some doubt as to 
whether there was room for them in the Fort, had all, thank God, 
been allowed to enter, very much at French's hands, for other- 
wise he would have stayed out with them, and have surely 
shared their fate.* It was a noble act, which few but he would 
have attempted. Our servants were, with one exception (the 
Mahometan Bheestie), faithful to us; but, of course, were not 

1 Kaye, vol. iii. pp. 400-402. 

* French and Stuart came out together a few years before, and on their 
arrival in Agra, during the summer and autumn, stayed for weeks with 
us in the " Library " by our house — there being no other place available for 
them in the Station. Stuart had before the Mutiny left for Calcutta, where 
he was for long Secretary to the C.M.S. ; but French was still Head of the 
C.M.S. College at Agra. Years after, they were both consecrated Bishops 
(Punjab and Waiapu) in the same week. 



AGRA FORT 15 

then allowed into the Fort, and in their absence the native 
Christians were of great use. But it required all the influence 
of your Mother and her friends to keep them from beins^ harshly 
treatyi. for the unkindly feeling towards Natives had alread y 
begun to spread . Among other services of your Mother s was 
the appomtment of a little room we called " the Hospital/' close 
by us, where she tended Jim Power then sick, and Colonel Eld, 
who came in wounded from Allygurh. 

So far as our surroundings went, the spacious Square m 
which we lived was well kept, and in seasonable weather afforded 
pleasant range for strolling about ; as well as the bigger Square 
— Dewdn-i'dm — beyond it, and the ramparts on the city side. 
At the farther end of our Palace Square was the Dewdn-i-khds, 
or royal room of reception, with a charming look-out across the 
Jumna Eiver, over which it stands loftily. This palatial hall 
served as our Church for the English service, and indeed for 
the worship of Presbyterians, Eoman Catholics, and all others ; 
so that on Sundays there was a continuous succession of ser\'ice8, 
the vision of which would somewhat have startled the Imperial 
assemblies of ancient days. 

And so we settled down, most of us with something, however 
small, to do, in an otherwise listless life, cut off from all the 
world, in a little world of our own, with no concern beyond the 
ramparts of our Fort. One remembers the strange Reeling, as, 
looking across the river, we felt that even the other bank was, 
one might say, not our own but foreign land. Yet, with a 
family and surroundings such as ours, there still was work (as 
£aye says) for busy hands to do. It was during the worst hot 
months of the year that we were thus incarcerated, and it may 
well be imagined that, with none of the accessories to moderate 
the heat, or avoid the floods of rain, it must often have been in 
our little quarters a wearisome time, especially for the little 
onea In the lack of servants, we had not even bearers to pull 
the punkahs, and so, with musquitoes and the other annoyances 
of the hot and rainy months, the surroundings were often 
stifling. But, thank Grod, we were upon the whole kept well. 
There was at one time a serious threatening of cholera epidemic, 
and we lost by it our nephew, James Wemyss, who had taken 
refuge with us from Muttra, and had a berth in the side of the 
Square opposite to us. But, otherwise, we were spared from this 
dread malady, thank God. And last, but not least, we regard 
it as one of our special mercies that we had so loving and 
affectionate a friend in Dr. Farquhar. ... In fact, to all around 



16 AGRA FORT 

he was cue among a thousand, night and day going about and 
doing good ; carrying his heart in his hand, without a thought 
of himself, he was ever ready in the thought of others. It was 
the beginning of a binding love and friendship between him and 
us. Ah ! how one misses now his bright, wise, and loving life ; 
and the graphic tales of the Mutiny that used to flow from his 
ready lips — a living portraiture — which he was never weary of 
recounting. French too was a dear friend to us. He not only 
devoted himself to the service of the native converts, who owed 
their safety to him ; but was unwearied in his pastoral care of 
all, and attendance on the sick and needy. 

It must have been a couple of days after the battle, that 
the Lieutenant-Governor placed me in charge of the Intelligence 
Department. This involved the very serious responsibility of 
keeping myself, by means of spies and informers, au courant 
with the progress of the revolt in every direction. For this 
end, a body of confidential messengers had to be entertained and 
highly paid. Where the road was dangerous, as towards Cawn- 
pore, they had to carry little letters written on the thinnest 
paper, thrust sometimes into a quill or secreted in any part of 
the body. The risk was great, for they were often searched, 
and if any letter was found upon them, they were killed or 
even blown from gims ; and it took from a week to a fortnight 
for a letter to get through to Cawnpore. 

Among these tiny scrolls I had several from Havelock, on 
his march to Lucknow, in my collection, which were sent to 
Kaye ; other little specimens of the same sort will be seen in 
the respective Volumes. As the spies and informers came in 
at any hour of the day, and sometimes of the night, I used 
to take down their depositions from their lips at once ; and the 
news, if important, was communicated to Mr. Colvin or other of 
the authoritiea For some weeks that grand old man, Choubey 
Gunsham Doss, blind as he was, waited on me daily as my chief 
informant. Eventually he went away to watch matters at his 
Etah Tehseel, and there was killed, being surprised by the 
rebels. His brother, Jye Kishen Doss, was granted, both for 
his own services and in recognition of his brother's, the title of 
Kajah and C.S.I. For some time I had only such loose sheets 
to write upon as are at the beginning of VoL I. I had also to 
maintain daily correspondence with the authorities in both 
quarters, East and West, keeping each informed of what was 
going on elsewhere; — chiefly thus, with Greathed at Dehli, 



AGRA FORT 17 

Sherer and Havelock at Cawupore, and many others besides. 
As the country below became clearer, I began to correspond 
also direct with Calcutta. Copies of all my letters were at once 
entered an the several books by Oldfield, Outram, Farquhar, 
Thomhill, and Lowe ; and much in your Mother's own hand.^ 
At first, and from time to time as Mr. Colvin was well enough, 
and able to dictate, many of the letters were written as from him ; 
and I consulted him regularly in his apartments just beyond ours, 
in the north-east buttress of the Fort, looking out upon the Taj. 
Epr months Eajpootana and Bombay was the only route by which 
ordinary posts could be sent to Calcutta and England, and that 
with some difficulty and delay. It was not till the beginning of 
1858 that the road via Cawnpore to Calcutta began to be open. 
This Intelligence work gave me regular, often unremitting, employ- 
ment for hours, which, cut off as we were from all else, must 
otherwise have fallen wearily upon me. 

As may be supposed, the inhabitants at large, with nothing 
to do, besides the tittle-tattle of the day, allowed all sorts of 
reports to fly about, seldom true and often alarming. To place 
important news as it came in at their command, I began, after 
a month or two, to circulate printed sheets of intelligence. The 
first of these dates at the beginning of September, and the last 
issue in my collection is that of the 5th January 1858, when 
the posts, being more or less open, and the local papers partly 
re-established, they were no longer needed. The collection is 
with the other papers. 

There was, and I fancy still is, a little bungalow within two 
or three hundred yards from the Taj Gate of the Fort. Being 
so close to our guns it escaped the destruction of the 5th July, 
— the only bungalow indeed that did survive. To give the 
children ... a reviving change of scene and air, we were granted 
the privilege of occupying it. How charming it was, after long 
confinement within battlements, to get out into open space, and 
into a house with all its free surroundings, one can well 
remember. When we first had this pleasure I forget; and 
for long it was only in the daytime we could with safety stay 
outside, returning always before the gates were closed at night 
into the Fort. But in a letter to Harington (who had gone 
via Bajpootana to Calcutta), I find this notice of it: "We 
have moved out again into a bungalow ; this time, I trust, per- 

* When any very secret news had to be mentioned, it will generally be 
found written in Greek lettering, occasionally also in French, lest it should 
fall into the enemy's hands. 
VOL. I. — 2 



18 AGRA FORT 

manently. I am going to have my double-storeyed houiae re- 
thatched." This letter is dated 5th November, several weeks 
after our second attack ; but we had probably ventured out 
some little time before that date. Eventually, when it became 
safe to sleep in this bungalow, Farquhar and others of our party 
used to come out also, and sleej) in the verandah. We had also 
our carriage there. 

The attack of the Neumch mutineers from Gwalior, just 
adverted to, was the last that threatened Agra. The Gwalior 
Contingent had long been a source of uneasiness to us, but (as 
already mentioned) was kept back from any hostile movement, 
even after it had nmtinied, through the influence of Dinkur 
llao, by whose wisdom and strength of purpose Scindia was 
guided. The Contingent itself, eventually taking the route 
along the Jumna, attacked Cawnpore ; but a mutinous body 
from Nemuch and Indore, with the riff-raff of rebels and 
deserters about Gwalior, now made Agra their object. Through- 
out September, reports kept coming in every day that this body 
was on the eve of marching against us. At last, well on in the 
montli, they did start from Gwalior ; but they loitered on the 
road, and spent several days at Dholepore, some thirty miles 
from us, endeavouring to treat with the Eajah there. As they 
approached Agra, Macpherson ^ and I had daily, and latterly even 
hourly, intelligence from our spies of their progress and of their 
design to storm our Fortress, which were laid at once as they 
came in before Colonels Fraser and Cotton. The news at last 
became so alarming, and the approach so close, that on the 
evening of Saturday the 8th October, I urged on both the imme- 
diate need of sending out " a reconnoitring party, and continuous 
military pickets." By great good fortune, a strong column under 
General Grcathed was just on its way from Dehli to Cawnpore ; 
and when the danger threatening us became known, it was 
turned aside from Allygurh to relieve us. To hasten therefore 
their march, moimted messengers were every few hours despatched 
to tell Greathed of the pressing danger, and of the urgent need 
of help, and desiring him to come on by forced marches, so as 
to prevent any surprise. The imminence of the attack is men- 
tioned in several places of my correspondence ; for example, on 
the 9th, Sunday, the day before the battle, I find this in a letter 
to Sherer : " The Indore force is mo\dng steadily on this. It is 
to-day at Tehree, and is making preparations for bringing its 
gims across the Kharee Eiver, about ten miles distant. Some 

^ Major Chartcria Macpherson, Political Agent*at Gwalior. 



AGRA FORT 19 

hundreds of Sowara have akeady crossed, and are prowling about 
the country and obstructing the road. A reconnoitring party 
of our Militia cavalry went out this morning. It was fired on 
at the river, and followed, though at a respectful distance, by the 
enemy's cavahy to within a few miles of Agra." 

To watch its advance and guard against a surprise, had thus 
become no longer a matter for unarmed and helpless spies. It 
had passed into the hands of the Military. Why reconnoitring 
parties and pickets, as I suggested, were not kept out all night 
till Monday morning to prevent surprise, I never could 
understand ; but so it was. On Monday morning, Greathed's 
column arrived, and marched through the streets amid crowds 
of applauding citizens. So little danger, indeed, was appre- 
hended, that we drove out in our carriage with Farquhar to 
meet the force as it crossed the bridge of boats, and get hold of 
Anson, who had ridden in the day before to see us and had then 
returned to camp. Coming up when he saw us we took him 
in our carriage to see our ruined bungalow, and then back with 
us to the Fort. The colimin had meanwhile marched on to the 
Cantonment, but no sooner had they begun to pitch their camp 
on the Gwalior side of the Station, than suddenly the enemy's 
guns opened fire upon them. Trusting to the military outlook 
already mentioned, I had so little anxiety myself at the moment, 
that, as we were sitting quietly at breakfast on Monday the 
10th, with Anson and Norman (who had just come up from the 
camp) at our table, we were suddenly startled by the guns of 
the rebel force, and both hurried off to the fight. But the 
enemy had already been driven back, and was in full flight; 
and doubtless, as was said at the time, the surprise was more on 
their side than ours. But our helpers judged us severely, and 
reasonably so. The following passages may be of interest, as 
showing where the blame lay. [I omit them here, as they will 
be foimd in the correspondence.] 

This danger over, Agra no longer felt anxiety from any 
quarter. The Contingent left Gwalior, as before stated, some two 
or three days after this fight, and marched towards Cawnpore. 
Next month, Dinkur Eao came over to see us ; and at Christmas, 
Scindia himself honoured us with a visit. To the West and 
South, the country was quite peacefid, and communications open 
as in time of peace ; so much so, that Mrs. Harington and other 
ladies were able before the end of the year to leave us (by Bombay) 
for Calcutta or England. But to the East, the roads continued 



20 AGRA FORT 

as before, absolutely closed; the only mode of communication 
was still by Cossids, who took at least a week or ten days to 
get through to Cawnpore. Things continued so till Futtehgurh 
was taken by the Commander-in-Chief, 27 th December, after 
which the Trimk road to Cawnpore and Calcutta, on the right 
bank of the Ganges, was freely open to travellmg and traffic ; 
though rebclhon still raged in Oudh on the opposite bank 

With the return of tranquillity people began in numbers to 
leave the Fort, as quarters became available outside, in town or 
cantonment. A double-storeyed house — the *** Library" as we 
used to call it — within our compound, and close to our ruined 
bungalow, being built of masonry, had, excepting its roof, pretty 
well escaped, and so we early set about repairing it It must 
have been about the beginning of the New Year that we quitted 
the little bungalow at the Fort gate, where we had found such 
rest and comfort, and took up our residence in the " Library." 
Here, then, we sliould have remained, resuming our old habits 
of life, had I not towards the end of January received a 
simimons from Calcutta to join the Governor-General at Allaha- 
bad with part of tlie Secretariat Office. Lord Canning had 
arranged to make that his headquarters during 1858, carrying 
with him the Foreign Office, and at the same time to assume imme- 
diate charge of tlie North-West Provinces in place of appointing 
a new Lieutenant-Governor ; and as the country was gradually 
reoccupied, so to restore it to order. It was accordingly to 
join Lord Canning as Secretary to his Government of the North- 
West Provinces, while as Member of the Board I at the same 
time took revenue charge of the lower districts, that I was 
called to Allahabad ; while Eeade, with Thomhill as his Secretary, 
remained at Agra for the revenue administration of the upper 
districts. 

Thus, on the 7th February 1858, leaving your Mother with 
the family at Agra, I travelled by carriage dak to Allahabad ; 
and can well remember the lonely feeling of driving along my old 
haunts, now so sadly changed, through the Cawnpore and Futteh- 
pore Districts, scenes of such tragic events, and in such close 
proximity to the still rebel border of Oudh. It was two or 
three months later that I was joined by your Mother and the 
children. We at first had rooms — for accommodation was still 
hard to get — in an out-building used for the Secretariat Office ; 
but eventually in the large and comfortable house behind the 
Cucherry at the Kuttra. To carry on the Secretariat work, I 
gradually got down the greater part of the native Christians, 



AGRA FORT 21 

who had by this time retumed from the Fort to the Secundra 
Orphanage. The Eev. David Mohun, of the C.M.S. at Chunar, 
took the pastorate charge at Allahabad. I helped him some- 
times, and eventually settled the commmiity in a piece of land 
beautifully overlooking the Ganges, where the Christian village 
has grown up, and which is now called " Muirabad." 

The children went up in the hot weather to Mussoorie; 
excepting two, K. . . and T. . ., who remained with us. And we 
i*emember how sweet and kind Lady Canning used to be to 
K. . . . A little girl then of but four or five, she used to go 
over to Lowther Castle to interpret Lady Canning's orders to 
her servants, and to feed four black swans swimming in the 
pond hanl by — a gift by Lord Clyde, the only booty (he used 
to boast) he had brought away with him from Lucknow. Lord 
and Lady Canning lived very simply in this unpretending 
house, — the best, however, that was available in the Station. 
It served them for all purposes, l)oth i)rivate and official, 
T^dy Canning having but a single room for herself. Lord 
Canning was equally homely in his wants. I admired his self- 
possession and strong sense of justice. The wild hue and cry 
against all Natives good and bad, was checked by his firm 
resolve to protect the unoffending, and confine punishment to 
the guilty. He had strong control over himself; and I can 
remember how he would simply bite his lip when tidings of 
reverse came in. But he had also a singular habit of pro- 
crastination, the same which led to such an unfortimate issue 
at the Barrackpore Mutiny. He would keep the boxes of 
despatches sent to him by his Secretaries for disposal days and 
days, and then return a whole heap of them at once, so that 
urgent matters might easily have escaped orders till evil had 
ensued. On my stated visits to his official room, I used to find 
his table with a whole battlement of undisposed boxes around 
him. But with it all, he was a grand man ; and the nick-name, 
" Clemency Canning," with which our people used to abuse him, 
was in effect the highest praise that could have marked his just 
and noble life. 

It was the beginning of the following year that C. . . (our 
eldest daughter) arrived in Calcutta, and your Mother went 
down in a steamer to meet her there. Eetuming with her by 
dak carriage, there happened one of the most merciful escapes 
the Family ever had. Just then occurred the inroad wliich the 
rebel Kunwar Singh made from Bundlekliund into Jounpore. 



22 AGRA FORT 

In doing so, he must cross the Trunk road somewhere between 
Patna and Benares. Alarmed at the news of his close approach 
just about the critical moment when your Mother would be pass- 
ing up the same way, I started off in company with Farquhar 
for Benares. Ai-rived there we found, to our intense relief, that 
your Mother had already passed the six)t — thank God, safely — 
just after tlie savage horde had crossed the road, and that she 
was already on her way to Allahabad, having passed us without 
our knowing. But how great the deliverance ! for at the point 
where the Rebels had passed by the day before, were found the 
broken remains of a dak carriage, which the Eebels had seized, and 
murdered the Baboo passengers in it. When your Mother next 
day came up to the spot, it was still being patrolled as dangerous 
by mounted pickets. For a little way off, by the Trunk road- 
side, there was fortunately a Uumdumma (small fortress) occu- 
pied by an Artillery detachment. Tlie carriage was stayed there 
by the Offtcer in charge for the night. Your Mother and C. . . 
were kindly invited to go into their Mess for dinner, but remained 
on in their carriage till the morning, when, the road being 
declared safe, they were allow^ed to pass on to Benares. And 
so it was that Farquhar and I, with thankful hearts, found that 
they had gone ahead of us to Allahabad. What the difference 
of a few hours might have caused ! Thank God for the deliver- 
ance. Tliis must have happened about the middle of March, as 
I find that Kunwar Singli defeated Milne in Jomipore on the 
22ud of that month. 

And so ends our pei^sonal interest in the Mutiny. I have 
confined myself strictly to matters inmiediately affecting Agra 
and the Family. And one cannot close the brief review without 
an earnest thanksgiving to our Heavenly Father for sparing your 
Mother and the children from dangers which overwhelmed so 
many of our fellow - countrymen elsewhere, to which we were 
ourselves for so many months exposed, and crowning us through- 
out with His loving-kindness and tender mercy. 



Note, — 1 must liave mistaken the occasion of the Trunk road 
adventure given above, as I find it occurred some months earlier, about 
the end of November 1858. 



AGRA FORT 23 

The volumes of Correspondence spoken of at the beginning . 
of this little story are full of matter which, well digested, should 
not be wanting in historical importance. I have, therefore, com- 
mitted them into the hands of William Coldstream, who pro- 
mises to select and arrange the more valuable of the materials 
in such a way as to allow of their being printed. There are 
many passages throughout of the deepest interest, such, for 
example, as the account of the overthrow of Dehli, by a native ; 
and also of its reoccupation, by another. 

When Mr. Coldstream has done with these records, they will 
then be placed for safe custody in the Library of the University, 
where they will be available for reference to any who might wish 
to consult them. 

A descriptive list is subjoined. 



Description of the Records heUmging to the period of the Mutiny y 
as kept by me when in charge of the Intelligence Department 
at Agra, — from Jtdy 1857 to January 1858. 

VoUime L — Correspondence after the battle of 5th July to 30th 
September 1857. 

One side contains mainly letters sent to the Authorities down 
country, — Cawnpore, Lucknow, etc. ; the other to those up country, — 
Delhi, Meenit, etc. 

[The correspondence at first was largely by direction of the 
Lieutenant-Governor when he was sufficiently able to attend to it ; but 
he was often disabled by illness, and died 9th September.] 

Volume II. contains letters from October to 19th November 1857, 
addressed down country to Cawnpore, Allahabad, and Calcutta ; chiefly 
to Mr. Sherer, with intelligence for Lord Canning of affairs at Delhi 
and elsewhere in the Upper Provinces ; and telegrams for the Governor- 
General at Calcutta. 

Volume III — Same as Xo. II., from 20th November 1857 to end of 
January 1858. 

On its other side is an important document, drawn up by me at 
Lord Canning's request, on the alleged dishonour of European women 
by the Rebels at the several mutinies and outbreaks ; with the opinions 
of the several able Officers whom I consulted. The almost universal 
opinion was that the attacks were purely murderous, with no attempt 
anywhere at dishonour. 



24 AGRA FORT 

Volume IV. — Letters to Colonel Greatlied's column, and other 
iip-country authorities, from Ist to 16th October. 

Volume V, — Epitomes of Xotes of Correspondence from other 
stations, received by myself and others, in order to keep ourselves 
au courant with what was going on elsewhere, and the opinions and 
views in other quarters, — during August and September 1857. One 
side relates to correaix)ndence of Officers at Delhi and up-country 
stations ; the other to letters from stations below, — as Cawnpore, 
Allahabad, Calcutta, etc. 

[This volume contains also a few native (Urdoo) documents of 
interest, including copy of a Lucknow paper published in March 1857, 
and an original copy of the N ana's proclamation put forth at Cawnpore 
against the Company's government.] 

Volu7)ie VL — The Notes of Intelligence collected, and doix)sitions 
of informers, spies and messengers, — commenced three days after the 
battle of 5th July, and at first written on loose slips, the only thing 
available at the moment. The last entry is dated 11th December 1857. 
Some of the narratives by natives who had fled from Delhi, and other 
depositions, will be fijund intensely interesting. 

Volume VIL — Continuation of Volume IV., being letters written to 
Delhi, from October to December 1857, chiefly to Saunders, who 
succeeded as Commissioner on Greathed's death. It contains intelli- 
gence from down country, remarks on the treatment of natives in Delhi, 
news about the battle of 10th October, and other local matters. 

Volume VII L — Unbound. Private letters, chiefly to Havelock, 
coined by Lady Muir, from 6th August to 9th September 1857. 

Book IX. — Printed sheets with the news of the day, circulated in 
the Fort, — September 1857 to January 1858. 

^ X. — Envelope containing original correspondence, chiefly fromSherer 
at Cawnpore, during the autumn of 1857, giving daily accounts conveyed 
in light and tiny sheets by Cossids of events there and at Lucknow. 

2 Also printed Census of Inhabitants in the Fort. List of Officers 
who lost their lives in the Bengal Presidency from May to December 
1857, — so far as then known at Agra. 

^ XL — (1) Envelopes with Letters from Sir John Lawrence to W. 
Muir and Colonel Eraser. (2) Letters from W. ^L to Bombay Times, 
dated 13th and 16th June and 7th July 1857. (3) Letters from Mr. 
Commr. Alexander to Mr. Colvin. 

* See Introductory Note to Thirteenth Series, vol. ii. p. 239. — W. C. 
' Tlie "Census" and List of Officers here mentioned are printed in 
Fourteenth Series, vol. ii. — AV. C. 



BEFORE PASSING TO THE "INTELLIGENCE" RECORDS I 

PREFIX EXTRACTS FROM CORRESPONDENCE HAD WITH 

MY FAMILY AT HOME ; AS WELL AS OF LETTERS FROM 

ALLAHABAD AFTER JOINING LORD CANNING THERE 

EARLY IN 1858. 

W. M. ■ 



9Ji 



PREFATORY NOTE 

FOR THE FAMILY. 

The following Letters . . . were written from Agra to give our 
Family at home information regarding the Mutiny on its out- 
break and during the following months, before I left to join 
Lord Canning at Allahabad. . . . We had five of our children 
in the Agra Fort. . . . Tlie MSS. are in a few cases incomplete. 

To the above is added a second series, which I wrote to your 
Mother at Agra after reaching Allahabad, in February and March 
1858. Many are wanting and imperfect; but what I have 
quoted from those that remain, will, I trust, be of interest, giving 
an idea of the state of things around us at the tima 



It was the beginning of February when I left Agra for 
Allahabad at the call of Lord Canning, to take charge under his 
orders of the recovering administration of the N.W. Provinces. 
On first anival I lived for a short time in the Govemor-Generars 
camp in the Fort, but afterwards in tents in the Civil Station, 
chiefly with my friend Cud. ThomhilL The houses throughout 
the Station had all been burned down by the Mutineers, except- 
ing one or two of solid masonry. But by and by I got one 
repaired, in wliich, eventually, we lived comfortably enough. 
It was then that W. . . . and C. . . . (our two eldest) joined us. 

W. M. 



te 




LETTERS FROM AGRA 
TO MY FAMILY IN EDINBURGH. 

Agra, I8th May 1867. 

My beloved Mother, — I write to you a general account of 
the proceedings of the last week. . . . 

Tlie week has been one of perturbation, if not of real danger ; 
and the barbarities which have been enacted in it, make the 
blood run cold. But I must begin at the beginning. 

It has long been known that our Native army — the Sepoys 
especially of the Regular line — was in an alienated state of mind, 
discontented and suspicioua This feeling, as you know, showed 
itself, at Barrackpore and elsewhere, in the refusal to use cart- 
ridges believed by the Sepoys to be made up with some objection- 
able stuff that would affect their caste. It has been doubted 
whether this was felt to be a real grievance, and not a mere 
blind to cover other objects or causes of discontent. I see no 
reason to doubt that it was felt to l^e a real grievance, and that 
the Government should have quietly and discreetly given in. 
The Sepoys are children. It was no use reasoning with them 
to show that there was nothing harmful of caste in the cartridges. 
They had made up their minds, and would not be persuaded. 

The feeling spread abroad. At Lucknow one regiment 
mutinied, and was disbanded by Sir Henry Lawrence. At 
Meerut the 3rd Cavalry refused the cartridges, and a large 
number were put under arrest. About nine or ten days ago the 
orders arrived from headquarters at Meerut, sentencing eighty of 
that corps to imprisonment in the Jail liere. They heard their 
sentence with emotion on Saturday the 9th. On Sunday a 
general Mutiny seems to have been resolved on (at Meerut). 
While the European troops were at church for the afternoon 
Service (the 10th), the Cavalry and Native regiments issued 
forth, killing their Officers, and all Europeans (even women and 
children) whom they met, and firing the bungalows. The Euro- 
pean troops were not long in bringing the Mutineers to account, 

27 



28 LETTERS FROM AGRA 

and repressing their attack. But the confusion and alarm — what 
with burning bungalows, and riotous bands of plunderers and 
Sepoys — must liave l)een fearful. The Mutineers were at last 
expelled the Station. 

The Cavalry made otV with their horses, and a large party 
probably took the earliest oi)port unity of getting away, for they 
were at Dehli (aljout forty miles off) by 8 or 9 next morning 
(Monday). 

On reaching Dehli, our Cavalry Mutineers demanded admit- 
tance at the gate of the Fort by twos and threes. They got 
inside on pretence of wishing to see the commandant, Captain 
Douglass. He was in his rooms over the gateway. When he 
came down, he was killed by a pistol shot. They then went 
upstairs. With poor Douglass the Eev. Mr. Jennings and his 
daugliter were living, and they were all at ])reakfast about 9 a.m. 
Miss Cliflbrd, sister of a young Assistant at Goorgaon (who had 
left the party only two hours ])efore), and Frascr, the Commis- 
sioner, were also there, with one or two others. It is not certain 
whether Charles Thomason, lately engaged to Miss Jennings, was 
there or not. The Mutineers broke in, and killed them all. 
After possessing themselves of tlie Fort, they set to to kill every 
European in the city. All the Civilians were slaughtered : 
Hutchinson, the Magistrate ; Galloway, the Assistant ; Chimmun 
Loll, the Christian Sub-Assistant-Surgeon. They gained over the 
two Native regiments and artillery. A few Officers effected their 
escape to Meerut, and to the Raja of BuUubgurh. The rest were 
murdered, and the insurgents left in sole possession of the city. 
This was probably all done by Monday afternoon. 

Now for the effect of these proceedings on the country. 

A telegraphic message reached us on Sunday night saying 
that the 3rd Cavalry had mutinied, and were killing their 
Officers and burning bungalows. So little excitement, however, 
did this produce, that I myself did not hear of it till Tuesday 
morning. On Monday the Sunday's dak of Meerut and Dehli 
reached this, I believe, — but am not quite sure. However, from 
that time, at any rate, our communication with both Stations 
ceased : neither dak nor telegraph was open. We were left to 
bare conjecture, aided by the darkest and most fearful rumours. 
Things went on thus till Thursday morning, when we were 
relieved by an express from ileerut assuring us, at anyratc, that 
our European force was safe. 

Meanwhile, in the absence of all information from Monday 



LETTERS FROM AGRA 29 

till Thursday, rumour represented that the insurgents, having 
taken Dehli, were marching down on Agra. Mr. Ford, Magistrate 
of Goorgaon, about thirty miles on this side Dehli, held his ground 
for some days ; but sent us accounts of maraudiug parties prowl- 
ing over his district. On Tuesday Mr. Colvin, putting all his 
information together, came to the conclusion that a movement 
was intended in this direction. Our difficulty was now regarding 
our two Native corps. Were they to be trusted ? Providentially 
we have a European regiment the 3rd KI. Company's, and 
European artillery here, or it is impossible to say what the 
Native corps would have done. The general impression was that 
they would not show any overt acts of mutiny, but that they 
would not actually fight for us in case of emergency. 

In this diflBculty we had a coimcil of war, and Mr. Colvin — 
who has throughout maintained an admirably firm front, and 
taken on himself the responsibility of all movements — announced 
his resolution of sending all families into the Fort the next day, 
and moving out to Secundra with the troops, to give battle 
to the insurgenta There certainly was not evidence that 
insurgents were on the march upon us ; but supposing it possible 
they might have been (and with no tidings from Dehli itself, 
either along the right or the left bank of the Jumna, such a 
movement was 'possible), no doubt the plan laid down by Mr. 
Colvin was the only thing we had left to do. In order to test 
the feeling of the Native troops, and give them security on the 
cartridge question, a parade was ordered for Thursday morning 
(14th), when Mr. Colvin addressed each regiment separately. 
Almost all the Civilians accompanied him. He gave his wokI to 
the Sepoys that the cartridges would not be forced on them, and 
asked them if they were satisfied. There was no dissent, and an 
occasional assenting response ; and as we left there was cheering. 

That night, as I said, had brought us better news. We knew 
that our European troops were safe. A flying telegraph-machine 
had been sent to AUygurh, which (not a repeating station before) 
was thus placed in immediate communication with us. The Magis- 
trate there (W. C. Watson, who has done admirably) and the 
Magistrate of Bolimdshuhur, Mr. B. Sapte, ably seconded by Turn- 
bull the Judge, kept open the communication, and assured us that 
all was quiet up to Hauper. From Hauper westward, however, 
the wild Goojur ze HiindarH wftrp tftkinfT ^^|vfl.T^tA ye ni' thft emergency 
to recur to their ancient habits of plunder and violence ; and it was 
they apparently who had broken the telegraphic wire and destroyed 
all our postal arrangements, carrying off the horses, etc* 



30 LETTERS FROM AGRA 

On the Thursday there was again a panic. Muttra was in 
excitement, and it was doubtful whether we could hold our 
ground there. More rumours came in of an advance from the 
(jroorgaon (quarter. The Allygurh telegraph gave no reply from 
Mr. Watson. Parties might be coming down either bank to try 
here the same game tliey had so successfully played at Dehli. 
Mr. Colvin was so weighed down by these ideas that he directed 
all families to retire into the Fort, and a general patrol to be 
kept up at night by the Civilians. Dnunmond, our Magistrate 
(an admirable, cool, intelligent fellow), persuaded Mr. Colvin that 
there was no immediate danger, and had the order for sleeping 
in the Fort withdrawn — but not in time for some. Among 
others, we did not get the counter order till I had deposited the 
whole family in the Fort. J. . . will know what a place it is 
for stifling heat, and what a night dear B. . . and the five little 
ones must have passed there. The Thornhills (he is Acting 
Secretary to Government) have been with us since the tumult 
broke out ; and another dear friend, Mr. Lowe, Secretary to the 
Board. Mrs. Thornliill was with B. . . in the Fort all night. 
The rest of us met together at Candaharee-bagli, and relieved 
each other patrolling the roads. Early in the morning I went 
to the Fort, and brought away the party, half dead with heat and 
thirst. 

We had better news that morning, but I did not hear of it 
till midday ; and in the meanwhile felt very low. It was the 
worst time to me. The telegraph had apparently ceased working 
at AUygurh, implying that things had gone wrong there, and that 
we had no certainty that a movement might not be in progress, 
on either bank, upon Agra. The only solution, it seemed to me, 
would be to secure the families in the Fort more comfortably, 
and be prepared for surprise and the field. 

From that time things have brightened up. The stoppage 
of the telegraph with Allygurh was only accidental. Bhurtpore 
sent us horse (1400 were promised) to guard Muttra. Major 
Macpherson sent us over a portion of the Gwalior Contingent 
with gims, now encamped near Government House. Scindia has 
promised half his bodyguard. Telegraphic communication was 
reopened with Meerut on Friday evening. An advance on Dehli 
has been organised from Umballali and Meerut. But when it 
will take place we do not know. Proclamations (which I have 
had the task of translating) have been issued, and general 
confidence is gradually replacing the terror of last week. 

As yet the news from out-stations is good. Bareilly was in 



LETTERS FROM AGRA 31 

great excitement for two or three daya But the last accounts 
from Alexander (Commissioner) were that it was quiet, and it 
was hoped the crisis was over. Moradabad was also excited, 
but Saimders, the Magistrate, an able man, is keeping things 
quiet, and the 29 th Native Infantry is thought to be satisfactory. 
Wilson has gone over to Eampore, to raise irregular horse. 

For two things we cannot be suflBciently grateful to 
Providence. 

First, that this calamity did not overtake us when our hands 
were full with external war. The crisis, grave as it is, would in 
that case have been fearfully critical 

Secondly, that the coimtrv keens ouiet and contente d. The 
character of the affair is that of a Military mutiny, — a struggle 
between the Government and its Soldiers, not between the 
Government and the Peopla After such a stroke at Dehli, the 
prescriptive Capital of India, it is astonishing that there is so 
little excitement and rising, throughout the coimtry. The general 
conclusion is that there is something radically wrong in the 
constitution or management of the Native army, while the Civil 
Administration is shown to be at least not unpopular or imsuc- 
cessfuL Ajid in this state of the Sepoys' feeling, conceive a 
place like Dehli having been left with only Native troops ! I con- 
clude one of the first effects of the movement will be to lead to 
the despatch of strong reinforcements of European troopa What 
trust can we henceforth place in our Native troops unsupported 
by European ones ? It will, at anyrate, take many a long year 
to eradicate the feeling of mistrust of their allegiance, not only 
in our own minds, but in those of the native Eajas and Chief- 
tains ; and we shall not be able to lean on our Sepoys without 
weakening ourselves in their estimation. 

It is said that the insurgents have placed the son of the old 
King (who himself declined to join them) — the son lately 
acknowledged by us Heir-apparent — on the throne, and have 
issued calls of allegiance in his name. It is not to be expected 
that the excitement throughout the country will subside imtil 
Dehli has been reclaimed by ua We are waiting patiently 
for this. They are strong in European troops at Meerut, and 
there is a feeling that more might have been done by them. But 
after all it may be best that the advance should be made 
simultaneously from Umballah and Meerut. 

By the way, our immense Central Jail here has been a cause 
of additional anxiety to ua We have nearly 4000 criminals 
there — some of them the most desperate characters in the 



32 LETTERS FROM AGRA 

provinces. They, of course, got excited when they heard what 
was going on, and then rumours of a rescue. This added very 
considerably to the unsettled feeling in the town ; and as our 
house is close at the gate of the Jail, we had our full share of the 
feeling. It was feared that the mutinous Sepoys might tamper 
with the Jail Guard. I^te events will no doubt lead to a 
complete reconsideration of the system of Central Jails on this 
large scale, which certainly contain elements of danger in 
them. 

There has been hardly an exception to the finest and bravest 
devotion displayed by all the Civilians, both in Agra and else- 
where. 

Poor young Clifford is sadly cut up at his sister's murder, as 
you may imagine. The Khidmutgar fled to Goorgaon, and told 
him all the particulars of the tragedy at breakfast over the 
Fort gate. 

Amid all these distresses we have, I trust, had our hearts 
stayed upon the consolation that " the Lord reigneth " ; the same 
God who is our Father reconciled to us in His dear Son ; and in 
Him we seek to confide. May He bless and keep you alL 

W. MuiR. 

P.S. — 19th May. — We have just had intelligence that no 
fewer than fifty persons escaped from Dehli, and among them 
Lebas, and our dear friend Dr. Balfour. 



AoRA, 2nd June 1857. 

To MY Brother, — 

My last letter brought down the proceedings of this eventful 
month to the 20th ult., I think. Since then we have had another 
weary fortnight chequered with various incident, but, upon the 
whole, with less of reverse than might have been looked for from 
the extending defection of our Native troops, and the continued 
occupation of Dehli by the Rebels. 

The day after I wrote, the headquarters of the 9 th Native 
Infantry stationed at Allygurh, finding the temptation of the 
Treasury and the overtures from DehU, too strong for them, 
mutinied, plundered the treasure, and made off for DehlL All 
our Officers escaped and retired to Hatrass, about thirty miles 
from this. This misfortune again cut off our communication with 
Meerut, either by post, telegraph, or messenger. 

The other portions of the 9 th Native Infantry were posted 
at Mynpoory and Etawah. No sooner did the emissaries of the 



i 



LETTERS FROM AGRA 33 

headquarters from AUygurh reach Mynpoory than a luutiny took 
place there also. This, I think, was on the 22nd, a day or two 
after the affair at Allygurh. Your friend John Power has 
behaved nobly there. He is the Magistrate and Collector. 
So did a young officer, a German, named De Kantzow, who 
stayed with the Mutineers at the peril of his life, and was so 
well supported by half a dozen staunch Sepoys that the treasure 
and jail were kept secure. By this intrepid and gallant conduct, 
— although pressed to the verge of defeat and obliged to entrench 
themselves in the Cucherry,^ — Mynpoory was prevented from 
falling into hopeless anarchy, and our communication with 
Calcutta by dak and telegraph was preserved. 

As was to be expected, the other detachment at Etawah 
followed in the same manner. Hume, the Magistrate, was able 
to retire across the Jumna with the inhabitants ; but the Station 
was plundered and the Treasury robbed. 

While our communications with Meerut were closed, Bolimd- 
shuhur also fell, and its treasure was carried off to Dehli, but 
under what circumstances I am not fully cognisant. The Station 
has since been regained, and is occupied by Goorkha troops. The 
impression here is that the Meerut force has not been sufficiently 
active ; so large a body of European troops to remain so long on 
the defensive under such circumstances is imintelligible. Rohtuck 
has been also plimdered from Dehli. Tidings have been received 
of the mutiny of the regiments at Nusseerabad, but without 
details. It is hoped that the Treasury at Ajmere may have 
escaped. The Mozuffemugger Treasury also went; but in 
consequence of the attack, I believe, of robbers and not of 
Mutineers. 

Thus you will see that these treacherous Sepoys have gained 
inmiense booty. From three to seven lacs of rupees were in the 
several Treasuries. 

Our last reverse has been at Muttra. On the 30 th, a 
Company of the 44th Native Infantry from this went to relieve 
the Company of the 67 th, which has been hitherto in charge of 
the Treasury there, and which it was intended should bring in 
here a portion of the accumulating treasure. Both Companies 
united (notwithstanding there had been a bad understanding 
between the two regiments before), attacked their Officers, shoot- 
ing one, plundered the treasure, and went off towards Dehli. 
The Officers and Civilians (Dashwood and young Colvin) got off 

^ Magistrate's office. 
VOL. I. — 3 



34 LETTERS FROM AGRA 

on horseback to Mark Thomhill, the Magistrate, who was at 
Cosee, some twenty or thirty miles on the Dehli road. 

Tidings of this event (which occuiTed about 4 p.m.) reached 
Agra about 1 1 at night. Mr. Colvin, finding that Companies of 
both the Native regiments here had thus committed such 
enormities, promptly determined that no confidence could be 
placed in them, and that to appear to show confidence would 
be weakness ; it was therefore at once resolved to disarm the two 
regiments next morning, leaving them, however, still organised 
corps, but for the present unarmed with guns. 

This determination was communicated to the inhabitants at 
once. I was awoke from sleep at 1.30 a.m. on Sunday the 31st, 
and went round to warn the people at our end, to be at their 
various rendezvous in case of disturbance.^ The disarming was 
accomplished on the parade quietly. The Company on duty near 
the Jail made some demur, which we saw from our position at the 
top of Boldero's Hill, whither we had all removed for safety, and 
ran off with their arms, — but eventually all laid down their arms 
quietly. A great number of the men, especially of the 44th, 
have since slunk away, and many of the 67th (supposed to be 
better affected) have taken leave to their homes. This measure 
was a critical one ; it has anticipated a possible real danger from 
a portion of these regiments, and it has, I believe, given satisfac- 
tion and, in some measure, restored confidence to, the^ 
disposed part of the population. 

A further untoward event has occurred in the train of the 
Muttra Mutiny. The Bhurtpore and Ulwar forces were at Hodul 
(a little north of the Muttra frontier and in the Goorgaon district), 
with Harvey the Commissioner, Captain Nixon of the Bhurtpore 
llesidency, and other Eiiropean Officers. This force was intended 
to co-operate with the Conunander-in-Chief s force and check 
fugitives from DehlL But the Muttra Mutineers with their 
treasure marched right up in this direction. Mark Thornhill, 
the Magistrate of Muttra, was at Cosee, some eight miles on this 
side Hodul, with a small body of Bhurtpore horse. When the 
Mutineers appeared with the treasure, the Bhurtpore horse would 
seem to have fraternised with them ; and Thomhill made ofif to 
the force at Hodul on the 31st. By midday the Mutineers had 
come up, and the whole force was a mass of confusion. Mark 

^ Dr. Farquhar and I went together on this occasion ; and it was interest- 
ing to observe the various effect of the news on different people : in one 
house the husband was craven, and the wife most bold. We had to warn the 
Roman Catholic ladies in their Convent. 




LETTERS FROM AGRA 35 

Thomhill fled back towards Muttra, and got in here yesterday. 
It is not quite clear from his statement what the Bhurtpore horse 
intended to do, but his accounts imply that the Ulwar troops had 
fraternised with the Mutineers, and that the Bhurtpore men 
would not act against theuL 

Meanwhile, every Cantonment throughout the country has 
been severely agitated. Where there have been no European 
troops, the trial has been one of the most delicate and critical 
nature that can be imagined. The wonder is that such stations 
as Cawnpore, Moradabad, Allahabad, Benares, Azimgurh, etc., 
have stood at alL Here it was simply the presence of our 600 
Europeans and European artillery that enabled us to do what was 
done, — otherwise we were entirely at the mercy of the Sepoys. 

At Lucknow matters are in a critical state. Sir Henry 
Lawrence is acting admirably. But he weakened himself by 
sending over a portion of his European regiment to Cawnpore. 
European troops are, however, coming up to Cawnpore by the 
dak carriages in forty or so per day ; so that the position in that 
quarter should be strengthening. 

But everywJure the fact of Dehli still being in the Eebels' 
hands is an element of strong insecurity and incendiarism. It is 
in the very nature of the Mahometan faith to seize on such an 
incident as a religious principle, impelling the more devoted 
or fanatical to an attempt for re-establishing the ascendencv^ 
of Islam, Everywhere, therefore, the cry has been for the 
Conmiander-in-Chief to retake DehlL 

Our communications on the Meerut side have lately been 
reopened for the post (the electric wire is cut and mangled for 
miles) by the admirable exertions of a band of Volunteers from 
Agra, headed by Cocks and Lieutenant Greathed of the Engineers. 
They found no opposition, and were ivelcomed by the people both 
of Hatrass and Allygurh. Indeed, every incident tends to show 
that this is no controversy between the People and the Govern- 
ment ( excepting in so far as the Mahometan religious feeling 
above referred to is called forth by the occasion^ and in so far as 
the present weakness of Government has encouraged the wild and 
liliAjyi^gr par^ nf the population to rJsc against authority ), but 
simply hetween the GovemmerU and its Native soldiery. 

Our position has been greatly complicated by the cutting off 
of our communications with Meerut and the Commander-in-Chief, 
by the Mutiny at Allygurh. It was only on the 31st that Mr. 
Colvin got the Conunander-in-Chiefs letter of the 16th May! 



36 letters; from AGRA 

But now that Allygurh is clear, we may hope for better com- 
munications. Last night brought a letter from the Commander- 
in-Chief at Kumal, dated the 23 rd, explaining his arrangements, 
and saying he would be before Dehli by the 8 th. The delay has 
occurred in consequence of the siege train, etc., having been lost 
with the magazine of Dehli, and the necessity of getting heavy 
artillery from Phillore, near Ferozepore. It is a good deal 
canvassed whether this delay was warranted, and whether an 
immediate attack with the available field-batteries should not 
have been made. On the one hand, Dehli's walls are notoriously 
weak, and no resistance would probably have been made ; while 
every day's delay to retake Dehli involves an increasingly serious 
Imperial risk, and the defection of Native troops. On the other 
hand, any check at Dehli would have been worse than delay, and 
been next to fatal. 

Simultaneously with the above despatch came news of the 
death of the Commander-in-Chief,^ of cholera, on the 27th, at 
Kumal. This event is startling, and, at the juncture, very 
remarkable ; but it will not, I conclude, have any effect in keeping 
back our movements. 

To-day brings tidings of the first actual success which we 
have met with. The European troops at Meerut moved over to 
Ghazeeooddeen-nugger, — a Tehseeldaree on this side the Hindun, 
some ten miles from Dehli. The Eebels came out, — whether 
with the view of escaping elsewhere or not we do not yet know. 
They were attacked by our troops, and thoroughly discomfited, 
their artillery being taken. 

Accoimts of the Nusseerabad defection have since come in, 
and show that the whole force, artillery and all, has seceded from 
its Officers (excepting a Bombay Cavalry regiment), and left with 
the intention of going to DehlL 

Amid all these events Agra holds a very marked and dis- 
tinguished position. Between us and Dehli is anarchy and 
confusion; between us and Meerut is the same, but being 
gradually reclaimed by our Agra Volunteers at Allygurh, and 
by the Goorkhas at Bolundshuhur. The defection of the 9 th 
has thrown the Dooab to the north of us into the same state of 
wild disorder. If we had had Police battalions, as proposed by 
Lord Ellenborough, we might have had a force to fall back upon 
when our Sepoys failed us. But we had nothing ; our Police had 
been cut down to the smallest amount, and were scattered in 
bodies of ten and fifteen men at the several Tliannahs. When 

' General Geoi^ Anson. 



LETTERS FROM AGRA 37 

the Sepoys went off, and the turbulent and predatorily inclined 
saw that we had no reserve force to back our orders with, they 
burst forth into all manner of excesses ; and one's heart bleeds 
for the cruel injuries to which the poor defenceless villages — 
unaccustomed for fifty years to anything but profound peace — 
have been exposed. The authority of Government, wherever the 
Sepoys revolted and our Officers were forced to abandon the 
Stations, thus slipped through our hands ; and the country, over- 
run by banditti, was in a flame. 

Meanwhile, there is no prospect of material improvement, 
while there are serious risks at every point throughout the 
country, till Dehli is retaken. It is wonderful that Eohilkhund 
and all below this has kept so quiet. If Agra had failed, I do 
believe all from here to Calcutta would have gone. The surge 
of insurrection beats as it were all the way from Dehli to this 
unopposed ; but here it is met and repelled by a hitherto steady 
and immovable barrier. God grant we may hold on and weather 
the storm. 

You may imagine it has been a time of acute domestic 
anxiety. After the Allygurh defection, I had resolved to send 
B . . . and the children to Calcutta, and had actually got the 
dak carriages here. After consulting with Mr. Cohdn and 
others, I abandoned the idea, — partly because the example would 
have been bad, and might have led to want of confidence, — 
partly because of the risks of the way.^ 

W. Mum. 

J. MuiR, Esq. 

Agra, bth June 1857. 

To MY Brother, — 

I WROTE two days ago. I have not much to communicate 
further, besides what you will learn from the paper and extras I 
am forwarding to you. The main points are that the defeat of 
the Mutineers at Ghazeeooddeen-nugger on Saturday the 30 th 
was followed up the next day by the defeat of an apparently 
large body of the Mutineers who came out (from Dehli) with 
guns to attack our force. The action is said to have lasted four 
hours, but we have not yet the details. The enemy made no 
further demonstration the next day. Our troops there were 
subsequently strengthened by the Goorkha regiment from 
Bolundshuhur, and also by a small addition of Europeans. 

^ The fate of Cawnpore made me afterwards tremble at the thought of 
what might have happened to them. 



38 LETTERS FROM AGRA 

Meanwhile, we have at last authentic information of the 
advance of the Umballah force. The advanced brigade would 
be yesterday within two marches of Dehli ; and the whole seems 
well equipped and, with God's blessing, fully equal to the work 
before it. Should there be any diflBculty in reducing the Fort 
without siege guns, they are on their way behind the force ; 
having left Phillore on the 21st ult. Moreover, the Punjab 
Guides will be at Dehli by the 9 th, so that they will be able to 
relieve our European troops of a part of the ordinary duties which 
at this season of the year must press severely on them. 

Meanwhile, as was to be expected from the spirit of the 
soldiery, the disaffection proceeds. A large party of Mutineers 
from Lucknow marched towards Seetapore, which is said also to 
have risen. These insurgents then turned towards Dehli, crossing 
the Ganges at Canouj, and imperilling our little body of men 
which still manfully holds Mynpoory. They seem to have com- 
mitted outrages on the Grand Trunk Eoad, and waited at 
Bhowgaon (the fork between the AUygurh and Agra roads), 
breaking the telegraphic communication, and destroying our 
Postal establishments. We are therefore at present cut off from 
direct communication with Cawnpore and Calcutta. These 
ruffians eventually passed Mynpoory and went on towards 
AUygurh. 

A body of irregular Cavalry, which had volunteered for 
service against the Mutineers, was stationed at Goorsahaigimj 
between Furruckabad and Cawnpore. These, from what cause 
we do not know, rose on their Officers (among whom was 
Fletcher Hayes), killed them, and went off to Dehli. 

There are reports as to similar proceedings at Shahjehanpore, 
but, I believe, not yet authenticated ; and at Furruckabad and 
Futtehghur they live in hourly expectation of an outbreak from 
the Sepoys. 

The 29th at Moradabad is believed to be staunch. I am not 
sure whether I mentioned that it had pursued some Sapper 
Mutineers from Eoorkee and forced them to lay down their arms. 
But such conduct is almost unexampled just now. 

At Agra we continue quiet. The Mutiny at Muttra we 
cannot but look upon as a providential warning to us ; and it 
afforded a sufficient reason — which the 44th and 67th must 
themselves have felt to be sufficient — for disarming them. The 
men are now going home on leave. And so we get rid of that 
domestic source of anxiety and apprehension. 

We trust that the early effect of successful measures at 



LETTERS FROM AGRA 39 

Dehli may be to stop the progress of defection in the army. 
If, as Mr. Colvin desires, two columns can then be marched, one 
down the Dooab, the other down the right bank of the Jumna, 
the most troubled portion of the country would be quieted. But 
there are immense bodies of Mutineer troops abroad throughout 
the country. Some 15,000 or 20,000 men must have mutinied. 
Great numbers of these have no doubt slunk away, both from 
the scenes of their disorder, and from Dehli itself, towards their 
homes, but there are still more than enough to do fearful damage 
to the country. 

Muttra has been reoccupied by Mark Thomhill and a few 
servants, and Volunteers. All is quiet there ; but advantage was 
taken by the bad characters about, on the mutiny of the Sepoys, 
to bum the bungalows and plunder all unprotected property. 
The ease with which a Magistrate and Collector with a handful 
of men recovers his authority after the Sepoys have gone, shows 
the nature of the rising as a Military one, and the source of our 
diflBculty. We have not even a handfid of men to give to our 
Magistrates and Collectors ordinarily to reinstate them. We have 
been hitherto so utterly and entirely dependent on our Sepoys. 

Mr. Colvin holds a fine bold front. He found he could not 
get on with the ordinary business of the Government and attend 
to these grave matters also. So he has appointed a Commission, 
of Harington, Eeade, and myself, to discharge the current duties. 
Keade takes the Revenue, Harington the Judicial, and I the 
Public Works Foreign and General Departments. 

T iir -r. W. MuiK. 

J. MuiR, Esq. 

Agra, ^h June 1857. 

To MY Brother, — 

As Mr. Colvin's despatches for the E.I. Court ^ are going off, 
I send a line in hopes to get it with the expresa 

Eohilkhimd has gone also. Bareilly and Moradabad and, 
report says, Shahjehanpore also, — certainly the two first. So, 
after all, the 29 th which I was praising has proved treacherous. 
But it so far did well that it took no life, and guarded its Officers 
to Nynie Tal. Guthrie at Bareilly has escaped. Alexander, I 
hear, wounded. It is thus all one sea of anarchy to the foot of 
the Himalayas. 

On the other hand, the news from the Headquarters Army 
is all of the best kind. They must be by this time hard upon 

^ EcuA India Courts as we used then to call the Home Government of the 
India " Directors," 



40 LETTERS FROM AGRA 

Dehli,^ and in two or three days, by God*s blessing, we may 
confidently look to its being ours. The force at Ghazeeooddeen- 
nugger has been removed to join the main Army, and it is 
thought the Mutineers will take the opportunity to effect their 
escape that way. 

We keep quiet here ; and there is no element of mischief 
within, and we pray God to keep away any from without. 
Hitherto the Mutineers have had no combination, excepting to go 
to Dehli, — so when discomfited we hope they will break up. 

Julius Denny is here in command of the Kotah Contingent, 
which is encamped at Furrah, twenty miles on the road to 
Muttra. W. MuiR. 

P.S. — I have not in my present letters corrected the errors 
in my first as to the reports of killed in the outbreak at Meerut, 
as this is all in the papers. 

Agra, \7th June 1867. 

To MY Brother, — 

As it is not improbable that the direct route to Bombay 
may be closed, — if it be not already closed, — I send a few lines 
by a route opened out by Jeypore, the post through which now 
despatched will probably be in time for the mail. Events have 
thickened upon us since I last wrote. First, all Eohilkhund 
went, as our Officers were forced to fly from the mutinous troops 
at Shahjehanpore (where I fear poor Eicketts, the Magistrate 
and Collector, was killed), Bareilly, and Moradabad. Then the 
regiments at Nusseerabad (Ajmere), Neemuch, Jhansi, and Now- 
gaon rose. Then at Benares, Allahabad, and Cawnpore. The 
Mutineers were defeated and expelled from Benares, but we 
have no distinct accounts as to the two latter Stations. Last 
of all, the Contingent troops in Gwalior have gone ; and the 
Maharajah declaring that from the spirit of his own troops he 
could not answer for the safety of our Officers, they have all 
come over here. Even the Political Agent, Major Macpherson, 
has come. Ordinarily this would involve hostilities with Scindia, 
but one cannot imagine it probable that Scindia would risk his 
present position by any inimical demonstration. 

Meanwhile, the mutinous regunents are abroad in parties all 

over the country ; and excepting in the positions where our 

Officers have been strong enough to maintain their ground, 

anarchy prevails. We have had intelligence, though not official, 

^ The Umballah force arrived before Dehli on 8tli June. 



LETTERS FROM AGRA 41 

of the fall of the city of Dehli ; ^ and we trust that the Foirt 
(Palace) will soon follow. The European troops there will then 
be partially freed and able to move down the Dooab and restore 
confidence. We have hitherto been graciously preserved in peace 
and quiet here notwithstanding constant rumours and appre- 
hension; and we trust that God will still protect ua The 
Mutineers have not as yet shown any symptoms of combination. 
What phases of events may spring up in the future, one cannot 
say. We hope the rains will soon begin — which will impede 
the movements of the scattered bodies, and give time for the 
collection of European troops. We trust that already reinforce- 
ments are on their way from England ; and that Lord Canning 
will be able to secure the troops on their passage to China. 

I still trust that the Gwalior route may be open for a letter 
by the regular line. ™ ^, 

(Added by your Mother.) 

I cannot write. Please let our darlings hear we are well, 
and through God's great mercy have been hitherto preserved, 
and we trust Him for the future. Our anxiety has been truly 
sad and harassing. God bless you. — Ever your affectionate sister, 

R H. MuiR. 

[To Mr, H, G, Tvxker at Allahabad, after the battle of 5th July,] 

Agra, 15^^ July 1867.« 

My Dear Tucker, — Tliese two men took above a month to 
deliver your letter (from Allahabad) of the 1 0th June. They 
have therefore got only 3 rupees each here as subsistence money. 
If they take this back quickly you can give them such present 
as you think proper. I trust the letters we have been sending 
lately have reached, giving an accoimt of the indecisive action of 
Bhondagaon on the 5th inst., two or three miles from Agra ; of the 
withdrawal of our troops from the field, in the face of the Neemuch 
force vastly superior to us in numbers ; of the subsequent retire- 
ment of that force to Muttra ; of the destruction of the Station 
by fire and plunder on the part of the ill-disposed portion of the 
lower classes ; of the entire body of Europeans and Christians 

^ This turned out a mistake. 

* This was written on the thinnest kind of paper, to be wrapped close 
and secreted on their persons by the Cossids or secret Messengers, in case of 
their being discovered and shot ; the road to Allahabad being then in hostile 
hands. 



42 LETTERS FROM AGRA 

being shut up in the Fort; and of the measures subsequently 
taken for the reorganisation of our City Police. We are all 
right here now, and shall continue so unless an enemy from 
without come upon us. But the loss in property, and material 
for civilisation, is sad. I rode out to Secundra this morning; 
the sight was sickening. Of all that noble establishment, reared 
by the labour of near twenty years, not a single Press remains. 
The place is strewed with bits of broken printing-presses, leaves, 
and masses of black rubbish — the unrecognisable remains of 
thousands of volumes ! Alas for education ! Alas for the re- 
generation of India ! And yet I would look forward in God's 
good providence to even this eventuating in real benefit to India. 
It may be His means of placing us in a better position here- 
after for our work. 

Things around remain much as before. The Mutineer force 
at Muttra continues there. Some say they have had reinforce- 
ments, but, except it be some of their party that remained 
l)ehind from Mehidpore, etc., I do not see where they were to 
come from. On the other hand, ha\dng got money out of the 
Seth^ many are going off to their homes. They have no 
ammunition, and talk of getting some from Dehli ; but at Dehli 
itself they are said to be hard up for ammunition : they fill their 
shells there with kunkur ! ^ Gwalior at present keeps quiet. 
The Gwalior horse that was over the river has partly broken 
up, having been attacked by the villagers in crossing the Jumna, 
and has partly gone to Gwalior. Pearson's battery of sLx gims 
is said to be in the villagers' hands, and we are trying to get 
it in. We have Dehli news up to the 8th. General Barnard 
died of cholera on the 7 th or 8 th. But the feeling of con- 
fidence was not impaired by the event. It was not mentioned 
who had taken command. On the 9 th we know from Harvey 
at Cosee, that there was the heaviest and longest continued 
firing yet heard. Native report says there was fighting all day. 
The Bareilly Mutineer reinforcements were no doubt having their 
turn, and we doubt not the result was that of all previous 
actions, — great loss to the Eebels. The feeling in the City^ 
is that of disheartenment ; they begin to think of aid from Dost 
Mohammed, etc. Sikhs, Goorkhas and Guides fight well. The 
600 Sikhs in Dehli will no doubt turn in our favour when it 
comes to the assault. Meanwhile, we are wasting away their 
numbers and resources. What a mercy that the Fort of Alla- 
habad has been preserved ! We were long in great anxiety 

^ Small stones or gravel. * i,e. Dehli. 



LETTERS FROM AGRA 4$ 

about it. The inability to replace their expended stores will, we 

may trust, prove a source of speedy weakness to the Mutineers. 

SevB vir irXevTi o^ kott^, Ovp aroDp t9 ^v^urievr ^op ovp^ 

<r€\v€^ : fiuT voT <f>op ii/Sei/r? ^pofi oOep /cvapTcp^, Too fiopO^ 

irpoviciov^ IV 0€ topr kpe} Mr. Colvin keeps improving, and 

can attend to business now without further apprehension to his 

health. Though the Allahabad force can not now be of use 

to the Cawnpore gallant band, we look to its advance with 

anxiety. Please God, with what pleasure shall we again renew 

regular postal communications ! It is a strange feeling to be 

cut off from the world on all sides. ,,, ^^ 

W. MuiR. 

H. C. Tucker, Esq. 

P,S, — Pray write to Calcutta that we need medical stores in 
abundance. The Cawnpore depot has gone, and a number of the 
indents have not been supplied, or have been plundered by the 
way. We shall specially need Quinine, so send up this as well 
as medicines generally. From Umballah they write that stores 
of tea, port, etc., are falling shoil;. It would be well to think of 
this also ; for we are quite cut off from all income of European 
goods. Much has been plundered by the way, as well as in 
depots, shops, etc., and the remainder is being fast consumed. 



Agra, Ist Oct 1857. 

To MY Brother, — 

I SEND a few of our Intelligence slips. You may imagine 
this has been a week of tolerable excitement. Dehli has fallen 
— the thundercloud has burst (alas for the loss ! it cost us above 
1000 men), and the horizon begins to clear all around. We are 
in hourly expectation of hearing that Lucknow has been relieved. 
I do trust it will not now be abandoned. The instructions are,. 
I telieve, that when the garrison is withdrawn, the City is to be 
relinquished. The orders to that effect must have been given 
some time ago, when things were looking blacker. Now, I cannot 
see that the retention of a garrison there, after the Oudh 
Mutineers have been fairly discomfited, would dangerously weaken 
our field force ; while, if it be given up, the City will be 
immediately reoccupied by the Mutineers, and form the foci 
tebellion. with a i:|<;^vy Y^^Y \ ^^^ ^^^ head . 

^ Send up plenty of caps. Our store is sufficient for ourselves ; but not 
for indents from other quarters. Two months' provisions in the Fort 
here. 



44 LETTERS FROM AGRA 

I am kept very busy now. I maintain daily correspond- 
ence with Dehli and Cawnpore by Cossid, besides attending 
to Intelligence as to the movements of the Mutineers all 
around us. 

The fall of Dehli has struck terror into the hearts of them 
alL The fugitives at Muttra from Dehli have hastily constructed 
a bridge, and hope to effect their flight to Eohilkhund and 
Oudh before the pursuing coluum reaches. That column would 
have already been down upon them, but it has been detained 
two or three days by having to attack Malagurh near Bolund- 
shuhur, where the rebel Nawab Wuleed ad Khan has so long been 
troubling us, and interrupting our commimications with Meerut. 
The Native report of an action near Bolundshuhur has just come 
in, stating that we completely defeated the Nawab backed by the 
Jhansi brigade, on the 28 th, taking five field guns — all they 
had. Wuleedad Khan had fled. 

The Indore Mutineers left Dholepore, it is thought, last night, 
on their way to join the Muttra host, and are now only eighteen 
or twenty miles from us. They pass through Futtehpur 
SicrL 

The Gwalior Mutineers have been long held in check by 
Scindia. They are now supposed to be about to move towards 
Cawnpore to retrieve the ruined fortunes of the Nana. There is 
now no force of the enemy in the field which can, humanly 
spetfking, stand before a British column for a day. The difficulty 
now lies in the number of the opposing jmrties in various 
quarters. They will no doubt soon collect towards Bareilly, 
where there will likely be a decisive action. There will also 
probably be a tedious campaign in Bundlekhund, from the number 
of Jorts and independent Thakoors. etc.. who have been seeki ng 
^n makfi }|ftjr while they thought the sun was shining. I trust 
that the Dooab will be cleared within a fortnight. But it is 
doubtful when a column will be able to advance into Eohilkhund. 
I have no fear for the country speedily settling down as soon as 
these Mutineers are out of the way. The Mahometans have lost 
all excuse for opposition on religious grounds, as their King is 
gone. 

Colonel Fraser has been appointed, temporarily. Chief Com- 
missioner here. It is, I suppose, on the ground that it was 
advisable there should be a combination of militarv and civil 
authority at this juncture in the hands of one person. I fear 
our last mail from home has been quite lost. We got some 
papers, but no letters. W. M. 



LETTERS FROM AGRA 45 

Agra, I5th Oct, 1857. 

To 5IY Brothek, 

The enclosed printed slips of official intelligence will put you 
in possession of all the news. So I need not recapitulate. We 
are all in capital health. And the sight of the moveable 
column, after being cut off from the world for three or four 
months, was like new life to us. It was like the arrival of the 
man Friday to the solitary Islander. And, as you will see, they 
were not an hour too soon. For two days previously we had 
been sending the most urgent summonses to Greathed to hurry 
on, and at the last they did hurry most nobly. Greathed, in his 
official report of the action of the 10th, says, "the cavalry and 
artillery marched over at least sixty-four miles, and the infantry 
fifty-four miles of road, in less than thirty-six hours. Captain 
Bourchier's 9 -pounder battery had marched in during the night 
from Hatrass, thirty miles, without a halt." And an hour or two 
after they were all under arms again, and pursuing the Indore 
army to the Kharee, — there and back another eighteen miles. 
Splendid fellows they are, those Sikhs and Europeans. It was so 
odd to see Native soldiers about one again, and Native Sirdars. 
The first feeling was to shrink from them as deadly enemies, 
but it was only a passing feeling called up by the memory of the 
enormities of our mutinous Bengal Army. The open, smiling 
countenances of the Sikhs and Punjabies at once dispelled all 
such ideas. They are noble fellows. 

The surprise was an odd event on the 1 0th. The Military 
authorities had ample warning from the Intelligence Department ; 
indeed, otherwise, Greathed's column would not have been in to 
take part in the business at all. On the preceding day a recon- 
noitring party had, at my recommendation, gone out to the 
Kharee to see what the enemy were doing. Our party was fired 
on, and pursued back again close to Agra. Why after this, 
military precautions were not taken to prevent a surprise, I do 
not know. 

The battlefield was a miserable sight. It was the first fresh 
battlefield I had seen. The dead bodies of the enemy were left 
on the ground, and they were in such numbers within two or 
three hundred yards of the burial ground, that in a couple of 
days the place could hardly be visited for the stench. 

Now that the Indore people are dispersed, the only local 
danger we have is from the Gwalior Contingent. The rumour is 
that it marches to-day, via Jhansi, towards Cawnpore. But 



46 LETTERS FROM AGRA 

one can never be certain that they won't come this way until 
they have actually left. Colonel Greathed's column will, how- 
ever, be within reach of recall should they move towards Agra 
within the next few days. 

If the Gwalior people move away, then, I believe, the whole of 
this part of the coimtry will settle down. Reasonable Mussulmang , 
who have not already compromised themselves irretrievably, see 
that there is no chance of eventual success for the establishment 
of Islam, and thev can cons ^i^T^tJf^iiftlf gm'pt. ^ lown under our 
The most remarkable proof of the people being not opposed to 
us is to be found in Muttra and Bindrabun, with their nearly 
100,000 inhabitants. Our Native Officers, under charge of 
Imdad Ally, Deputy Collector and Deputy Magistrate, have 
regularly maintained authority there whenever not driven out by 
the enemy in strength. Over and over they have retired when 
the mutinous forces occupied the place, and as often returned to 
rule over a willing and obedient people. The last time, a few 
days ago, the fugitives from the Indore force arrived in consider- 
able numbers at Muttra; some penetrated the town, attacked 
the police, and demanded supplies. The Deputy Collector, aided 
by the inhabitants, repulsed these men ; musketry was fired by 
both parties for a couple of hours, and at length the whole party 
of Mutineers were obliged to retreat. Both at Bhurtpore and 
Dholepore, the Officers of those States have pursued the fugitives, 
killing some. All these facts are encouraging, and show that 
when the Rebel forces have once lost the prestige of \dctory and 
supposed supremacy, and break up into parties sufficiently small 
not to compel respect, the people are prepared to act offensively 
against them. In many places, however, it is not so, because 
the Mussulmans, while they thought their cause had a fair chance 
of final success, have frequently compromised themselves by 
flagrantly traitorous acts. At Allygurh, for instance, the Mussul - 
mans were for a considerable timft dominant : thev forcibly 
converted many Hindoos; they defied our Government in the 
most insolent manner • all the ancient feelings of warring for 
the Faith, reminding one of the days of thft first nalipha wpj-j^ 
resuscitated. Few of the families who were otherwise strongly 
loyal to us couia resist tins inliuen( 

I think I told you before that our little party under Cocks 
retook Allygurh and expelled the Naib Sooba, in August I think. 
We placed a Hindoo Talookdar, Gobind Singh, as our Adminis- 
trator in Coel, and (as our detachment could not remain so far 
off) fell back on Hatrass. This arrangement did admirably till 



LETTERS FROM AGRA 47 

one day about three weeks ago, the Mussulmans of a fanatical 
village fell treacherously on Gobind Singh, and forced him to flee 
with all our OflBcers who were there. Since that time the rage 
and fanaticism of the Moslems at Allygurh has been poured 
forth against the unfortunate Hindooa The Mussulman party 
soon were swept away by Greathed's column, and the place is 
now reoccupied by us. But from this brief narrative you will 
see that there are dangerous elements in that district, which 
has been subjected to the most severe trial which loyalty cou ld 
be subjected to ; and that the utmost delicacy of treatment will 
be required in its resettlement Dera and Seharunpore are quiet 
enough, and the country immediately about Meerut ; but 
Mozuffemugger has been kept till lately in constant agitation by 
Mahometan fanatics, and Bolundshuhur has been occupied by 
the rebel Wuleedad Khan at Malagurh. Advantage was thus 
taken of our weakness, while every available soldier was drawn 
to Dehli, to work upon the feelings and religious convictions of 
the Mahometans, and to excite to violence all the rabble of our 
towns and villages, who were not slow in seizing the opportunity. 
But no sooner was JJehli fallen, than both Mozuffemugger and 
Bolundshuhur were speedily reduced to order. The Dehli 
division is also quieting down — of which there can be no stronger 
proof than that Mr. Saunders, in his last letter, said he had no 
news whatever to conununicate. But the exiled population of 
Dehli city (the Military authorities have not felt themselves 
strong enough to allow of its reoccupation yet) must be hiding 
somewhere, and there are numerous Native chiefships, as Jhujiur, 
which have yet to be brought to then* reckoning for the aid 
fi^iven by thftm tx^ Deh^ . In Eajpootana the only present cause 
of anxiety is the Joudpore legion which, at Awa, defied General 
Lawrence, and is still there. Eohilkhund has not yet been 
attempted to be reclaimed. Khan Bahadur reigns at Bareilly, 
oppresses the Hindoos, and with his staff daily proceeds in 
Zeearut^ to salute the flag of Crusade planted in the front of the 
Cotwale^. But, south-west of the Ganges, the Upper Dooab and 
the right bank of the Jumna may now be regarded as in a fair 
way of settlement. And if the Gwalior Contingent move east- 
ward, the whole wave may be said to have passed below this. 

But eastward and northward there is a great work remaining 
yet Havelock has relieved Lucknow, but, from the myriads of 
opposing hosts, is unable to return to Cawnpore with the women 
and children. To swell those hosts the Dehli fugitives are 

* Pilgrimage. 



48 LETTERS FROM AGRA 

rapidly on their way. The great fight will be in that quarter, 
and providentially our reinforcements are coming. Greathed's 
column is hurrying down to their aid. He has Cavalry and 
Horse Artillery, which will be a great help to them. And from 
below, the European troops should soon be showing themselves. 
But I must stop. It has been a glorious struggle for Englishmen 
this. Neither you nor I could have spoken more strongly than did 
old AsadooUah,^ of the courage of the little bands of Foreigners, 
holding their ground every here and there, at the distance some- 
times of two or three hundred miles from any other garrison, and 
in the end beating off their foes. God has been our Helper, 
and to Him be all the praise. There is still cause for anxiety 
eastward, but, on the whole, things are rapidly clearing, and the 
North-western districts and the Punjab are thoroughly relieved. 

We are having even a carriage post to Meerut. Towards 
Cawnpore we still send by Cossid only. 

W. MuiR. 

Aqra, 20th Dec. 1857. 

To MY Brother, — 

As the telegraph is open between Cawnpore and Calcutta, 
you will probably have later news that way than I can give you. 
From the beginning of the month to the middle of it, we were 
completely cut off from all communication with Cawnpore and 
the eastward. Our first news of the discomfiture of the Gwalior 
Contingent was through Scindia's messengers. This you will 
find all in my bulletins. 

The Futtehgurh insurgents were beginning to press rather 
uncomfortably on Allygurh when Seaton's colimm proceeded to 
dislodge them. This, as you will see, has been done in the most 
successful manner. The column will now move on towards 
Mynpoory, and will, I hope, soon open direct communication with 
Cawnpore. Whenever the road is safe, we have large supplies 
of carriage — which they grievously stand in need of towards the 
East — to send down. 

All is quiet to the North-west ; and in Eajpootana, excepting 
Kota where the troops of the Durbar have made an emeute. 
They must be conscious that punishment will fall upon them, 
sooner or later, for rebellious and dastardly proceedings in the 
murder of Major Burton and others. 

It would seem that Eajpootana, at least Western Bajpootana, 
was not so much afifected as I anticipated by the late proceedings 

^ A native Judge, a very special friend. 



LETTERS FROM AGRA 49 

at Gawnpore and Lucknow. Ba^jpootana hung upon DehlL I t 
was long before its fall was thoroughly believed, but, a^ soon as the 
fact was accepted, the game was conRidered ende^ 

The great diflBculty now in the tract around Lucknow, say 
with a radius of from one to two hundred miles, will be the vast 
assemblage of troops, and of others, who have compromised 
themselves beyond the hope of pardon by mutinous and rebellious 
proceedings. What fixes the brunt of future operations there, 
is that the great majority have their homes in that vicinity. 
Bohilkhund it is not expected will give much trouble. Bijnore 
could be occupied by a small column. Moradabad, as you know, 
is administered for us by the Kawab of Bampore. Excepting 
some local opposition from the Fanatics, nothing need be antici- 
pated there. Bareilly will give a battle, and Budaon and 
Shahjehanpore will subside with it. All that is now needed to 
perfectly settle and quiet the Dooab, is the fall of Furruckabad. 
There are a couple of tl^ ^i^aitTid mnR^JY u ntrained. Bebels at 
Etawah with six gims . But these will not stand after the 
capture of Furruckabad ; and the capture of Furruckabad will, I 
trust, be the Commander-in-Chief's next operation. 

Mynpoory, as I said above, will be occupied by Seaton's 
column, and I believe without much, if any, opposition. 

The death of Havelock is a sad cloud. We have now ascertained 
beyond doubt that our nephew, J. Bensley Thomhill, died from 
the wounds he received in the early part of the siege. M. . . . 
(his widow) must have gone down with the ladies, via Cawnpore, 
to Calcutta. They must have been in a state of miserable 
discomfort in the Baillie Guard at Lucknow. John Power was 
with the Commander-in-Chief there, and saw the 1800 Pandies 
killed at Secundrabagh. Conceive a heap of 1800 counted as 
they were cast into a pit ! A just but terrible retribution. The 
Government continues here in the same abnormal state. Fraser, 
the Chief Commissioner, takes counsel from the Board and 
Court. His intentions are good ; of course his position is difficult 
as. that of a combined Military and Civil Governor, with no 
experience in the latter Department. We are all, I am thankful 
to say, quite well Poor M. ... at Mussoorie, is of course 
greatly cut up by the Lucknow news and the long suspense. 
From Anson I have not heard for a long time ; he must be at 
Cawnpore. From Brigadier Hope Grant I have had several 
letter& I am making inquiries for Lord Canning about the 
tales of females being dishonoured in the massacre. All th( 
evidence is cLaainst ^L W. M. 

VOL. I. — 4 



50 LETTERS FROM ALLAHABAD 



EXTRACTS OF LETTERS 

FROM ALLAHABAD TO AGRA 
February-March 1858. 

Fort AUahabad, llth February 1858. — Lord Canning's Camp, 
6.30 a.m. 

Just going out to my ride. But before doing so I sit down 
to write a few Unea . . . 

Near 10 a.m. I went out and had a charming ride on 
Lawrence's pony. Went to the Jail-house. Some thirty or 
forty prisoners have already begun work there — clearing away, 
etc. Met Leckie (Lord C.'s Doctor), and had a long walk with 
him up and down before the Govemor-Generars tenta He 
described a scene in which Leuly Canning, before he left (Calcutta), 
with tears begged him to promise he would write twice regarding 
the welfare of her Lord. He has been better siuce he came up 
here than ever he has been since he came to the coxmtry. ... I 
dine at the Grovemor-Generars to-night A book goes round for 
" yes " or " na" But I don't think I shall dine there often. Was 
in at the Govemor-Generars with Gubbins about the rebuildii^ 
of bungalows here. 

13tA, The F(yrt — Was called over by Talbot (Private 
Secretary) to see the Govemor-GreneraL I took over the papers 
I had to show him. He was going out in the carriage, and had 
a white hat on. I talked with him some time, and gave him 
the names of candidates and eligible men for the Commissioner- 
ship, etc. ... I read him a letter from Clifford about Muttra 
and some other things. Then went to the Trench'& Bid Mrs. 
Trench an affectionate farewell She sent her love, and he his 
affectionate remembrances. 

Found Grant in my tent : took him to the Mess ; three or 
four strangers. Returned at 9, and have had two hours' hard 
work in vain attempt to clear my table: I sent you . » . a 
message by a Sowar the moment I arrived on Friday ; ^ but the 
Collector's people were wretchedly stupid about it. 

The Fort, Sunday morning, 14M, — When I was ready, 
K . . . came in and stayed a bit : talks wildly about 

^ 6th February : the day I arrived from Agra. 



TO AGRA 51 

hanging. But he came a little round, and admitted that 
hanging a man for recovering poesession of his village and 
collecting rents, might be wrong. [Such was the wild talk of 
the day.] 

Church at 10. Young Johnston came to my tent, and I 
walked to Church with him. The Governor-General there, and 
most of the young Civilians from Court's house, Edmonstone 
from Calcutta, young Outram, etc. . . . Mr. Harris preached and 
referred in appropriate terms to the war. . . . 

I expect that the road between Cawnpore and Mynpoory 
will be imsafe, and crossed at many points by the Rebels flying 
from Oudh. It is possible the Upper Doab may also be 
threatened until the Punjab force is ready to advance N.K of 
the Ganges. So I should prefer your remaining quietly at Agra 
until we see the course things will take. 

(Afternoon). — Church is at 4 here, and 4| at the big 
Church ; I am going here. ... I have had two or three messi^es 
to-day from Futtebgurh and Agra, which I have sent to Lord 
Canning. I also sent him John Thornton's letter about the 
religious treatment of Uie Natives, which I thought he might 
like to see. The quiet and peace ot the day, even in the midst 
of this Camp, is an intense relief after last week. . . . 

(Same night). — I went to Church at 4. Very full both 
morning and evening. Talbot and Colonel Stuart there ; Lord C. 
seems ooly to go once a day. . . . Then went out and walked 
round the ramparts taking a cheroot, and just returned. Looked 
in at Ledde's, and proposed that the ReUef Committee should 
move in the matter of pension for Mrs. Glen, if nothing else has 
been done in this matter at Agra. . . . 

8 p.nL — . . . I have no doubt that the road will be quite 
clear within two months. Don't be alarmed by Y. . . .'s 
vaticination& 

(Next morning). — The Court have sanctioned two Assistant 
Secretariea ... I am thinking of young Daniell and Macnaghten. 
But Lord Canning allowed me to keep on E. C. Bayley (who is 
Magistrate and Collector of Azimgurh) temporarily, so that only 
one will be at once required. ... I hope to get up to the Jail- 
house to-morrow, where I shall be less liable to disturbance. 

18ih February. — In tents by the Civil Station. Yesterday 
evening, was just thinking of going out when the Agra dak came 
in with a heap of letters, and yours which was soon fished out. 
I went and sat outside (the tent), and as it began to get dark 
got a candle and read your . . . About that time also came an 



52 LETTERS FROM ALLAHABAD 

invitation for Williams (of the Police) to go to the Governor- 
General, with a private note from Talbot. Williams was to 
have gone in the daytime, but we had no buggy (the " General " ^ 
not come yet). He was on the point of starting in the sun on a 
Sowar's horse, when I persuaded him not ; and wrote to Talbot. 
The result was this in\atation. Well, after getting through the 
letters, . • • we dressed and were off at 6^ in a buggy to the 
Fort. I introduced Williams to Lord C, who received him very 
kindly. After about ten minutes' talking about things, dinner 
was announced. There were fifteen or sixteen. I was speaking 
to some one else, when Lord C. tapped me on the shoulder, and 
also the Colonel of the 80 th (Lord Carr, I think), and motioned 
us to go on before or with him into the dinner tent I sat, as 
before, on the Govemor-Generars left ; Williams opposite me ; 
on my left, the Queen's Superintending Surgeon (Gaiger, I think 
his name); Talbot opposite the Governor-General, etc The 
latter part of the dinner I talked a good deal to the Governor- 
General about the Tuckers; also about Mr. Colvin and Mr. 
Thomason. Dr. G., who had been wrecked on the Andamans, 
gave me a long, interesting account of his adventures. . . . 
Williams evidently made a good impression on Lord C. Sat a 
long time, when we retired. Got home about 10. 

23rd February (Tent in Civil Station). — Last night Williams 
and I walked as far as the Cucherries and Kinloch's house (the 
one I was getting restored for ourselves). It is not getting on 
well. . . . Only 20 coolies on the house! . . . Drove back. 

. . . Up at 4^ morning as usual : reading, and work. Then 
walked to the Fort, where met Temple and Simson. Accom- 
panied them to the terminus, where Temple starting begged 
again to be most kindly remembered to you. Eode home. 

4.30 p.m. — It has been a quiet, pleasant, working day 
to-day. Getting through work. I begin to feel more master 
of the position. I enclose a note from Outram, who likes the 
Junior Secretaryship. 

24^A Januai*y, — Worked away till 5 J or 6 a.m. Then in 
the buggy to the Fort, and called at the tent where Lady 
Wilson, Mrs. Greathed, and Mra Trench were. Had a long 
talk with her, and felt much for her. She shook my hand so 
warmly, and I had a long chat with her. Then we left. . . . 
They go off they say on the 26 th. . . . 

I must write to Farquhar about the journey (with the 
children to Mussoorie). It is such a comfort he is going with 

^ My riding horse. 



TO AGRA 53 

you. . . . Active proceedings will now commence all along the 
country from Bijnore to Fyzabad ; and when the pressure is felt, 
escape will probably be attempted at many parts across the 
Doab. It is necessary, therefore, to take all precaution before- 
hand to see that the road is not threatened by any such attack. 
By the time you return to Agra we shall, I trust, see definitely 
the state of things, and the prospect for the Agra and Allahabad 
road. . . I Williams has just returned from a long conference 
with the Governor-General, in which everything has been 
satisfactorily arranged about the Police Battahona I am very 
glad of this. 

Friday, 1 2th March, — , . . You will have heard from Sherer 
that the (down-coimtry) road is not safe at present But it will 
not, D.V., continue long so. Worked till near 6. Table clear. 
Drove out with Cud.^ round the Commissioner's office, and back 
by the Fort An inmiense encampment of Madras Cavalry on the 
plain before tlie Fort A great body of them is going over to 
protect the Azimgurh and Goruckpore districta A new 
European regiment come in, and the 80th gone to Futtehpore, 
which will check the movement at Humeerpore. . . . 

9 o'clock. — G.-G.'s dak come in while I was at dinner, with 
your ... of Wednesday. ... A message from Batten gives a 
better account of the country generally, — so that I do hope, 
when the blow has been finally struck at Lucknow, and our 
troops can be spared a little to return to the Doab, there will 
be no difficulty ... in your coming down. ... I have not seen 
the G.-6. since last Saturday. I dispose of everything by boxes. 
. . . Will write to Mrs. Glen about her pension. 

IZth. — Got up early. . . . About 5 set to to the boxes. 
Rode out about 7. Such a fine, fresh morning! I thought 
how much . . . you would have enjoyed it It was one of 
those fresh mornings we only have in the spring. Back by 8 J, — 
to work again ; by 9 J had cleared my table. . . . Good news 
from Lucknow. The business apparently will soon be over 
there. ... I went to see Lord C. before 2, and he received me 
exceedingly kindly. I did not stay long. Cud. and I, I am 
sorry to say, dine there this evening. . . . 

IZth (Saturday night). — Worked away this morning till 5 J, 
when went out with Cud. to see Kinloch's house and an Agent 
I am getting to look after it. Young Johnston and Cottenham, 
II.A., came to see us. Walked over the Cucherry with them, to 
see how the work was going on. Then drove with Cud. (our 

* ».«. Cudbert Thomhill. 



54 LETTERS FROM ALLAHABAD 

buggy and his mare) to the bungalow. . . . Went to dinner: 
Lord Carr, etc., there. Colonel Bradford was on Lord C.*s 
left ; I on his right ; on my right a Madras officer. Bowring 
was next Thomhill, whom I heard discussing the 10th October 
(the relief of Agra). Pleasant evening; rather. Lord C. 
agreeable. Got home 9^. . . . 

Saturday, l^th, — About coming down, I quite leave to you 
the discretion to set out on the journey so soon as the road is 
clear and you have a proper escort. But the road is, by the 
last accounts, still threatened, and Cawnpore is very imperfectly 
defended. It will be far better to wait a few days till Lucknow 
falls completely, and then considerable masses of our troops will 
be brought again into the Doab, and there will be no fear. 
I find the railway is not open for trains or engines to 
Futtehpore. The train still does not run beyond Khaga. It 
is not to be open till the 25th, — when Lord Canning opens it in 
person. If you cannot get down before that, I shall try and 
come out to Futtehpore to meet you. ... If you came before 
that, you would have to come on to Khaga, above 20 miles this 
side of Futtehpore, and I could come out to meet you. By the 
way, a few days ago, Duryao Sing, his son Sojan Singh, and 
nephew Narmul Sing, were all hanged at Futtehpore. . . . 

Farquhar's message just come in. I am so thankful that he 
has accepted the Jail appointment, and will be able, as I con- 
fidently trust, to bring you down. There is no violent hurry 
about his journey. ... I do trust the road will be open, so 
that you may soon be able to come, as you will find it very 
warm travelling. 

15th, — Up before 4i. To work a little after 5. Dressed 
6 J. Had a nice ride. The General capers about now in the 
most frisky style, like a kid. Worked till 9, when dak with 
your . . . letter came in. 

The new3 from Cawnpore is all better. The road does not 
appear to me just now to be threatened, but you had better wait 
a bit. At Cawnpore they do not yet think the road safe. . . . 
The Lucknow news I enclose. The Chief congratulated the 
Governor-General on the residt ; and I do trust the termination 
is near. . . . Things brighter in the Doab ; and, if these men 
who threaten Etawah keep quiet, I don't see why you should 
not leave. 

18th. — Brigadier Bradford came up and talked with us some 
time. He has sent out some troops to help Mayne in driving 
back the Oudh people, who are pressing rather down again. . . . 



TO AGRA 55 

I worked away till near 6, when I walked out to the Jail, 
to see the Native Christians and the progi^ess making with the 
Jail barracks. One barrack will be ready for the Writers in 
about a week, I hope. There are now some 8 families here of 
the Writers, and the weather is getting very hot for them in 
tents. The houses for the Native Christians will, I fear, not be 
ready for a long time. . . . 

19th, — Bode to Mr. Owen's, and walked with him down to 
the entrenchments near the Fort. It reminded me of the time 
in 1855-56, when we were going down the river, ... As I 
was bathing before breakfast, a Shootr Sowar came with an 
immediate summons from his Lordship ; so I got the buggy and 
was off by 9^. It was about instructions for Mr. Mayne (on 
the Oudb frontier). . . . About midday came your most agree- 
able message that you were at Meerut yesterday, . . . and trust 
you will be at Dehra to-morrow. . . . 

20th, — . . . The weather is getting hot, which, besides 
. . . , is also a cogent reason why I am anxious for your journey 
to be over. . . . The news is good from Lucknow to-day : 
Mooeabagh taken, and no Bebels left. Mrs. Orr and Miss 
Jackson brought in ; and they had been honourably treated. . . . 

2l8t, — Cud. and I drove to Kinloch's house. It is getting 
on very slowly indeed. But there will be plenty of shelter in this 
house for the present. A third room, with bathing-room, will 
be ready in 2 or 3 days, etc. etc. 

22nd, — I fancy you will arrange to get back to Agra by 
Friday or Saturday.^ ... I do trust that the road will be all 
dear, and that you will be able to come down at once. . . . 
About ^ to 4 (on Sunday) they told me the (native) Padree had 
come to have service with the Native Christians ; so I walked 
over to the Jail hospital, where they were all assembled, — some 
30 Christians present. Sang hymns, read the Bible, then gave 
us a sermon. Back by 5. . . . Had a summons to go to Lord 
C. in the evening about Mayne, who has got into a scrape by 
getting the troops into a misfortune before a village. 

23rd, — ^Everything is quiet now; and this is the time I 
expected you would have come down had not ... A. fallen 
sick. I do trust the road will still keep open ; but there is no 
calculating what these flying Bebels may take into their head. 
However, Farquhar is " awfidly safe," and I can trust fully to 
his discretion. Things are a little gloomy just now towards 

* One of the cMldren had fallen sick, which involved another journey to 
MuaBoorie, 



56 LETTERS FROM ALLAHABAD 

Aziingurh. All the troops having been removed away to Luck- 
now from the Oudh border, has encouraged the Bebels to come 
on, and our troops in the Azimgurh district may be obliged to 
fall back on Azimgurh. The troops with Mayne over the river 
met with a nasty repulse at a village which Mayne should not 
have attacked, as it was beyond his border. The 6.-G. is very 
angry with him about it, and with reason; for, only the day 
before, he got instructions not to cross the lx)rder. . . . 

[Then follows an account of Lord Canning's triumphal journey 
to Futtehpore.] 

Cud. xiame in about 5^ this morning, going to the railway. 
I worked on till 6 ; then dressed. I rode off to the railway 
station, expecting to find that the party had started. After 
wandering about a little on the General (my horse), I found that 
the train was still there. Scene gay; a triumphal arch with 
" The way to prosperity " on it ; banners, etc., with other devices. 
When I got up to the station, I found that the G.-G. had not 
arrived, so I talked with the crowd there. Almost every one 
has gone. I wrote to Bowring last night to say that I had such 
an overwhelming press of business that I would be glad to 
remain and not go, unless it were proper I should. Bowring 
replied he would let me know last night if I was required. I 
asked him this morning about it ; and he said when he mentioned 
it to the G.-G., he said he was glad I would stay, as he had 
work for me. He has not, however, sent any. But he may 
have alluded to its being better I should stay in case of any 
emergent messages, etc. — The only place threatened just now is 
Azimgurh : our little body of troops was obliged to fall back on 
the town, and were expecting to be attacked there. — I had 
been about 10 minutes at the platform when the G.-G. arrived. 
All then moved along the platform by the railway, — when I 
found that a Service was to be performed. Mr. Spry was there 
in his surplice, and read a very appropriate service, — the same 
as used by the Bishop, with some modifications. It lasted say 
10 minutes, — something like the service at Eoorkee. I am so 
glad I was present. Shortly after, the party entered the 
railway carriages, — the band playing " God Save the Queen." 
Some 50 Europeans went also, and the band. ... I am glad I 
did not go. . . . 

26th, — . . . I am very glad I did not go yesterday to 
Futtehpore, as Cud. did not return till late, and had rather a 
stupid day. They got up to Futtehpore quickly — by 9^ — and 



TO AGRA 57 

breakfasted about 10|, in Edmonstone's house. No ladies went. 
. . . After breakfast, Cud. retired to smoke and Lord C. went 
away, and then Mr. Purser proposed Lord C.'s health ; that was 
all. They had a salute on arriving and leaving. They came 
back very slowly. Altogether, I did not miss much. I saw the 
chief part in the Service at starting. . . . 

I do not see why you should not leave next Tuesday morn- 
ing, if the weather be cool : the mornings are very cool here. 
If the road continues as at present, you could travel at night to 
Cawnpore; but Cocks will be the best adviser on that point. 
... A message on your reaching Cawnpore would be sufficient 
warning . . . , f or arranging to go up to Futtehpore next day. 
May the Lord guide you into the best and safest and least 
exposing plan of travelling ! . . . French, with his Missionaries, 
arrived. ... I have persuaded them to come up here and stay 
till Monday. . . . They are in tents, and won't come into the 
house. 

27th March. — . . . Have had no letters for 3 days, and 
am anxiously looking for the dak. . . . Had a pleasant evening 
at dinner with French and his two associatea They are both 
College men : one Clinton, a pleasant, intelligent man ; the 
other Shankey, a good mathematician, from Cambridge. . . . 
French is determined to have 5 Missionaries for Agra, and none 
here ! ! . . . Bebels within a few miles of Azimgurh. There 
will, I expect, be a fight there soon. . . . 

3 p.m. — To my great joy, Lowe's message from Meerut came 
in reporting your arrival there yesterday. I do feel so thankful 
to our Heavenly Father for this news ; and for the statement of 
A. . . . being better. By this time you must be quietly at 
Agra again, and I trust you will start early next week. 

Near 4. — An immense dak with your . . . letter of Sunday. 
... I think, so far as I know, the road is quite safe just now, 
and that you might leave at once with perfect safety. All that 
is required is for Dr. Farquhar to inquire as you go along, and 
see that it is smooth ahead. 



INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT, AGRA. 



MSS. VOL I. 



FIBST SERIES. 



ME. COLVIN'S LETTEBS 



AND 



LETTEBS DOWN COUNTBY. 



50 



AGRA CORRESPONDENCE, 1857. 



NOTE PREFIXED TO VOLUME I. 

Preface, THIS Book, YoL I., contains the official and demi-official letters 

ofVoi/i5^"* relating to Intelligence, etc., written by the Hon^^® J. R Colvin, 

Lieut. -Governor N.W.P., or by his order, after the action of the 

5 th July, which ended in our being obliged to retire into the 

Fort of Agra. 

From the 10th of August this side of the volume was kept 
for correspondence with the authorities down country : the other 
side ^ being reserved for letters up country, Delhi, Meerut, etc. 

Mr. Colvin'8 On the 9th of September 1857 Mr. Colvin died, and after 

^••^^ that date the correspondence was carried on by myself as in 

charge of the Intelligence Department 

From the Ist October the correspondence is contained in 
another Book, Vol. 11. 



S^ W. MuiR. 



Allahabad, \Mh June 1860. 



(Please see page 23 ante.) Note — In the present Collection 
a few of the less important documents or parts of documents have 
been omitted. Each letter or docimient here printed bears its 
serial number, as affixed in the original The remaining letters, 
however, have been all numbered in the same series, and have, 
along with those here printed, been copied in tj^pograph, and in 
that form, as well as in the original, constitute part of the record 
to be preserved. 

The spelling of names has generally been retained as in the 
original This explains the variations in the spelling of Native 
names and words foimd in the following pages. 

W. Coldstream. 

* Printed as " Second Series," p. 135 et seq. 



INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT, AGRA. 



MSS. VOL I. 



FIRST SERIES. 



ME. COLVIN'S LETTEES 

AND 

LETTEES DOWN COUNTEY. 

Gen^ Wilson to Mr. Colvin.^ 

Camp before Delhi, July 30thf 1867. 

My Dear Sir, — It is my firm determination to hold my General 
present position and to resist every attack to the last. The ™deternSna. 
enemy are numerous and may possibly break through our ^P" *<> i^oid 
entrenchments and overwhelm us; but the force will die at the last. 
their post. Luckily the enemy have no head and no method ; 
we hear dissensions are breaking out amongst them. Eeinforce- 
ments' are coming up under Nicholson. If we can hold on till 
they arrive, we shall be secure. I am making every possible 
arrangement to secure the safe defence of our position. 

A. Wilson, Brig. -Gen'- 

To the Hon"^» J. K. Colvin, 
L'-Gov. N.W.r. 

(Note hy W. Muir in pencil) — A grand letter from Gen* 
Wilson, Comm^ Delhi Brigade. 

' Inserted here out of its order on account of its importance. 
' This letter was in Greek character (t.f . in the original ; not in the copy 
from which this is taken). — \V. C. 

01 



62 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



I. 



Mr. Colvin to H. H. Geeathbd. 



Action at Agra 
on 6th July 
1857, descrip- 
tion of. 



Recommends 
Knmal 

Pergnnah to be 
annexed to 
Thanesar. 



OflTer of terms 
to Mutineers. 
Sir John 
Lawrence's 
views. 



Proposal to 
raise Police 
approved. 



Fort Aora, lOth July, 

My Dear Greathed,^ — I received yesterday your letter of 
July the first. A mere acknowledgment of it went in reply. 
I can add little more now. We have had our turn of burned 
bungalows and Cucherries at last; and though the city, etc., 
are now quiet, and supplies come in, our situation needs all 
the help the General can give us. I need not say more on 
this, as you have full knowledge of the facts. You can show 
this to the General Our action of Sunday afternoon the 5th 
was fought with gallantry, but we were largely outnumbered 
in men and guns; and we had no cavalry against their 800 
or 900. I am extremely sorry that Saunders' had not been 
able to reach you from Meerut. I think that it would be a 
good arrangement at present to annex the Pergunah of Kumal 
to Thuneisur. As to Meerut I have left Williams in charge 
of the Division till further orders. He should be employed, 
and you have enough on your hands at Delhi. I have no 
doubt that he will agree with you as to B. Sapte and Tumbull ; 
the latter has come out remarkably well in this serious 
disturbance. We may be quite at ease as to the safety of the 
Fort of Allahabad. A good deal of money may have been 
plundered at the Station, but we have no exact particulars. 

I have been glad to see that Sir J. Lawrence has agreed 
with me in the propriety of offering more lenient terms to the 
Mutineers; though all move in that direction has yet been 
fruitless. The thing has gone beyond that But it was, I am 
still satisfied, the true view at starting. Pray write too to Sir 
J. L. to tell him that I have entirely shared in his views in a 
letter of some 5 or 6 weeks back to me of raising a Police body 
of horse and foot, at proper rates of pay, for service in each 
district. The attempt was made by the M(agistrate) of Agra 
under my sanction ; but his selection was too exclusively of one 
class, and events have baffled it. Please write all this for me, 
and to Barnes at Umballah, and that his message by the tel^raph 
of June 29th has been received by a Cossid, and its purport sent 
on. My r^ards to your brother of the Engineers and remem- 
brances to C. C. G. — Yours, J. R Colvin. 

' H. H. Greathed, Esq., C.S. Agent to tlie Lt-Govemor, Delhi. 
^ Charles Saunders, Esq., C.S. 



LETTERS OF MR. COLVIN 63 



II. 



(Note in W. Muir's hand.) 

[This is Mr. Colvin's first letter to Havelock, who reached 
Cawnpore on the 17th July.] 

Agra Fort, 28tik July 1857. 

Sir, — We have received last night authentic information Haveiock's 
from a private source, of the arrival of your force at Cawnpore, cailnipore. 
and anxiously look for letters from yourself. 

We are endeavouring to lay a regular dak for light packets 
to you, but meanwhile Cossids can pass up regularly, and in 
a few day& It is of the utmost importance for us to know 
your position and plans, and those of Sir H. Lawrence at 
Lucknow. 

Pray write us fully and at once. The state of things above 
Cawnpore is as follows : — 

Delhi: Latest date of English letters 19th, but strong and suteofDeihL 
probably reliable reports down to the 23rd; place not taken, 
and no immediate intention of an assault. Our troops strongly 
posted on the ridge constantly attacked by the masses of the 
Mutineer troops in the City; whom they always beat back, 
though of course with some loss. 

Troops cannot be detached from Delhi downwards as yet. 
There is an earnest wish on the part of the Commander there 
that your Brigade should march up to reinforce their position. 
lliere had been some cholera in camp, and the sickly fever season 
of August is at hand. 

Mkebut : This position is safe, and above it to the Hills in sute of 
fair order. ^**"^*- 

Punjab : Quiet, and Sikh troops loyaL l^^abf *^* 

Aora: We are here living in the Fort after an action on suteof Agrt. 
the 5tfi with the largely superior Force from the Neemuch 
Camp. This Force has gone on to Delhi. 

Our Oarrison consists of the 3*^ European £eg^ and a Agra garrison. 
Battery of European Artillery, both much weakened by the late 
action. The Battery indeed could not horse more than two 
guns. 

We have the whole Christian population of the Station 
within this Fort — To relieve and secure this Arsenal is of the 
very first consequence. — It is the last stronghold of our power up 
the country. 



64 MSS. VOL. I.: FIRST SERIES 

Ux«M Hwre- On all these points you will see how essential it is that you 

Iftar' should march up towards us. There is no hostile Force of any 
^^^^ strength whatever on the road. My wish and request are that 

you should come up towards Mynpoory, in your progress to 
which constant advices would reach you to guide your further 
movements ; we would give you ammunition, supplies, and some 
carriage. Pray send an answer to this requisition at the earliest 
moment. — Several letters of the same purport have gone before, 
General Havelock's name being on the addresa — I am, Sir, your 
obedient Servant, J. R Colvin,^ 

(Lt.-Gov', N.W.P.). 

IV. 

(Draft Letter in W. Muir's writing,) 
From the Lieut.-Govr: to Com*^ of Allahabad, Benares. 

29^^ July. 

We have had no communication from the East for many 
weeks, excepting Mr. Charles Chester's^ of the 11th inst, in 
Greek, with a message from the Governor-General 

Calcutta papers up to the 22 nd June have come lately via 
Bombay and Ajmere. 

Let the Governor-General know that the triplicate copy of 

• Mr. Beadon's despatch of the 30th June has just been received 

through Kurachee. There has been no defect in forwarding 

Pofltal arrange, reports by cvcry available channel from this. There has been a 

CoMids.^ regular Cossid communication from Delhi, until lately, when it 

has become interrupted : — the cause we do not know. Copies or 

important extracts of every letter of interest have been instantly 

sent on to the Agent Gt)vemor-General for transmission to the 

Governor-General Full narratives of events down to the 16 th 

ins^ have also been uniformly sent ; and a continuation is following. 

We have learnt by native report of the success of the troops 
at Futtehpore and Cawnpore, and even hear that they are 
advancing upwards to Furruckabad or this : but not a line has 
yet reached us from the Army. We can only account for this 
by supposing that our Cossids as well as yours have been some- 
where intercepted. Let us hear from you by Cossids sent from 

Cawnpore. 

[Draft Letter ends here.] 

* Signed by Mr. Colvin himself. — W. C. 

' Mr. Charles Chester, C.S. Commissioner of Allahabad. 



LETTERS OF MR. COLVIN 



65 



The followinir is an abstract of the Census taken the other Ctumu of Foh 

of Affrs- 

day. It shows the total number of people of all classes who ^^^ 
slept in the Fort of Agra on the night between the 26th and 
27th of July 1857 to have been 5844. 





Adult 
Male. 


Adult 
Female. 


Javenile 
Male. 


Juvenile 
Female. 


1 
TotaL 

i 


Europeans 


1065 


289 


344 


291 


1 

1989 ; 


East Indians . 


443 


331 


429 


339 


1541 


Native Christians . 


267 


id t 


205 


209 


858 


Hindoos . 


942 


49 


162 


4 


1157 


Mahommedans 


244 


10 


42 


3 


299 




2961 


856 


1182 


846 


5844 



V. 

To Mr. C. Chester, Commissioner, Allahabad. 

July 30eA, 1857. 



Our latest dates from Delhi are July 24th. Our position 
there is still strongly held. There had been a severe fight 
on the 23rd with the usual residt. Nine hundred European 
Infantry and three Punjabee Belooch and Goorkha Battalions 
expected from the Punjab as a reinforcement. The Camp well 
suppUed with provisions. 

Things now quiet here, but we are still living in the Fort, as 
the bungalows are all burned. 



VII. 
Mr. Colvin to H. H. Greathed, Delhi. 

FoBT OF AoRA, July 30e^, 1857. 

Mt Dear Greathed, — I have this morning yours of the 23 rd, 

with letters to others of the 24th, mentioning an affedr which 

seems to have been rather a heavy one, on the 23rd. I send 

this that the course of our correspondence may have no interrupt 

vol, l — s 



66 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



X AMMed 
ilMuraotion of 
JamniaMusjid 
in Agra. 

ReUef of 
Cawnpore. 



Approves Sir 
J. Lawrence 
controlling 
Hissar. 



Arrangement 
for women and 
children. 

Malagnrh. 



Administra- 
tion of justice. 

Special laws. 



Arrangements 
for Cossids. 



tion. I afi av^iov^ a\ao to av€ yovp perrKy o<l> 0€ €^^ict op 6e 
fiaofifieSav^ o<f> yovp irwjafi if)Opa€ o<f> ovp BeoTpoyivy i<l> veaae- 
aapy 0€ Jvfifia fivajeeB ipe if>op Se^i'O'tve irvpirfoae^. 

All keeps quiet here, and well with us. Cawnpore triumph- 
antly reoccupied by British troops on 18th, some of which have 
no doubt gone to relieve Sir H. Lawrence at Lucknow ; and a 
portion moved on probably to Futtehgurh. We have not yet 
direct letters from the Commanders, but hope to see them this 
way soon, and shall be ready for them with supplies^ eta The 
account of the reinforcements coming to you fi'om the Punjab is 
very satisfactory. It is not believed that the Neemuch men took 
away much money from Muthra. You will have one shaq) 
action with them, no doubt. It is quite right that Sir John 
Lawrence should control Hissar at present. The 23 rd from 
Mhow and one or two of Holkar's Battalions have probably 
reached Gwalior by this time ; you shall have warning of any 
further movement. The large China force must have been now 
2 or 3 weeks in Calcutta. I repeat my desire that the families 
and children should go up from Meeiiit to the Hills : and that 
Force be made thoroughly disposable, p/ikayvp' <t6v\S fie ataeirr 
K\€ap. 

Your rules for Criminal justice will probably work easily with 
Brigadier Wilson ; justice should now l>e severe and summary. 
By a recent law passed in Calcutta death may be awarded 
against persons convicted of any heinous crime against persons 
or property in disordered districta Some of my despatches from 
10th to 18th do not seem to have reached yoiL i ave oBvureS 
yov TO yer ivSeTrevBevr tcaaiB^ if>pofjL p,€€pvT KVpvaK op odep 
irapr^. 

Write constantly. Your message from Captain Firth to Captain 
Alexander delivered. 

J. E. COLVIK. 



Victories at 
Cawnpore, 
Pandoo 
Nuddce. 



P,S, — A letter from Sherer dated Cawnix)re, 23rd, confirms 
the intelligence that Cawnpore was taken on the 18th and is now 
held as a garrison; "Nearly 2000 men were to march imme- 
diately for Lucknow. Troops daily arri\'ing from Allahabad. 
When the force returns from Lucknow an advance will be made 
northwards." The troops stated to be very healthy. A previous 
letter from Brigadier-General Havelock reported his successes at 
Futtehpore, Aoung, and the Pandoo Nuddee. 23 gims taken. 
{The following in Greek letters,) Sir H. Lawrence died on the 
4th, of wounds received on the 2nd. 



LETTERS OF MR. COLVIN 67 

§ 

VIII. 
To Mr. J. W. Shbrer, Collector and Magistrate. 

Camp, Cawnpork. 



P.S, — \st August 1857. — The latest news from Delhi is of 
the 27 th, Mr. Greathed writes : " The Neeinuch horde has arrived 
at Delhi, and to-morrow, weather permitting, a general attack is 
to be made in front and rear." They had heard of General 
Havelock's successful advance to Futtehpore. Will you tell 
Mayne that I have received within the last few days his letters of 
Jan. (July ?) 19 th from Nagode, and 24th from Eewa : but nothing 
of the actual outbreak which compelled him to leave Bandah. I 
should be glad to hear from him, where and how he is. The 
duplicate of a letter to Chester is enclosed ; please forward it to 

1^™- J. E. COLVIN. 



There is also enclosed a letter for Sheikh Bahador Ali, 

Naib Rissaedar of the 8th Irregular Cavalry. This man has 

continued faithful. Please have the letter delivered. Send 

please a copy to Tucker of our news. Please tell Dr. Hutchinson 

of Futtehpore that his letter to Thomhill of June the 22nd from 

Bewa has been safely received, and that he must get his leave 

from Calcutta. ^„ ht 

W. M. 

IX. 

To Meerut. 

FoBT Aqra, lit August 1857. 

My Dear WnjJAMS,^ — It is important that you should know Wuiiee Dad 
that Wulee Dad Khan of Malagurh has sent one of his relations ^"* ' *^°^* 
to take possession of Allvcpirh : with the object of estal ^lishinpr a 
rggy^fiY ( ^lovfimment, and collecting revenue to be sent to Delhi 
^lis adds to the extreme importance of crushing Widee Dad 
Khan. Funds will soon be running short at Delhi, and to stop 
a supply of these is of vital consequence. Pray represent this to 
the Officer commanding, and do what you possibly can. Send 
the enclosed to Eamsay at Nainee TaL Latest Cawnpore news 
23rd June. General Havelock has gone over with about 2000 
men to relieve Lucknow. He had captured on his advance j^^^j^^^g.^ 
23 guns. That noble fellow Sir H. M. Lawrence died on the h. Lawrence. 

^ The CommlBsioner. 



68 MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 

4th of July, of a wound received on the 2nd. — Yours very 

'"^y' J. K. COLVUV. 

You can tell all this to Eamsay : 
Proposed niov- Public letter goes on the question of moving the women and 
inVchUdren" children up to the Hills. A letter from Greathed received last 
to hills. night showed that this project must be dropped. But the 

Maiagurh. importance is every day becoming greater that Malagurh should 
be swept clean. *«. ^ 

XL 
To Delhi. 

Fort Aoba, 1st August 1S57. 

My Dear Greathed, — Both your letters of the 27th received. 

We shall be delighted indeed to hear of the reinforcements from 

the Punjab having reached you. The sickly season of this and 

the next month is of course a bad feature. Your advice about 

Jumnia Musjid the Jumma Musjid shall be implicitly followed. No further 

^^ news of General Havelock*s force to-day. It has gone over to 

Lucknow, and we must wait a few days before hearing of it. 

Sir H. Lawrence's death from his wound is a public calamity. 

On what you say regarding the families at Meerut that point 

must be dropped. Kichardes has done well in sending his 

Approves of Rs. 60,000. I have said that I quite concur in placing all the 

Rohtak^being Hissar and Bohtuck country under the Punjab Government, just 

JromThe*'^ now. You are the agent for the Lieut.-Govemor at Delhi, with 

Puiyab. the reversion of Meerut of course when the time comes. No 

Wuiiee Pad fresh local news here to this date. WuUee Dad Khan is said to 

ments. be trying to bring Coel under his power. His aim will be to 

collect revenue. He will be attacked I trust as soon as Meerut 

has a new Corps. — ^Yours very truly, 

J. B. C 
H. H. Greathed, Esq., 
Agent to the Lieut. -GoV, Delhi. 

XIL 

To Havelogk (?) OR Neill (?). 

Aqra, 2nd August 1857. 

My Dear Sir, — I was glad to receive your letter of the 
25th. ... 
Reinforce- It will be seen from the tenor of all that I have written, 

m^^ neccs ^j^^^ ^j^^ march of reinforcements upwards is of primary im- 



LETTERS OF MR. COLVIN 69 

portance. As the advancing troops near Mjnpoory, our 
advices will show where the need of them may be most urgent. 
. . . Our strength only enables us to hold our own. . . . Things 
continue quiet up to this date here ; the Indore Mutineers have 
however reached Gwalior, and we wait to see what the plans of indore 
that force and Durbar may be. ... I cordially approve the have r^ed 
course you are taking to introduce order and police at Cawnpore. Gwalior. 
It is most essential this should be done. Our presenc^e should 
give protection and not brinp; plundering : although villages or 
MohuUas known to be inhabited by very bad characters might Treatment of 
under military direction be put to the flames and signal examples J^if^es.'^ 
made. Pray give details of the reinforcements of troops expected, 
with dates. Pray send copy of this to the G.-G. 

XIII. 

FoBT AoRA, Zrd August 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — Yours of the 29th reachetl last night. 
The accounts are cheering to us. I have no doubt the Neemuch 
people will give you one good fight, and that you will punish 
them as usual. One general matter you are in a good position 
to prove, and it is of great consequence. What was the real luquiries as to 
beginning of all this Rebel movement in the Army ? what mainly uing^of aff ttie 
fed the discontent ? Prisoners, deserters might tell about this, "^^1 V^^J^' 

*^ * nient in the 

and the information would be eagerly wished for. The Mhow army." 

regiment with some Indore troops has reached Gwalior. We 

watch their further plans. Saugor said to have mutinied, but 

Brigadier Sage safe. General Neill of Cawnpore says in a note 

of the 27th that they crossed the Jumna at Calpee three days Movement of 

before, marching to Delhi, or perhaps to Lucknow. Nawab Races " °^® ^^'^^^ 

«aid to have sent some troops down to molest Cawnpore ; copy of 

General Havelock's letter shows his position. We do not know 

his instructions. General Neill writes that Havelock had 4 Haveiock's 

regiments of Europeans, viz., 1st Madras Fus : — 64, 78, and 86th ^Jsltion. *** 

with half a regiment of Seiks, a squadron of Eur : vol. cavalry, 

and nearly two batteries. He was pitched on the left bank of 

the Jumna and expected to march on to Lucknow that evening 

(27th). General Neill adds that then there were good accounts 

from downwards — about 1600 troops of China expedition had China troops. 

reached Calcutta and would be sent on ; 5 th Fusiliers would be 

at Allahabad in 8 or 10 days. — Yours very truly, 

(J. E. C.) 
H. H. Greathkd, Esq. 



70 MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 

PX — Guthrie in an old letter from Nynee Tal very lately 

received says that he would wish to be transferred to the Delhi 

Territory, where he has had all his experience. I have encouraged 

liim to make the best of his way to Mussoorie, and thence to 

report to you. If you have wants for him you can get him via 

Umballa. He knows the Delhi Districts welL (The following 

Agra Jamnia in Greek characters,) I should explain about the Jumma Musjid, 

D0M&8 for"^ that beside the mass of the building itself, which is close to the 

destruction of. Yovt, it has parapets, round the Courtyard and Dome, from 

which much execution might be done by musketry on the lower 

defences. If we hear that the Gwalior Corps are coming this 

way, even without many guns, I shall sanction the removal 

of the parapets ; this will be obviously necessary, as a precaution, 

and if needed this can be explained to your Punjab Mahom- 

Malagurh. medans. The Malagur man has sent a deputy to Allypurh^ where 

he is collecting revenue, and raising troops. This shows the 

importance of clearing Malagur even more strongly. 

XIV. 
To General Neill, Cawnpore. 

Fort Aqra, ^rd August 1857. 

My Dear Sir, — Yours of the 27th with a few lines from 
General Havelock of the 26 th arrived last night. It is necessary 
that General Havelock and the Supreme Government should 
know of what extreme importance it is that, if possible, a strong 
Urges advance portion of the brigade should march up in this direction. We 
toward^Agra. ourselves may be attacked by the Gwalior troops, but it is not 
so much that, as the state of things in the Doab, that requires 
WuUeeDad instant vigour. A Nawab, Wulee Dad Khan, has estab lished 
Maiagurh. himself at Malagurh^ near Boolundshuhury and has now pushed 
on a Deputy to Allygurh where he is forming a Force^ and 
intencLs to collect revenue, for the Rebels at Delhi. 1 have 
stated this to the Brigadier here, and asked him to do all he 
can, but he may not feel able to send away the needful detach- 
ment. To crush rapidly this attempt t^ raise a hfytile Govern - 
ment_in districts is of an urgency which I need not explain to 
you. Pray send copies of this to General Havelock, and also to 
the Governor-General, that he may give any orders that may be 
thought fit. We do not know here what General Havelock's 
instructions are. You will send us of course also the earliest 
tidings of what is done at Lucknow. The bridge of boats here 
you will find all right and under the walls of the Fort. We 



LETTERS OF MR. COLVIN 71 

are well provisioned, etc., but Oe irkaae «? a \ap^e ove ai^S Asks for 
<ovX8 p€Kuip€ fjbope apTiKkepi/iep apS oifyiaep^ fie ^ap 6av tori \q^ /^S^^^ 
ave. i^ lov KovXS aevB tr? apriWepi o<f>UT€p^, they would /Se 

Anj strong escort of Europeans passing up here would have 

the best effect, and might take away some ladies and children. 

I can only ask you to mention all this to General Havelock. 

Our number of helpless persons, women and children, within the Ladies and 

walls is very great. Letters last night from Delhi to 29 th of ^^'^^°' 

cheerful purport. No new action. Tell me of the restoration 

of Civil order in Cawnpore. Does Mr. Sherer act imder your 

orders, or how ? Where is Mr. Mayne of Bandah ? Mention 

also details of the arrival of fresh troops at Allahabad. You 

will be on your guard against attack of troops at Futtehgurh. 

We received information yesterday that the Nawab Baees had 

sent a Force towards Cawnpore consisting probably of two Sepoy 

regiments and an Oudh Irregular Cavalry regiment. Nothing 

new from Gwalior. — ^Yours faithfully, 

j. e. colvin. 
Brigadier-General Neill, 

Command^ at Cawnpore. 

RS, — 5th August 1857. — The Brigadier has stated himself 
to be unable to send any troops to AUygurh. Pmy let this 
be known. The messenger has been paid 250 Es.* (payment of 
Cossid, W. M.).^ But it will be well that you should arrange to Payment of 
pay your Kasids, however liberally, when tfiey take an answer 
hcuJc to you. We always do this. We sent a letter down to 
Allahabad by a fast boat some 2 or 3 weeks ago. Did it arrive ? 

XV. 

To Delhi. 

Fort Agra, Ath Augxut 1857. 
My Dear Greathed, — Your letter and Brigadier Wilson's 
of the 30th ult. received. I cannot too strongly express my 
admiration of the noble gallantry of the Force before Delhi ; Delhi force 
what they have already done in so many hard combats will 5ii^ Coivin. 
gain for them the highest applause; and no one doubts that 
their endurance and efforts will in the end be successful. To 
see corps after corps crowding on Delhi without adequate means 
of arresting them has been deep grief to us all ; but we all in 
our places do our best. The help lent from the Punjab is quite Punjab helps. 

* Paymeat of Cossid (these words and asterisk (*) in pencil by W. M. in 
the margin). — W. C. 



72 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



ColTin'stribuU wonderfuL The thanks of all India are due to Iiawrence for his 
Lftwrenoe. energetic and unstinted aid Please send him a copy of this 
note, and of course show it to Wilson. Nothing new here 
to-day. At Etawah the Saugor mutinous regiment is expected 
to pass that way, and may go on to Delhi It is said to be 
some 700 strong. — ^Yours very truly, j jj Colvin. 

Extract of Beadon's letter, regarding 25,000 troops from 
England, sent. 

XVL 

(Inserted at the beginning of the Series on account of its importance,) 



Cols. Ck>tton 
and Eraser of 
Engineers. 



XVIL 
To THE Officer Com® at Allahabad. 

Fort Aqra, August bth. 

My Dear Sir, — Letters of the 27 th ult. received last night. 
The order of the Gov'-Gen* communicated to Brigd' Polwhele 
and Lt.-CoL Cotton. Lt.-CoL Cotton assumes charge this day. 
Of course it is known that Lt.-CoL Fraser, Engineers, who is 
senior to L*-CoL Cotton, is with the rest of us in the Fort He 
has been acting as second in command and Chief Engineer of 
the Fort. He will continue to act in the same maimer. I send 
a copy of a letter lately written to Gen' Neill at Cawnpore. It 
shows the urgent call for the early advances of troops up the 
Dooab. ... I now annex copy of the latest report from Brig' 
Wilson, comm^ at Delhi . . . They will no doubt hold out well 
and will soon have strong reinforcements from the Pimjab. 
^irr 0€ TTOCDep oif) raKivy AeXi fiai otiW fie vaprivy viOovr ler 
if>ap0€p fL€ap^. 

Sir J. Lawrence has written on this to the Gov'-Gen^ 

Gen' Barnard died on the 4th of July. The messages forwarded 

Delhi force: by you will, howcver, be sent on to Brig'-Gen' Wilson; the 

andSength?" latest retums of the 27th from Delhi fix the effective force 

there as follows : — 



Death of GenL 
Barnard. 



Evpoireap^ . 
ivBoarapie^ . 



IPiJMPTpl 

MML 
MCCCCXXV 



/capaXpi 

DIV 
CCCCXCV 



IP a\X 

MMDLFV 
MDCCCCXX 



MMMCCCCLXXV DCCCCXCIX MMMMCCCCLXXIV 

besides apTiXkepi & Samrep^ 
Sick in camp, dcclxv Bless^ Do. dli 



LETTERS OF MR. COLVIN 73 

CoDBtant communications are held with Delhi On this 
point I refer to my former, and especially to one to Mr. Chester. 
A full despatch too has gone by Eajpootana showing how 
steadily intelligence has been sent The latest date from 
Delhi 18 that of which copy now goe& On carriage I sent a 
letter of which also a copy is attached. We can help as troops 
approach here, but not to any sensible degree before. We have 
laid up stores largely, fivr ovp if)vpS^ ape fieKOfiivy vepi Xt/xireS, Want of funds 
w€ 6X8 vo KOWTpi avB axapaXi tcoWe/cr avidivy. Oepetf^ope it t^ ^ ^^' 
€a'a'€VTuiK Oar if>wB^ KOfie ^hO 0e if>opa'€ iv aofie Beypee if>op ovp 
a»v evae ipe — ovp aavr^ fiai /Se raKCv ar 1^ Xa/C9 (besides an 
almost equal sum for bills, in all 3 lakhs) a fLov0, fie tcav 
ateapaXi xappi op fieMvS dpee fiovO^ fiope, 

We_ raise money by small local loans at high interest, ten Loans raised at 
ff ceot . On the whole what is needed is an advance with *^* '^' 
strength and means. This would clear all around us, and make 
the road open to Meerut. The Gwalior and Mhow mutinous 
reg** are collected at Gwalior. They talk of coming this way, 
but the rivers are very high, and we do not look for them 
just now. It is not known how far they have espoused the 
distinct cause of Gwalior, or have coerced the Maharajah and 
are acting with their Delhi comradea The Maharajah has 
certainly taken them into his pay . Bajputana so far quiet, if 
not actively useful. Our Calcutta and Bombay daks come that 
way, but irregularly. Pray send all this to the Gov'-Gen*, and 
I again add that Delhi news has been constantly received, and 
instantly forwarded by Ajmere and Neemuch, and now we shall 
write it to Cawnpore to you. 

J. 11. COLVIN. 

I enclose a Delhi Gazette just now from the press.^ The 
news is authentic. Pray send this on to the G.-G., and say that 
the letter from Mr. Beadon of July the 19th has reached me. 

XVIII. 
To B^-G** Neill, Com* Ca^vnpore. 

(8^^ August.) 

P.S, — We have no Enfield rifles or ammunition here. Our cash 
balance at present is only about 6 lakhs of Co : 's Bs. Mr. Beade Financial posi- 
as Financial Commissioner has borrowed money on high terms ^^^ * *^™* 

* Printed at Agra. 



74 MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 

Funds needed, in last month, but further success in raising money in this way 
must depend upon events. The cash disbursements of each 
month may be taken at Ij^ lakhs, if 1^ lakhs more can be 
raised by supply bill ; the whole monthly demand 3 lakhs. We 
shall continue to borrow, if we can, but this must be imcertain. 
From the 6 lakhs in hand 1 } must be paid out from the past 
month, July. 

This shows how pressing our money needs are; the cure 
is in the most prompt advance in strength and with means. 

This has been written several times before, but should again 
be made known to Calcutta, by every opportunity. 

XIX. 
To Greathed, dated 9th August 1857. 



We had 3 fights on the 29th. Gen' Havelock lost 1 
officer, his aide-de-camp, L*^ (blank in original) Madras Army, and 
but 3 wounded. The 42nd N.I. from Saugor had passed within 
18 miles of Cawnpore, killed a Thanahdar and destroyed a 
bridge, and then moved towards Futtehgurh. They will 
doubtless have joined the Futtehgurh Sebels and give annoyance 
Podtiou at to Gen' Neill, who is however very strongly posted at Cawnpore 
awnpore. ^^j^ ^^ armed steamer. Nothing new from any other quarter. 
Holkar staunch, and Mhow secure. We get letters and news- 
papers by Nagpore. Latest date from you, evening of the 2nd 
in a letter from Col. Becher. Three steamers and gunboats 
coming up armed to Allahabad and Cawnpore. 

XXI. 
Brig^-G"* Neill, Cawnpore. 

FoBT Agra, 9^ Augutt 1857. 

My Dear Sir, — 



Latest Delhi date evening of the 2nd, when there had 

been another of the usual actions with scarcely any loss on 

our part. We can only repeat again and again that the 

Urees advance advance of a Force in this direction is of the most urgent 

wMdsAm. consequence to prevent the country being organised against 

us and funds beinp levied by the Rebel power at Delhi. You 



LETTERS OF MR. COLVIN 75 

can say this in all your letters to the Gov'-Gen^ In the 

Fort itself we should be especially glad to have more Artillery ArtiUenrmen 

officers and men. The provisioning, etc., have all been well"^^ 

cared for. But as we are running very short of funds. Attached Funds 

is a memo on this essential point of which copies have been ^^^'^"^ * 

already gone, but every occasion should be taken of informing 

the Supreme Gov^ The Ghvalior Mutinous Troops are 5 or 6000 Number of 

unth some 30 guns besides a 3rd class Siege Train. At <AmoJJ\^^]* ^' 

moment we are not in a condition to beat them in the open. We 

could scarcely man more than 3 Battery guns, effectively. But Weakness of 

from the inside, if they came, they should have a thorough pjj^® ^" ^^^ 

pepi)ering. The copy of the letter at the beginning speaks of 

camels. Turn back all Sepoys coming up here after their two 

months' leave. None can be trusted now. About ... I will 

mention in my next letter. 



XXII. 

Fort Agra, July 24, 1867. 

My Dear Chester, — If a steamer could be pushed up the 
Jumna with troops in the present fall of the rains it would 
be most u^lcome succour in men here or for reinforcement of 
Delhi, and take away the many English ladies and children Ladies and 
collected here, an object of vast importance, for our position is JemovtS of, 
ob\'iously very critical. Think if this can be done and consult ^"^'"'^p*^*^^ 

•^ •' necessary. 

Calcutta by telegraph, and do it if it be possible. If only troops 
enough could be brought to protect the steamer, and cover the 
Lascars in getting wood on the banks, it would be an immense 
relief to our families. t t» /^ 

J. E. COLVIN. 

XXIV. 

Fort Agra, August 12, 1857 (?). 

My Dear Greatiied, — . . . Malagurh is not only an evil in Maiagurb. 
itself, but it sends its shoots down to AUygurh and Hattrass, 
The fellow at Allygurh, Ghaus Mohammed, is an especial Ghous 
savage. If money is offered to Williams at 6 per cent, purely * ^^ 
as a local loan, principal and interest claimable only at the 
Meerut Treasury, I see no objection to his raising moderate Loans at 
sums in that way. His rule should be to get as much as will tioned^aTe %. 
meet each month's cash consumption, by loan or supply Bills, 
the purpose being only to keep the Station-chest from wastage, 
and not to make any financial operations which would affect the 



76 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



money market. In an isolated position here we have to pay 
Loans taken at 10 p. c. for such advances, but then we only took 29,000 Es. 
^^ * in cash, and our terms are that we have liberty in 1 5 days* 

notice to pay the principal with interest when we may wish. 
Such terms of course are only to be submitted to in an extreme 
necessity, and for absolutely requisite amoimts. Williams need 
not be in too great a hurry as he has the country open to 
Seharunpore and Umballah ; but if cash is easily to be got by him 
at 6 p. c. in a local transaction, it would I think be pennis- 
sible. No new local fact here. 

J. R COLVIN. 

August 12, 1857. 

XXVI. 



To Commissioner, Allahabad. 



15^^ Auguit 1857. 



Bhurtpore 

Dorbar's 

action. 



The Bhurtpore Durbar has sent away the British Agent : 
and no formal communication can now be carried on. The Durbar, 
however, continues to aid us in various indirect ways by daks, 
elephants, etc. Messages regarding these are managed by 
Capt" Nixon. 



RS. — The latest Delhi date August 9th. 

The only new fact that the Mutineers had established a 
new 8 or 10 -gun battery under our right batteries, which 
was causing annoyance of course. A letter just come in to 
10th. Nothing new. Infantry attacks ceased, much annoyance 
attempted by Artillery and Kockets. 



PromUes 
attention to 
Ctoneral's 
viahes as to 
corre5ipondence 
with officers 
nnder 

General's com- 
mand, and asks 
for prompt 
intimation of 

movements and 
intentions. 



XXVIII. 

FoBT Agra, August IQth, 1857. 

Sir, — I have received your letter of the 10th this morning, 
and have communicated it to Lt.-CoL Cotton, commanding here. 
I shall of course attend to your wishes as to correspondence 
with Officers imder your orders, and shall rely upon your inform- 
ing me promptly of your movements and intentions, as far as you 
may feel yourself justified in doing so, for our own information 
at this place and for communication to the authorities at Delhi 
and Meerut. 

Brig*-Gen^ Havelock. 



LETTERS OF MR. COLVIN 77 



XXIXa. 

Mt Dear Mum, — I send J. Lawrence's letter. Sherer's Js Mr. Coivin 
now with CoL Cotton. I vdsh I could see my way to acting on ^uotii^* 
Lawrence's suggestion, but he has obedient districts, trustworthy j^JJ^^*^ ^^F 
tribes, a real Grov*, and money coming freely in. We can at Lahore, 
scarcely pay our way, and this late Eastern news will not 
mend our position. Herewith I send three letters of yesterday 
which came to Nixon. You can take notes of them in your Approves of 
book, which certainly will be useful The letters have just come Lnce^bo^ 
in from Colonel Cotton. I send them. Pray send them all|gf^'*P^y^^- 
back after breakfast, when I must prepare a letter to Gen^ Have- 
lock. — ^Yours very truly, 

J. R COLVIN. 

XXX. 

Fort Agra, August 16, 1857. 

My Deak Sherer, — 



Let me hear from you frequently, as I may hear less from Refers to 
General Neill in consequence of the wishes of General Havelock ioSk*8 wtehw^ 
regarding correspondence. ^n<w 

......a. 

Your arrangements are now earned on under the direct Adverts to tbe 
orders of the Supreme Gov*, so that I need only say that adrnimstratioB 
your appointment of a Sudder Tehseeldar for Cawnpore seems uSSrtK*"**^ 
to me likely to do good. The safety of the greater number of direct orders 
the Tehseelee records is a matter of congratulation. — I remain, Oovernmentr* 
yours very truly, 

(J. R C.) 

M. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 



XXXL 

Fort Agra, 17 Augutt 1867. 

My Dear Chester, — 
• ••••••• 

I repeat that troops at Allahabad cannot look for carriage Cumot send 
from here, as we have no escort to send. But when troops come u^Doplfftom 
near here, and send an escort, carriage and supplies can be given. ^^^ 



78 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



lu want of 
funds; collect- 
ing next to 
nothing. 

Mentions a 
proposal by Sir 
J. Lawrence 
for raising 
levies, but can- 
not do so at 
Agn for want 
of funds, while 
Chester con- 
trols several 
districts. 



We are in urgent want of funds, having scarcely enough for two 
months more, and collecting next to nothing. Sir. J. Lawrence 
has sent a suggestion for raising levies of Native troops, horse 
and foot, for future employment. This suggestion is more 
important to you and to Tucker than to us in our present 
circumstances, for we could not pay for large levies. You have 
possession and control of considerable districts 



XXXIV. 

To Allahabad. 



Refers to over< 
tures made by 
the King of 
Delhi to his 
besiegers. 



sends 



Begum se 
emissary. 



Women and 
children in 
Delhi 



Position at 
Agra Fort. 



Fort Agra, Augmt 27^, 1867. 

My Deab Sir, — Your letter of the 2l8t just received. Pray 
send tel: answera on my part to Calcutta to following eflect, 
"Tel: ordere of 20th inst: received." There was a hollow 
pretence of negotiation entered into by the king of D(elhi). It 
was noticed in the L*-Govr*s private lettei-s to the G.G. of July 
30th in these words: "The overture to wliich Mr. Greathed 
alludes was one from the old king, made no doubt in fraud. 
Your orders against any terms with the family have been sent 
on, and accommodation of any sort is now out of the question." 

Nothing further has been heard of any overtures from the 
Palace until a letter of the 22nd from Mr. Greathed this 
morning. In it he says, " Yesterday an emissary came in from 
the chief lady of the Palace offering her good officea He was 
told we were highly anxious for his personal safety and for that 
of all women and children, but that no communication could be 
received from inmates of the Palace." Copy of the order. " The 
present message will now be sent on at once in continuation of 
former ordera" 

I don't know what I can have said to have led to the 
supposition of an early advance of the Gwalior people by Calpee. 
Our latest information is that they are not moving from there at 
all just now. We have Delhi news of the 22nd all well We 
have a small party out towards Hattrass and AUyghur just to 
show that we are not helpless in the Fort. There was a smart 
little action some three or four miles from Allyghur on the 24th 
in which we had a decided success, but afifairs of this kind are 
only paiiiial and may be but temporary. 

(Signed) J. E. Colvin. 

Brig*-Gen'' Neill. 




LETTERS OF MR. COLVIN 79 

XXXV. 

To Allahabad. 

FoBT Agra, 27 August 1857. 

My Dear Chester, — 

Foot Police of different Tribes we could get here, but any 
large number of trustworthy horsemen not Mahom**^ would be a 
hard battla Have you any reality of Gov* in the interior of 
the districts? for instance, what revenue do you collect in 
Allab^? It is remarkable that burning of Catcherries and 
Bungalows and the ravage of property, release of Prisoners, etc.. Remarks that 
which have happened universally on the occurrence of Milit^ buij^ows and 
revolt in our upper North- West Stations, do not appear to have ^^[^^ ^^^ 
been as common in the Benares Di\ision or at the Behar common in 
Stations. Have you heard of any of these Stations particularly sion^^d Behar. 
in Behar where outrages and plunders of that kind have been 
permitted? I hoj^e Mayne with his party have given a good 
account of the men from Oudh who attacked the Moorutpore 
Thannah. 

You will send all my letters of course to J. P. Grant. 

(Signed) J. E. Colvin. 

XXXVII. 

SEEVICE MESSAGE 

From the Hon™* J. R Colvin to Right Hon'" 
THE Gov*-Gen^ Calcutta. 

Agra, Zlst August 1857. 

Since writing yesterday on the clearance of the Dooab, I 
have received a statement of the Force that will soon be before 
Delhi, of which copy is subjoined. 

" We shall have before Delhi 7 companies of H.M. 8^** Foot, statement of 
and the 52~*, 60^ and Gl-^Eeg^also the 1*^ and 2"^ Bengal JSi^lllSing 
Fusiliers, the 9^ Lancers, and a squadron H.M.'8 6^ Carabineera ^^^"^ ^"'^ 
The Native Reg** are the Sirmoor and Kumaon Goorkha Bat- 
talions, the 1"* and 2"^ Punjab Infantry, the 4*** Sikh EegS the 
Guide Corps, and wings of the 1"* and 2"** Punjab Cavalry. 
There are 6 troops of H. Artillery, 3 reserve companies 
Europeans and Sikhs, a 3"^ class siege train in Camp, and a 
2"^ class siege train on the road. The Bebels have 24 Beg^ 



80 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



Raiuoar of 
Nicholson 
defeatmg tlie 
Barcilly 
Brigade. 



Suggests the 
provision of a 
controlling 
anthority on 
the spot to 
direct troops 
after assaalt. 



Regular Infantry, 3 Reg** Regular Cavalry, 3 Reg^ Irregulars, 
400 Miscellaneous Horse from various Reg^ and Contingents, 
and an armed rabble of fanatics. They have also 30 H. Artillery 
Gims, with the Delhi Fortress, and Magazine." 

News was received yestei-day that Brig' Nicholson on the 
25th inst. defeated the Bareilly Brigade, which was attempting 
a movement to our rear, and captured 12 field-pieces, and all 
their ammimition and baggaga The siege train was expected 
there about to-morrow the 1st. It is reasonable to look for an 
early assault, and in that case some superior authority on or near 
the spot, empowered to direct the employment of troops in what- 
ever direction, seems very necessary. 



(Signed) 



J. R COLVIN. 



Miyor Mac- 
pherson (Poli- 
tical Agent at 
OwaliorJ re- 
ports Scmdia's 
good senricet*, 
and asks 
Oo^emor- 
Oeneral to 
acknowledge 
them. 



XXXVIII. 

Message from Major Macpherson, Pol. Agent, 
TO G. Edmonstone, Esq., Foreign Sec^ to Gov' of India. 

Septr, 2nd, 

I HAVE reported in my letters of the Ist and 15 th July and 
7 th of August that Scindiah has rendered most important aid by 
preventing the movement of the Gwalior, Mhow, and Indore 
Mutineers upon Agra or Delhi, and that I have led Scindiah to 
expect that such conduct would be acknowledged as good service / 
by the Gov'-Gen\ Scindiah is distracted by intelligence, possibly 
eiToneous, from his Vakeel that the Agent at Indore is disposed 
to view his conduct unfavourably, and that the Officers there 
blame him for giving pay to the Mutineers, one of the devices 
I sanctioned, if it should be, as it has proved, essential to 
their detention. This mav ^fft^ Scindiah to cease to oppose 
their movement. An expression of the Gov'-Gen* s approval of 
Scindiah's friendly policy would greatly strengthen my hand& I 
have not heard from the Agent at Indore since the 10th of June, 
and do not know if my letters have reached him. 



XXXIX. 

Added from the Lieu'-Gov*, N.W.P. 

Lieutenant- 

QoTeinor adds The lieu'-Gov' has seen this message. He would submit on 
rence. his part that it cannot be doubted that by his active endeavours. 



LETTERS OF MR. COLVIN 81 

which have been so far successful to keep the Gwalior Mutmeer 
Coi-ps on the other side of the Chumbul, Scindiah has hitherto 
rendered us a signal service. A continuance of the like service, 
now that the rains appear to have ceased in the Upper Pro- 
vinces, must be still more valuable. Events cannot be predicted, 
but the advance of so powerful a body, about 6000 men with 5 
Batteries, a 3"* class siege train, cavalry, and munitions of war, 
would be a very serious complication. The tranquillity and 
safety of all our Upper Provinces would be gravely unperilled, 
and Agra might be placed in a state of siege when no means of 
relief are at hand. As long therefore as Scindiah acts as he has 
hitherto done, the Lieu*-Gov' would strongly recommend -that 
the line towards him be that of a confident assui*ance as to 
his friendly purposes. 

2nd September 1857. 

XLI. 

To G** Neill, Cawnpore. 

^h September. 

Pray send on in the quickest way to Calcutta the subjoined 
copies and extracts of letters received from Delhi of the 29 th 
and 30 th. The important message from Gen* Wilson contained 
in the letter of the 30 th is an answer to a letter of mine of the Notes import- 
25th in which the importance of acting against Malagurh was ^nst Mida^ 
urged, if there should be a prospect of a long halt before Delhi ku'**- 
The letter to Cap* Nixon from Col. Becher gives details of the Refen to 
action at Nujjufgurh, in which Gen* Nicholson captured 1 2 of victory at 
the enemy's guns. No local news here except that the 23"* ^^^^^'*- 
Reg* from Indore now at Gwalior is said to be somewhat restless Restlessness of 
and calling on the GwaUor Corps, and we watch what is being ^ ^^ ^** 
done in that quarter. Our detachment in the Allygurh district Detachment at 
is doing well ; its headquarters are now placed at Hattraa well. 

(Signed) J. R CoLvm. 

P,S. — I have said to Mr. Greathed in reference to the neti- Recommends 

**^^^^^^^^^^ clemencv 

t ion for pardon of the 2000 Ranqhurs of the Rhotuck HiH^fififc. towards 2000 

that I think that if none of them have been guilty of heinous ^^^^ ""^ 

crimes, especially against Christians, and their submission should 

be an important step towards the pacification of the District, 

s trong recommendations to the G.G. might be promised to 

t hem with much safetv on their laying down their arms . At 

all events, pray bring the circumstance on my part to tlie notice * 

VOL. I. — 6 



82 



MSS. VOL. 1. : FIRST SERIES 



of the 6.6. in C. Pray too write to Mr. Chester at Allahabad 
that his letter to Mr. Thomhill of Aug. 27th has arrived, but 
that I shall be happy to continue to hear from him direct. 

Note by Mr. [In Mr. Muir's hand here occurs this pencil note : " Here Mr. 

nUktu of Mr. Colvin fell seriously ill, and could no longer attend to business."] 

Colrin. 

XLIIL 

To THE Ofhcer commanding at Cawnpork, 

OR THE Magistrate. 

Agra Fort, S^, eth, 1857. 

Dear Sir, — ^Will you kindly transmit the following telegraph 
message to the 6ov.-6en., and communicate it also to Mr. J. P. 
6rant. — Yours faithfully, C. B. Thornhill. 

XLIV. 

Telegram: Mr C. Thornhill, Offic* Sec\ N.W.P., 

TO 6ov*-6en. in CouNaL. 



Serious iUnest 
of Mr. Colvin. 



QwaUor 
MiithieeiB ftt 
I^olpore. 



DeUii news. 



Continued 
dangerous ill- 
ness of Mr. 
Colvin. 



Mr. Colvin the Lt-6ov' is very dangerously ilL He had 
been suffering from bowel complaint for some time, but yester- 
day the disease took an unfavourable turn, and the medical 
attendants consider his situation to be most critical, and have 
strictly prohibited him from attending to any business. Under 
these circumstances, pending the receipt of your Lordship's orders, 
Mr. K A. Reade, the Senior Civilian, will conduct the duties of 
the 6ovomment. 

The latest authentic news from the Chumbul up to this hour is 
thi^ the Chumbul has risen, and the main body of the Mutineers' 
infantry, cavalry, and guns had not yet crossed. Their advanced 
guard continues at Dholepore with two gun& At present, of 
two streams between Agra and the Chumbul one is certainly 
unfordable and the boat has been destroyed. 

Latest news from Delhi the 3rd inst. Si^e train in course 
of arrival and expected to be in position by the 6th. Fugi- 
tives from Delhi increasing daily. 

Account from the detachment in the Allygurh District 
highly satisfactory. C. B. Thornhill 

XLIVa. 

Sept. 9th, 8 a^m. — Reported by telegraph to Calcutta, the 
continued dangerous illness of the Lt.-Qov', and mentioned that 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 83 

it was by his special desire that Mr. R A. Beade had assumed 
charge. 

XLV. 

Sept. Wi, 5 p.n). — Announced the demise of the Lt-Gov. at Death of 
\ past four of the afternoon of the 9th Sept. 

[Here occurs the following pencil note in Sir William Muir's 
hand: *" Several days before, Mr. K A. Beade (Senior member 
Board of Bevenue and in Financial charge) had taken supreme 
charge. The correspondence subsequently is in my own name, 
but always in communication with Mr. Beade, and subsequently 
under CoL Fraser, who took over charga" — W. M.] 

XLVL 

[A pencil note by Sir Wm. Muir to the following effect: 
'' My correspondence with Sherer begins here, immediately after 
Mr. Colvin's death ; it was regularly forwarded by him to the 
Gov.-Gen', Calcutta."] 

Mt Dear Sherer, 

• ••••••• 

I have little new to add to-day. Nothing new from Delhi 
by Fjigliah lettera But the Gwalior news-writer at Delhi has Events at 
sent reports to Macpberson up to the 7 th. These are gradually 
becoming more and more truthful The Bankers complain in 
Durbar of the excesses and cruelties of the Sepoys. The latter 
are clamorous for their pay, and the King refers them to the 
Bankers over whom guards are placed, and every means resorted 
to for extorting money. They are graphically described, poor 
people, as " bisyar timg wa hairan." ^ Deserters were brought up 
in Durbar, who taunted the King with giving them no pay for two 
months ; they were going for service to some prince or chieftain 
elsewhere. The unfortunate monarch could say nothing in reply. 

The Goafusion in the City was so great that labourers could 
not be got for the powder manufactory. 

The Eling is evidently in consternation, for he has addressed King of Delhi. 
an urgent " Perwana " to the Indore and Gwalior Mutineers to indore 
proceed at once to Delhi This was to be carried on the 7th or 
8th in person by Golam Hyder and Jehangeer Khan, the latter 
believed to be a deserter from Gwalior. We shall see what effect 
the message has upon those for whom it is intended. Our Iviwp 

' Terribly pressed and in fearful straits. 



84 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



Dholpore. 
Scindia. 



Mr. HariDg- 
ton, C.S. 



Major Mac- 
pherson. 

Mutiny at 
Qwalior. 



Indore troops. 
Scindia. 



DinkaRao. 



friends are still at B'coiXTrmp, and indeed it is uncertain whether 
they have all of them yet KpoaaeB the x^H'l^^^ The Contingent 
remains staimch to Sindia. 

Our Hattras detachment going on welL 

Harington and your friends here are all well He is most 
useful, from his admirable judgment and sagacity. Everything 
going on steadily imder Keada 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq. 

XLVII. 

AoRA, 12 Sept, 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Major Macpherson's news from Gwalior 
received this morning is very serious. The plot appears at last 
ready to burst. The Contingent Eegiment seem to have 
demanded carriage of the Maharaja, and to have raised the 
green flag somewhere about the 8th or 9th. The Maharaja 
remonstrated with them, and he has succeeded in detaching the 
5^ Eegiment, and the remains of the 6^ with the 2 Mehidpoor 
guns, and the Cavalry (say 600), from the rest, and they are 
apparently at present amenable to his orders. The remainder 
comprising four full Begiments and 5 Batteries openly resist his 
authority, and demand carriaga The departure of the Indore 
troops has probably precipitated this movement. It is to be 
feared that Sindia will no longer be able to stay the departure of 
these rebels : and that they may be able to force him to furnish 
them with carriaga Macpherson says that Sindia has nothing 
to oppose to their shells ; that his Lushkur is entirely open, and 
that the powerful Artillery of the Contingent could at once 
coerce him. The messenger who brought Dinka Bao's letter said 
that the rebels had planted guns on the roads leading to the 
Lushkur. 

This movement may gravely complicate om- position here. 
Unless we have succour from Delhi or from you, before long we 
shall be exposed to the chances and risks of a siege. Macpherson 
is sending a message on the subject : it is of serious moment. 

Nothing fresh from Delhi I send you yesterday's printed 
budget. 

The Indore troops remain at Dholepore. It seems almost 
certain that they are watching for their Gwalior frienda 



W. MuiR. 



J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 




LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 85 

XLVIIL 
Epitome of Financial Commissioner's Eeport for August. 

Cash Balance 3rd July was Bs. 7,27,066, and 31st August Funds, sute 
was 7,34,388. Income has thus exceeded expenditure, though ° * " ^ 
there has been a much larger exj^enditure in August, 2,09,780, 
against 1,43,995 in July. 

Increased Military Charges are owing to the completion of 
supplies to the fort, lai*ge outlay in engineering oi)erations 
within and without it, in strengthening, and enlargmg accom- 
modation, and clearing circumjacent space, to European troops 
maintained as usual without drain on the supplies of the Fort, 
and lastly in the ordnance making up 200 tents for the European 
troops when they arrive. 

On the Civil head, old accounts adjusted prior to Ist July. 
Subsistence allowance doled out to all persons, and no complaints. 

Under Miscellaneous, the Pontoon bridge across the Jumna 
completed under the guns of the fort. Poiiiions of the aggi-egate 
amount of Treasury drafts held by the local banks liquidated, 
which enabled many depositors to obtain their subsistence. 
Period of paying interest on Gov' Notes having supervened, the 
public credit has been sustained by discharge of all minor claims, 
and part payment of larger sums dua 

Under Intelligence, increased expense is owing to constant, 
continuous, and effective communications by Cossid. 

Rgceints of all branches of revenue indicate restored authority Revenue 
and confidence . The collections are from Agra, Muttra, and ""P™^ 
AUygurh; 50,000 Ra tribute safely received from Jeypoor; 
Bill transactions in the town of Agra have been small The 
confidence of the citizens has been much restored. Total receipts 
2,17,000. Expenditure of September will be less than in 
August. 

E. A. Beade. 
From E A. Ebade, 

To Financial Secretary. 

XLIX. 

To Foreign Secretary. 

Active operations commenced before Delhi on the evening of 
Monday the 7th, when the Koodsia Bagh (old Custom House) 
and Ludlow Castle were occupied. 



86 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



Delhi, opera- Biiring night, 2 Batteries were constructed on our right 

tionsat^ front, 700 yards from the Moree Bastion — unknown to the 
rebels — whose fire was attracted by our guns on the ridge. 

On the 8th, 10 guns opened fire : opposing fire at first heavy, 
Mone Bastion, abready reduced. Moree Bastion damaged. Heavy guns and 
KoodsiaBagh. mortars to open on the 10th from Koodsia Bagh, 300 yards 
Lndiow CasUe from city walls ; also on same day, 1 6 heavy guns from 
Ludlow Castle, where is a strong picket Firing, effective and 
steady. 

At Khoorja, 50 miles from Delhi, very heavy firing heard 
about the 9th and 10th. 

Cashmere troops arrived in good order at Delhi on the 8th. 
All quiet in Punjab, excepting a petty local disturbance at 
Murree caused by plundering viUagers.. 
Delhi expected to fall on 12th. 

W. M. 



battery. 



Khoorja. 



Outbreak at 
Murree. 



LI. 



Eventa at 
Delhi. 

Account of 
Baitd Smith, 



Alec Taylor, 
RE. 

Stewart, 
Genesti, Lind- 
say, Camegy, 
R.E'8. 



Greathed 
brothers. 



Indore and 

Qwalior 

Mutineers. 



AORA, 12^i Sept. 1S57. 



My Deab Shekbr, — Thank Gen^ Havelock for his note to 
me of the 9th, which with that for CoL Cotton reached this 
morning. 

The enclosed printed slips gave all our news from the West. 
I add the following from lieut^ Greathed's letter of the 6th : 
" Baird Smith is a great invalid, living on medicine by whose aid 
he bears up against his work capitally. This is limited however 
to polishing the plans, schemes, and arrangements of Captain 
Taylor, a most capital officer, of great military capabilities. We 
have several such men. Several Engineer officers are hors d$ 
conibat from sickness, as Stewart, Genesti, Lindsay, Camegy. 
All who could posfsibly quit their beds were eager to be at 
tlieir posts in the trenches." 

All details I think will be found in the printed paper. 
Greathed in his letter of the 8th says of his two brothers in the 
8^ and (blank), they do not return to Camp till the siege 
is over. 

We are eagerly looking out for more news, but must not 
expect to hear of the final event for a couple of days yet. 

I enclose a copy of my letter of Saturday about the Indore 
and Gwalior troops. We have intercepted letters from Gwalior 
to Delhi, which leave little doubt of the intention of the 
Contingent to move on the dix-huitieme jour of this month. 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 87 

They seemed fixed in their detenniiiation to form a junoticm Op«r»tkmi at 

with the Indore Force at Dholepore, aikl then, after taking 1 

Agra, moving to Delhi But we trust that long before all 
this can be effected, we shall be relieved by a strong column 
from Delhi 

We have messengers from Gwalior up to the momiog ol the ScindU's 
11th, who confirm the account of the differences between*****"*' 
Scindia and the Contingent, and add that each party had guns 
out against the other. The Mutineers demanded carriage and 
25 lacs of rupees; the Maharajah deoUned the caniage, but 
said he would give 5 lao& These Mutineers look oa the 
treasure of the Beaidency (?) chest as their own, and it is 
this I suppose Scindia is prepared to give up under this 
pressure. — Yours truly, 

W. Munt. 

J. W. Sherbr, Esq". 

All well at Hattrass. About Wulleedad Kbaji, another 
report is that he had gone out with a Force towards Golasti 
The present demonstration is however undoubtedly having a 
good effect 

LIL 

Agra, I2th Sept, 1857. 

Mt Dear Sherer, — I enclose a printed slip of the news of opentSoni at 

the 9th from Delhi. Letters of the 10th have come in to^ay, ^^^, 

but I fear the proof will not be ready before evening, and I 
therefore, in order to secure for the Grovemor-General the 
earUest information of the progress of events, note the following 
particulara 

Greathed encloses copy of a letter from Gen^ Wilson to Sir Letter fcom 
J. Lawrence, dated 10th instant In it he says : " Our advance wuson. 
battery, Na L four 24-pounders and six 18 -pounders, have done 
good service against the Shah and Cashmere Bastions, the former 
of which is much battered A battery of 1 8 heavy guns in front of Battery at 
Ludlow Castle, and one for 10 heavy mortars, were armed last ^ ^^ ' 
ni^t, but contrary to my advice the Engineers have objected to 
their opening fire imtil they complete another battery on the At Cmtom 
left rear of Smith's house (the Custom House), which they expect ^^"^ 
to complete to-night; but I doubt if it will be sufficiently 
completed to enable the guns to be put in. This will cause delay, 
which is very vexatious." 

"The rebels made a sortie upon these batteries about an 



88 MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 

Operations at houT and a half ago, but were quickly driven in again with loss. 

^^!:_ Coke's men made a rush at them. There is no restraining these 

Coke's Regi- men, or making them keep cover on such occasions. It had 
however a very good effect. All our men are in excellent heart 
and spmts, and enter into the business con amove. They all work 
most readily and cheerfully in the trenches, natives as well as Euro- 
peans. I regret however to say that my hospitals are filled with 
men prostrated with fever ; I have nearly 2500 sick and woimded." 
Greathed himself writes: "The progress of the operations 

KoodsiaBagh. has been a little retarded by the discovery that the Koodsia 
Bagh was not suited for a breaching Battery against the Water 
Bastion. There were obstacles in the way of the guns that were 
not known of, so a spot had to be selected farther on, within 
180 yards of the wall This is rather an audacious move, but 
it will be successful, and the bombardment will commence 
to-morrow morning, whether the Battery be completed or not. 

Moree Bastion. The battering of the Moree (Bastion) continued all yesterday, 
and still goes on, and salvos are fired into it, which tear it 
to pieces ; some gunners still work a gun or two on the bastion, 
but their fire is wild and merely out of bmvado. They tried 
rockets again last evening from the walls ; they did no damage. 

Casualties at " The actual number of casualties on the 8th were 1 8 killed 

and 57 wounded. Yesterday the number is said to be under 10, 

Eaton (Rifles), and no officer. To-day Eaton (Rifles), Randall (Coke's), Murray 

Coke's R^. (Eng") have been woimded. 

MSr»y(R.K). " ^ ^^ ^^^ ®^® ^^^ indication of a flight. There is at present 
some bewilderment at the nature of our attack, but the full effect 
has not been developed. 

Ooojnrs. " The Gooiura of Meerut and Mozaffemugur are becomin g 

very trn ubleflyme^ and intercept the post between Meerut and 
the Camp, but these smaller considerations must give way foi- a 
little to the greater ainL" 

Anson, letters Anson (Lancers) writes : " The working and covering parties 

qu rem. j^^^ hQen most zealous and assiduous, and have elicited a 
complimentary order from Gen* Wilson. The place, Delhi, will 

Hiidebrand certainly fall by the 15th, if not sooner. Poor Hildebrand had 
his head nearly taken off by a 3-p^*' from the walla The 
enemy's fire is not destructive, for they fire without aim or 
tangible object. They say Sunday 13th will be the day of dire 
retribution. Bull-dogs en avant, and looting gentry behind. 
Thermometer 96"* now at noon." 

Dickens, Capt** Dickens writes that he has " been in Camp since the 

2nd, and is equipping a Flying Column, which will start in 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 89 

pursuit directly Delhi falls. He says the Cashmere and Moree Operattoiu at 

Bastions have been much damaged. On the former the heavy 

guns had been dismounted. The Moree still occasionally fires a ^J^" ®" 
gun, but it is few and far between." Mowe Bastion. 

" The firing is incessant at present, a great deal of musketry is 
going on." 

" Day before yesterday, Pandy made a feeble attack on our 
right, which ended in the usual result, utter discomfiture. He 
has light guns out in the direction of Kisheu Gunge, endeavouring 
to enfilade our right and advanced Batteries ; but they don't do 
much hann. 

" The Cashmere Levies made their appearance on the 8th. Cashmere 

levies. 

They are not bad-looking Irregulars, but have a downcast, dis- 
satisfied look about them. 

" On the 8th we had an explosion in. Camp of waggon with 
loose ammimition and five shells. It killed 6 drivers and Casualties, 
woimded 3 Europeana Yesterday our casualties were fewer, 4 
or 5 in alL It is surprising that with so much firing the loss is 
so smalL Everything shows we are approaching the end of the 
last act, and that Pandy's reign is coming rapidly to an end. 
Strange to say he does not even molest us in constructing 
batteriea He volleys away in feeble style with musketry, which 
does little harm. 

" I believe our column will make its way down to Agiu. I 
fancy it depends upon which direction the rascals taka" 

You may fancy with what earnestness all eyes are now 
looking out for Cossids trom Delhi Indeed the safety of 
(blank)^ greatly depends on the speedy termination of the 
business. 

Daily information and messengers from Gwalior confirm the Gwaiior Con- 
intelligence that the Contingent keeps to its determination of**°^"*^ 
marching on the dix-huitieme de ce mois cL 

They also keep to their plan of intending to attack Agra indore troops, 
first, after meeting with the Indore men. But long before they 
can take any effective steps, we look for the moveable column or 
flying brigade to come in sight. 

Hathrass party all right. 

Colonel Cotton projects an attack on some refractions villages G eneral 
to-mOTow morning. He is admirablv active and (Jecisive in all ^^ 
fns movementa 

The presence of the Indore troops at Dholepore disturbs our 
frontier to the south and west, and has to a great extent 

1 Probably " Agra."— W. M. 



90 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



ScindUandthe 
Contingent. 



I>efeat of the 
Manrar anny. 

Jondhpore 
MntinoerB. 



LientMunt 
Haathcott. 

General 
Lawrence. 



uBfiettled all the Mof asBil arrangements of Thannaha and Tehseels 
in that directicm which had been so sucoessfully restored and 
maintained- — Yours, etc. /s^\ ^, MuiB. 

J. W. Shkrkr, Esq., 
Collector and Magistrate, Cawnpore. 

PjSl — ^It seems that Scindia and the C!ontingent had an 
altercation on the 9th and each had out their guns ; it is probable 
that Scindia under pressure of the Contingent has agreed to 
fiimish carriage. 

A letter has just come in from General Lawrence, dated Beawr 
10th September, who repcHis the discomfiture of the Marwar 
Army said to be 3 or 4000 stnn^ by the Joudhpoor Mutineers 
near Mhow, where they were signally surprised and defeated 
with the loss of their Commander-in-chief Arrar Lyl (nc) 
Killadar and others and all their guns (8), tents» etc. Lieut. 
Heathcott,^ Dy. Aast : Qr : Mr : G^ieral, escaped from their camp 
with difficulty. General Lawrence was to march on Awa 
that night axKl expected to reach it in four days ; and hoped, if 
they only gave him an opportunity, to settle them. He had sent 
for 2 more guns and 50 ol ILM. 83^ 



Alexander. 
Bynore. 
Baiailly. 
Fnrreedpore. 



Rampore 
Nawab. 

Mahomniodans. 

Sangor. 

Khan Buha- 
door Khan. 

Bareilly 
Hindoos 
oppressed. 



A letter from Nainee Tal dated September 6th has just come 
in from Alexander, who attributes jbe defeat of th^ "^^^yna after 
their first success in Bijnore to want of combination on their 
part He attributes their failure at Bareilly to the same cause. 
There too they had obtained a victory at Furreedpore, but, nc 
being supported by the help thev expected from Bampoor and 
Budaon, they had to retreat to Shahjehanpoor. " I have only 
learned (?) this to-day," says Alexander, " by the mouth of some 
men who have brought me up Bs. 2000 and 100 (rold Mohurs 
from Bareilly." Alexander has no anxiety about resaurce& The 
Nawab of Bampoor would assist. He adds : " I am now hearing 
from Mahomedans, so the lesson at Cawnpore has taken e£Fect. 
I hear 150 of the Irregulars from Saugor had arrived at 
Bareilly, but undecided yet as to taking service with Khan 
Buhadoor Khan." 

The Hindoos of Bareilly had suffered great exaction and 
oppression. They had begun to leave the town in which their 
houses and property are confiscated. 

(Signed) W. MuiB. 

^ This officer was a Lieutenant in the Bombay Army, — Deputy Asst. 
Qr.-Mr. Qenl. in Rajputana. — W. C. 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 91 

LIIL 
Telegram to Gov^ of Indu, from W. Muir. 

16 SepUmber 1857. 

Bombardment of Delhi advances rapidly and favourably. Operatioiu at 
Last letters dated 11th inst. parationafor 

Moree and Shah Bastions battered on the 9th and 10th '■~^- 
from No. L Battery. 

No. II. Battery, and one of heavy mortars, opened on 11th. 
fiebel gunners retired, unable to withstand combined direct and 
vertical fire on Cashmere Bastion, which greatly ruined ; shells 
being thrown into and beyond the main guard. 

Evening of 11th or morning of 12th, remaining battery to 
open fire only 180 yds. from walls and near Koodsia Bagh, and 
will play on Water Bastion. 

Bombardment expected to continue two or three days, and 
then assault without much loss. 

Troops in splendid spirits, native and European working 
heartily together in trenches. 

Sebels do not talk of retreat, but of fortifying an entrench- 
ment near the Magazine. 

All quiet in Punjab. 

Indore Force still at Dholepore, supposed to be waiting for 
Contingent. 

Pursuing column being formed at Dehli to be commanded 
by Nicholson, will probably come this way. 



LIV. 

Agra, 16 September 1857. 



My Dear Sherer, — 



Greathed writes : '' It was certainly an audacious step to Delhi opera- 
erect a battery at such a short distance " (as the one near the 
Koodsia Bagh, only 180 yards from the wall), "without first 
destroying the defences. The whole plan is an audacious one 
suited to the occasion, but contrary to rule. Baird Smith is Baird Smith, 
cool, clear, and determined, and he has good aids in Taylor ^ and Alec Ti^ior. 

, ,■, ,, Oreathed. 

my brother. 

" Dunlop writes in good spirits from Meerut. The bands Daniop. 
» Now General Sir Alec Taylor.— W. C. 



92 MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 

that were to have attacked Sirdana liave l)een driven back by 
the Police." 

In reply to lettera which I wrote on the 5 th and 6 th 
stating our position with refei*ence to the Indore and Gwalior 
Mutineers, and submitting for General Wilson's consideration 
that this was an additional reason, if any were needed, for 
expediting proceedings with a view to our relief, Greathed 
Spirit of Delhi writes: " You will See that the pace of operations here can 
*"^^' scarcely be quickened. No Force could l>e inspired with higher 

zeal." 

Plundering Greathed complains of the plunderinp^ habits of some of t he 

pipjab^troops. Punjab troops. " The appointment of prize a^nts/* he sa vs. 

" will. I houe^ prevent an indifl ftrimiTiftt ft pillapft. But t he 

Punjab troous are inveterate plnndftrftra. One of Coke's men 

shot a " Pandy " yesterday, and a number rushed out to plunder 

the corpse, and a volley from the City knocked over most of 

Coke's Regi- them. There is no restraining these fellows, and the sooner 

™*"^ they go back to the frontier when the work is over the better. 

Guides Corps. The Guides Infantry have only 160 left out of 600 who came 

down. They have been all along on the advanced posts." I 

hope Greathed over-estimates the original number. 

Things Southwaixis remain very much as before. The 

Bcindia's Contingent are getting carriage, some say by Scindia's aid, who 

*** ^°' is glad to get rid of them, Macpherson says, in spite of his 

prohibition. Anyhow they are getting it together, and may 

move on, or any day after, the dix-huitiema We are looking 

towaixLs Nicholson's pm^suing colunm. 

A small demonstration was made tliis morning some 1 miles 
on the Gwalior road with Infantry and guns against a bad village. 
This will do good. — Yours truly, 

W. MuiR. 
J. W. Sherek, Esq. 

Nawab of P,S. — The Nawab of Bampoor has informed Mr. Alexander 

mpore. ^j^^^ rookahs from the King of Delhi have been received by Sva d 

Mahomed Shahee. investing him with the G9VftrTii]iftnt^ wlio is 

Reported reported to have immediately set up Th^nnnn and Tehseelies. and 

Kingof Delhi, by Goolam Bussool Khan, a former Kotwal of Delhi, investing him 
with the Government of Sumbhul ; and a third was addressed to 
Mujeedooddeen appointing him to Moradabad. There are also 
intrigues going on at Bampoor on the part of Mehndie Ali 
Khan's wife, and others. 

Rohiikhnnd. Alexander fears that persons aimed with authority from 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 93 

Delhi may be able to organise dangerous combinations and to 
^come firmly established so as with difficulty hereafter to be 
eradicated, and he urges this as a reason why an early military 
movement be made in the Province of Eohilcund. 

The longer such a movement is delayed, of coui'se, the evils 
of the rebellion will the more develop themselves, and the rebels 
(unless successfully opposed by the Hindoos) gain strength. But 
the day of reckoning will come soon now, and they will all be 
swept away. When the column can enter Rohilcimd, will, I 
imagine, a good deal depend on the course of the fugitives from 
Delhi. 

W. MuiR. 

LVI. 

From Agra — From W. Muir, 

To Calcutta — To Foreign Secretary. 

AoRA, 17^^ September » 

Bombardment kept up steadily on the 12th at Delhi. All 
the batteries expected to be in play on the 13th, and the assault 
soon after. 

Sickness less. W. MuiR. 

LVII. 

Agra, ISth September 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — The printed slip gives all our Delhi 
news, and you will see that a native report which bears some 
signs of likelihood on it has also been printed. There is nothing 
new in our own position. The Gwalior Contingent was to fJLaf}^ Gw»iiortroop#, 
Xaar vtyr, but the heavy rain which has been continued during 
a great part of to-day may probably have arrested their progress. 
I give daily accounts of our position and exigencies to Greathed 
at Delhi, so that General Wilson will no doubt send down a 
strong column this way so soon as Delhi falls, and the other 
more immediate military requirements have been met. 

While I write, Greathed's despatch of the 13th has been 
received ; a^ it will be late for the Press, I give the substance in 
this letter. 

No. III. Battery opened on the evening of the 12th on the Operations at 

Water Bastion and Curtain, with one gun bearing on the cause- !; 

way to the bridge, and continued in full play. It had to endure Progr«»» o^ 
a warm musketry fire from the walls, and shot and shell from 
Selimgurh and from across the river. Captain Fagan, Arty., was 



94 MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 

Operations at kiUed bj a shot through the head in exposing himself above the 
i — battery to watch the line of our fire. Greathed pays a high 
tribute to this admirable and gallant officer, whose fine spirit 
and daring appear to have been unrivalled. Earle, Arty., and 
Ghanoellor, 75th, wounded; loss amongst the men moderate. 
The c^itre batteries maintain imceasing fire against the 
Cashmere Bastion and Curtain, and the mortars play seardiingly 
in its neighbourhood. The right battery still batters the Moree. 
The enemy have mounted in two places in half-moons on the 
wall a heavy gun; are persevering in their enfilade from the 
right and doing their best to defend the place. " It is very 
arduous work ; there is only a paitial relief for the Artillery meo, 
and the officei-s never leave the batteries, which are open to the 
sky. But the only men who are dispirited are those whom 
sickness or wounds keep in Camp." The assault, it is said, will 
take place on the morrow (14th) or the day after, or possibly later. 
Greathed had had no intelligence from the City since the 11th. 

It is remarkable that the Gwalior Durbar news from Delhi 
have stopped. The confusion in the City may be imagined. 
The messengers describe that parties leaving the city made up on 
them on the 14th. There is nothing in the letter to discredit 
the Hattrass report that the assault may have occurred on the 
14th. 

Writing at 4 p.m.,^ Mr. Greathed adds: "The expense 
Magazine on the Water Bastion has blown up and an ammuni- 
tion waggon on the right flank has also been destroyed. 
Hie battering has been very steady all day. Pray let the 
encloeare with this letter go on direct to the Governor-General, 
and forward the enclosed message giving an outline of the news. 

W. MuiR. 
To J. W. Sherek, Esq. 

LIX. 
Telegram to Calcutta. 

AoBA, 18 September 1857. 

Letters from Delhi to 14th received after despatch of 

to-day's report. 

Delhi taken by Assault made on morning of 14th. Samparts from the 

^'^^^ Water Bastion to Cabul Moree Gate in our possession, and iu 

City as far as College. Preparations to turn the guns of 

^ «.<., on 13th September. 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 95 

captured tM»ti(ms on rest of city and bring up other guns and 
mortara 

Lahore and other bastions, Fdace, and chief part of city, 
still in enemy's hands, but our position made good. 

Bradshaw (5 2nd), Fitzgerald (7 5th), killed; wounded numerous, 
including Nicholson, CoL Campbell (52), Seid (Sirmoor batt°). 

Chief loss in attempting to reach Jumma Musjid. 

W. M. 

LX. 

Agra, I9ik Septemh€r 1857. 

Mt Dsar Sheber, — It was late last evening when the 
Delhi despatches of the 14th, relating the circumstances of our 
first entrance into the city, came in, and I had only tin)e to give 
Greathed's bulletin. I now send a printed paper giving Col. 
Becher's account in addition to Greathed's. I also append the Colonel 
following, which is private, and for communication only to the ^^^®''- 
Governor-General 

The programme of proceedings for the assault was, that the DescnpUon of 
whole city should have been occupied from the Water Bastion to ^"^^^ 
the Delhi Gate, including the Jumma Musjid. Complete sucoess 
was contingent on every column carrying out its part To the 
right column under Major Beid was assigned the duty of 
sweeping Kishengunge, entering the Lahore Gate, and supporting 
the column that was penetrating the heart of the city from the 
Cashmere Gata Beid's party ''had the Cashmere troops Cashmen 
attached to it, and they were not accustomed to the severe ^"™°* 
style of fighting they met with, and the gallant Beid vras GenenJ Rdd 
wounded (badly, I am afraid), so that movement failed." The ^«'*»^^- 
advance on the Jumma Musjid was consequently unsupported. 
" Under the pilotage of Metcalfe it reached the foot of the 
Musjid, but bad finally to retire." 

"The futiber colunm," writes Greathed, "under Greneral 
Nicholson met with great difficulties, and the General is I fear NiohoiMm 
mortally woonded. But a great deal has been gained, and if ^^^''^^ 
General Wilson's Ufe is spared, I have no fear for resulta 

'* I have just ridden back from the city to my tent, and 
speak fimn personal observation." 

Greathed's brother in the Engineers was shot through the Oreathed. 
arm, but not seriously. " Poor Pogson was lying in the moat Pogwn. 
¥ath his thigh badly smashed." 

I send a copy of yesterday's message for the tel^raph ; and 



96 MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 

also a supplement : — the latter of course alone to be sent if the 

former has gone. 

Aiiygurh. The native report in AUygurh yesterday was that we had 

possession of the City, and that the rebels had retired into the 

Palace. ,,^ ^, 

W. MuiR. 

LXIL 

■ 

Agra, Idth Sept, 1857. 

My Dear Shkrer, — By this Cossid I send copy of the letter 
and message I despatched this morning. But I trust before 
this letter goes, there will be fresh news from Delhi to 
communicate. We do not get regular letters from yoiL I do 
not know what is at fault. Do you not send us daily despatches 
with our return Cossids ? I was sorry to see that Mr. Grant 
Duryao Singh, had disapproved Chester's idea of working through Duryao Singh. 
I knew him well, and the worst part of his career — at least the 
time when he first began to get rebellious — was when I had 
charge of the District of Futtehpore in 1845. He then ofTered 
to go with 500 of his followers to fight with us against the 
Seikhs, and it would have been an excellent cure for the bad 
blood of Khaga. We had no need then of such irregular aids, 
but (unless he has irretrievably compromised himself) I do not 
see why his aid should not now be taken advantage of in settling 
Futtehpore. Haiington I believe is of the same mind with me 
in this matter. 

As a proof of our recovering influence, I may mention that 
Rao Bhowani Bao Bhowaney Singh of Mynpoory has written in here to say 
Mynpm>rie. that he has still our treasure all safe in his Fort ready to deliver 
up to us ! 

5 o'clock p.m. Nothing in from Greathed. Macphcrson has 

News as to his news from the Gwalior Durbar writer at Delhi, from which I 

iKSSfrom'* gather that a regular advance was made by us on the 15 th and 

GwiJior news- jfith, and we were then in possession of the Lahori Gate; that 

the walls and gates of the Palace were battered; that our 

NatiTe news- entrenchments were working onwards ; that the Bareilly Brigade 

scription of made an attack on our Camp on the heights, but was driven 

toooaB^ae**^ back with fearful loss by our guns charged with grape ; and that 

Delhi after the rebels contemplated either retirement into the Palace or a 

"" ' desperate stand, or flight. Many of them have already gone. 

The following is an outline of the news. It will be imderstood 

that it is written in a loose manner by the news-writer, and in 

some places greatly coloured in favour of the rebels ; in othero 

accurate — it is, in fact, the news about Court 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 97 

"15th. 500 Europeans came on to the Lall Diggee (Lord 
Ellenborough Tank), they attacked the sepoys and drove them 
into the Fort (Palace), then the sepoys issued in strength from the 
Fort and drove the Europeans away: the few Europeans who 
sur\'ived fled into the houses of the Bankera Gates of the City 
closed and nobody allowed to go out. The Europeans are making 
their entrenchments on the wall. Great confusion in the city. 
H.M. ordered great vigilance in the Fort defencea It was 
re^wrted to H.M. that the Europeans were hiding in the houses 
of the Bankers and in the Church. H.M. ordered them to be Bankers assist 
brought out and killed. The rebels have erected an entrench- 
ment with 1 gun on the house of Goolab Chund and Meer Chund, 
Bankers. No supplies come into the city from Bullubgurh : a 
purwanuh sent in consequence by H.M. The Bankers have 
given some lacs of rupees to the English: order issued to 
imprison them. The entrenchments and batteries of the two 
contending parties are close up one to the other. 

. " 1 6th. Wednesday, early in the morning. The English came 
on to the attack from the Cashmere, Moree, and Lahori Gates, 
which they found open. They advanced to near the Lai Diggee. 
Nearly 300 Europeans were killed. (This is the style of their 
narratives of all our movementa) The rest defeated and driven 
back to the Church and Magazine — (which would thus appear to 
be in our hands); the Cashmere, Moree, and Lahori Gates are in 
the hands of the Europeans, and they hold the position of Nahii* 
Shuhadut Khan^ — Bhawidpoora and Illaka Loharu* Durwaza 
(i,e,, the quarter in the vicinity of that gate). 

" Two Bareilly Eegiments went out to attack the English Camp 
on the heights, and when they got near forty guns opened upon 
them with grape, 500 were killed and the rest fled back to the City. 

" Of 200 Sowars who came with the 'nubeera' of Doonda Khan, 
100 have fled, and a number besides were drowned in endeavour- 
ing to cross the Jumna. The Eebel Army holds its position 
under the Fort, and about the Lai Diggee, and outside the 
Turkmani and Ajmere Gates (t.e, the South Gates)— the Bling King's 
sits concealed in the Palace — the Gates of the Fort are * 
demolished — no supplies come into the City, great scarcity and 
deamess, the Goojurs plunder the roads which are no longer Goojurs 
jiassable ; they kill hundreds of the fugitives horse and foot. ^* " 

* Nahar Saadat Khan, the section of the city which lay on both sides of 
the canal, from the Cabul Gate to the Queen's Garden. The north side has been 
cleared away for the railway; the south side is still known by this name. — W. C. 

* Lahori. 

VOL. I. — 7 



98 MSS. VOL. I.: FIRST SERIES 

Goolab. and Bankers (sic) are in confinement. Guards are 
placed over them. Kotwal reported that the Goojurs had 
forced H.M.'s Police to abandon the Budderpore^ Thanah. 
Hundreds of the inliabitants and sepoys fly. Others say they 
will yet fight ; we shall see. The Europeans are in the Siah 
Boorj (I understand this to be a bastion by the river side), — 400 
tumbrils with ammunition have reached the English Camp from 
the Punjab. The Sikhs at the fight ran away from the English 
Army towards Thanesur (this may allude to the check sustained 
by the Cashmere troops ?) — the Europeans are dearing away the 
houses towards the LaJioree Gate. The 4 Companies of Sappers 
sent to mine the Fort of Agra (this had been previously reported) 
have been plundered and dispersed by the villagers at PulwuL" 

In the absence of authentic intelligence, I have thought that 
the G.-G. would like to have this abstract of the news-writer's 
statement. I have been used to read over his reports regularly 
with Macpherson, and the impression on my mind from the 
whole style of the report is what I have before stated. The 
Eebels are making a stout resistance, far stouter than we had 
anticipated, but by the blessing of Divine Providence we are 
working surely and steadily onwards. 

W. MuiK. 
LXIV. 

20th September 1867. Sunday, 3 p.m. 

My Dear Sherer,^ — The above is a copy of my letter of 
yesterday. No Cossids come in yet from Delhi, or any letters 
Native reports later than the 14th. But the native reports continue favourable, 
received at Cocks from Hattrass writes to-day: "To-day's native reports 
^^^ say the whole city is in our possession. Guards on all the 

Gates, and the rebels shut up in the Palace and Selimghur, 
where there is one gim left to them. 2000 Pandies are said to 
have bolted down the Allyghur road with muskets only, no guns ; 
they have gone to Khoorja most probably. The Raja of 
Bulubghur has sent an English address for the Governor- 
General protesting friendship, etc., which is also significant." 

Imdad Ally, Deputy Collector, writes a roobakaree from 
Muttra, saying that his messenger, who left Delhi on Monday, 
reported that we had gained possession of the Church in the 

^ BadarpuT is still a police station, eleven miles from the Delhi Gate on 
the Agra road, half-way to fialabgarh. — ^W. C. 
* In the handwriting of Dr. Farquhar. 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 99 

City ; ou Tuesday we got on to the EUeuborough Tank ; on 
Wednesday and Thursday the (whole) city was carried by assault. 
He says he has this from messengers too numerous to specify, 
and he adds that the Company's rule was re-established by 
proclamation on Wednesday. On the strength of this, Imdad 
Ally has proclaimed the fall of Delhi in Muttra. 

We must not of course be too credulous in receiving native 
reports. This is the same Imdad Ally whose over-sanguine 
report led us to believe that Delhi had fallen in the middle of 
June. Still, the reports are from such various quarters, and all 
converge to the same conclusion so closely and naturally, that 
they afford a fair ground of confidence. Tliey also bear out the 
statement of the Delhi Gwalior news-writer. 

Something more certain may come in before the evening. 
Meanwhile I think it right to send off this, as every step of 
these momentous proceedings must be watched with intense 
anxiety by the Government. 

I append a short additional message, which please send by 
telegraph, and this by post to the Governor-General. 

W. Mum. 
LXV. 

Message to Gov* of India. 

No Cossid yet from Delhi later than 14th, but native reports 
agree as to our progiess in gaining possession of the City and the 
continued flight of the rebels from it. 

LXVL 

Agra, 21 September 1857. 1 p.m. 

My Dear Sherer, — After a weary suspense of two days, 
without direct news, intelligence dated the 15 th came via Jyeix)re 
this forenoon, and subsequently Greathed's regular despatch to 
my address of the 15th arrived, and a little time ago a further 
one of the ISth. The delay is occasioned by the infested state 
of the roads, Goojurs and Mewatties obstructing the progress of 
travellers. The news is highly satisfactory, and bears out in ooojurs and 
almost all respects tliat which I have for these two days ventured hJf^t^^s. 
to give from native sources. The report of the 15 th is in the 
Press ; I have printed it almost entire, so it need not be repeated 
here, as I hope to get a copy of the proof in time to send. 
Keith Young is the writer of the letter in the Extra from " Head 
Quartera" I add the following from his letter, which has been 
omitted from publication. 



{ 



100 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



Description of 
assault of 
Delhi. 

ReitVs colonm, 



CasLmere Con 
tingent. 



Capture of 
Magaziuc. 



Remaining 
opposition of 
native force. 



Occupation of 
part of the 
town. 



" The attack yestenlay was in three cohiiims with a reserve 
cohimn ; and another strong column under Keid of the Goorkas 
was to have cleared out the suburbs of Kishengunge and marched 
into the City by the Lahore Gate. But this movement was 
unfortunately an entire failure, owing to the cowardice of the 
Cashmere Contingent which formed part of the column. They 
fled disgracefully on the first roimd from the enemy's guns, 
leaving three of their own. Had it not been for this contretemps 
we shoidd in all probability have been in entire possession of 
the City, as the enemy were all ready for a bolt ; but their 
success outside gave them heart to hold on at the Lahore Gate, 
and Keid being unable to advance as was intended, our other 
columns were unable to push on so far as was intended." 

So much for preceding operations — now for our advance, and 
capture of the Magazine on the ISth. Writing on that day, 
(heatheil says: "I reported yesterday that a lottery had been 
o]>ened from the College Garden against the Magazine. The 
breach was completed during the night, and this morning the 
^lagazine was earned with the loss of three men wounded, 
tlie enemy abandoning the post as soon as the colimin 
appeared over the crest of the breach. One hundred and twenty 
jrieces of heavy oiilnance and a vast supply of shot and shell 
were foim<l in it. A battery is now being constructed at the 
Palace end of the Magazine ; and the embrasures of battery in 
tlie College Garden are altered so that the guns may bear on 
Selimgurh and on the Palace. A great numl)er of dead Pandies in 
various states of decomposition were found in and about the Maga- 
zine Mortars will now play from the Magazine into the Palace. 

" The captui-e of this imi)ortant post has secured our posses- 
sion of that jwrtion of the to\m. The chief annoyance now is from 
musketry from tlie Palace walls, from a light gim that moves 
about the foot of the Palace walls, and fi'om Selungurh. 

" The road from the Caslimei-e to the Cabul Gate is now quite 
safe ; that quarter of the towii up to the street leading from the 
Cashmere Bastion to the Jinnma Musjid is entu-ely evacuated by 
the inhabitanta Some few old women are found here and 
there, and are treated kindly by our men ; there is only one 
instance of a woman having been killed, and that was by accident. 

" Tlie Force at the Cabid Gate have extended their occupation 
along the Canal to the point where the road leads from the 
direction of the Palace to the Lahore Gate, and their outposts 
are in communication with the outposts from the Magazine side. 
The troojw are uofi .more collected and under better control. 



^ I 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 101 

They get their rations cooked on the spot, and they are being 
reinforced by recovered men from Hospital The 52^ were 
rejoined by 25 men to-day. The enemy's force in Kishengunge Enemy 
made a reconnaissance on the right flank of our Camp yester- campl^^ °^ 
day to ascertain apparently the strength left to defend Camp. 
Finding the picket posts all occupied they retreated, and the 
camp has remained unmolested." (This is perhaps the Gwalior 
news-writer's attack of the Bareilly Brigada) " It is said they 
are now evacuating Kishengunge. It is impossible to get 
information from the City. The enemy's cavalry cut off com- 
munication outside the town to the right, and no messenger can 
penetrate from the side in our possession. It is believed the troops Palace still 
are deserting the City, but the Palace is still strongly occupied." **^"P*®*^- 
"> Greathed then refers to a requisition of Major Macpherson 

(^ on General Wilson to send down 500 Sikh horse. The reply, as 
^ might have been expected, is that none can be spared till the 
* capture of Delhi is complete. 

^ " The most critical period," Greathed adds, " has, I hope and 
^ think, passed, but you will have seen that it has been hard work, 
(P and the safety of the Camp was much compromised by the 
^ failure of the attack on Kishengunge on the 14th. The Jummoo 
' troops were to take a part in that operation, but they broke and 
fled, and left four of their guns in the hands of the enemy. 
^ This exposed the flank of Major Eeid's line and rendered success M^or Reid'a 
»— * impossible, but I have not heard about them since. It was this ^^ ^^^' 
y failure that compelled Colonel Campbell's column to retire from Colonel Camp- 
the Jumma Musjid, for Major Reid's column was to have entered * ^ "™°* 
by the Lahore Gate and supported it. 
u. " General Nicholson's column reached the Lahore Bastion, but General 
B their ammimition failed and they could not hold it, and had to column. " ** 
< fall back on the Cabul Gate. 

f^ " The Cavalry and H. A. (Major Tombs' troop and part of Cavalry and 
another) were exposed to a very heavy fire from the walls and from i^^ * ' 
the enemy's enfilading battery in Teleewara, while endeavouring to 
assist the movement in Kishengunga They bore it most nobly, 
and succeeded in spiking the guns in battery. Major Tombs lost Miyor Tombs, 
half his men killed and wounded, and the Cavalry suffered heavily. 

" Baird Smith has sprained one of his liml)s badly by a fall Baird Smith, 
from his horse. Lt. Taylor is the Director of the Engineer ^lec Taylor, 
Department. We all look to the complete occupation of the ^^• 
City and Palace as a certainty. 

"Metcalfe's conduct on the 14th is highly praised. He Metcalfe, 
entered after the explosion, through the Cashmere Gate, with 



102 MSS. VOL. I.: FIRST SERIES 

Colouel Campbeirs column, and guided it up to the Jumnia 
Musjid. It was desperate work, and I was thankful when I saw 
him return in safety." 
Officers List of Officers wounded. Greathed says he is afraid it is 

not finite complete. 

Staft. — Brigadier Nicholson. Capt. Anson, A.1).C. 
Engixeeks. — Lts. Crreathe<l, Siilkeld, Maunsell, Home, Tem- 
hertou, Medlev. 

Artillery. — Lts. Lindsay and Elliot. 
Cavalry. — Lt. Cupi)age. 

HM, 8th Foot — Major Brooke, Maj<.)r Baines, Lta Pogson 
and Stebbings. 

H,M. 52rf. — Col. Campbell, Capta Bailey and Atkinson. 
If.Af. 60th. — Lts. Curtis and Waters. 
H.M. Olst, — Col. Deacon. 

H.^f, 75th. — Col. Herbert (slightly), Lt. Annstmng. 
Ist E.B.F. — Capt. Cireville, Lts. Wemyss, Owen, and I^imbert, 
Sj)eke, Caulfield (3nl N.L), Graydeu (last three doing duty with 
Lst Fusiliere). 

2nd RB.F.—Caiit. Hay (GO N.L), Lt. Elderton. 
SiRMOOR Baitalion. — Major Keid, Capt. Boisragon. 
1st Punjaub Infantry. — Lieuts. Nicholson and Gambier 
(:»8 N.L), and (lustavinski. 
Eviicuatiou of As a P.S., (Jreathe<l adds : " Kishengunge has been evacuated. 

Kwhengunj. rpj^^ enemy left 4 heavy guns and mortai-s which are being 

brought into Camp." 

Captain 0. H. Capt. Ansoii of the Lancers writes ^ on the 1 Gth : " We are 

t . nsoii. ^^^^ inside the walls, pnmding away at Selimgurh and tlie 

interior defencea Tliere is a good deal of musketry fire going 

on from liouses and the tops of houses, and now and then a 

round shot and shrapnel play amongst our devoted Infantrj', who, 

aideil by the Artillerj", are working their way solidly on to the 

occujjation of the vast city. We hold now all our side of the 

Canal except the Lahore (tate (which will prol>ably fall in the 

Capture of ('oui-sc of the day). The Magazine was taken this morning with 

**"*"^* a dash and cheer, the latter of which carried such terror to the 

hearts of the Pandies that they dropped their lighted Yiovi fires, 

leaving their loaded guns an easy prey to ua One hundred and 

twenty-five gims besides a vast amount of ammunition fell int<> 

King of DeUii. oiu' hands. Tlie King is in the Jumma Musjid, determineil to 

die with liis fanatics." (Other reports say he is in the Palace, 

which is likeHest.) 

^ To Mr. Muir.— W. M. 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 103 

" We have met with considerable opposition, principally in 
consequence of the repulse that our force under Major Eeid M^jor Reid's 
sustained in attacking the suburb Kishengunge on our extreme *^°^*^°- 
right. Eeid hoped to effect an absolute surprise, but found the 
enemy too strongly posted for him. The Cashmerees lost their Cashmeree 
4 guns, and our small force of Europeans was dreadfully cut up ; ^^^^' 
the 1st B.E. Fusiliers being almost annihilated. General ist B. £. 
Nicholson fell giievously wounded, while trying to infuse the General*' 
necessary amount of courage into his men to induce them toJJo^nded? 
proceed to the attack of the Lahore Bastion. He at first would 
not allow himself to be removed off the field — saying that no 
soldier ought to retreat — but a sergeant's party carried him off, 
and he was only just alive when he reached camp ; he has 
however since rallied, and is doing as well as can be expected. 

" While the Infantry was taking the walls, the Lancers and 
other Cavalry marched down outside, offering themselves as a 
target to the enemy to draw off their fire from the Infantry, and 
suffered grievously in consequence, between 40 and 50 being 
woimded, and 8 officers* chargers hit. 

" Poor Wilson is done up for the nonce ; he can hardly stand General 
— overcome as he is by nervous debility. WiUou. 

" We are going to strike our Camp to the Delhi side of the 
ridge. Mra Tytler, the only lady in Camp, is making herself 
most useful in mu-sing the sick. 

" In two days we expect to have the City. The Engineers 
suffered much. Out of the party of three that applied the 
{>owder bags to the Cashmere Gate, the officer only escaped. Cashmere Gate 
badly wounded. The enemy had loop-holed the door, and the ^^^'^ *°* 
sergeant had only time to fix the bag and say * / have lighted it ' 
when he was shot dead. 

" You cannot imagine the hot burning grievous toil oui* Hard work by 
troops have endured during the last week. Officers and men "^^*^' 
return from the lotteries quite shrivelled up, and as brown as 
berriea" 

He adds : " I have been on duty for the last 50 hours." 

Cocks, writing from Hattrass, sends the deposition of a man A. H. Cocks, 
who had been in Delhi on Friday and who appeared trustworthy. 
" The whole of • Delhi," this man assured Cocks, " seems to have 
been in our hands excepting the Fort ; batteries having been 
erected at the Jumma Musjid, the dak bungalow, and the 
Chandnee Chouk." The man seems to be depended on, and 
had brought a letter to a respectable Sahookar here. 

Cocks adds with great truth : " It is strange how difficult it is 



104 MSS. VOL. I.: FIRST SERIES 

to get the ol iroXXoi to believe auything favoumble to our cause ; 

and how they swallow such ridiculous reports as are spread by 
Mutiny spread the rebela In fact this Mutiny has been svread by a clever system 
JjL^rts. q/ unlimited lying and working upon the timidity of the people ." 

Gwaiiortroope. Troops at (iwalior seem again to be, after much altercation, 

subservient for the time to Scindia, and may not march till after 
Indore troops, the Dasserah. The Indore men still at Dholepore. We shall 

see the effect of the Delhi news on them. 

I send a brief message for the telegraph, tliis letter to be 

for^varded as usual by post to the Governor-General. 

W. MuiR. 
J. W. Sherer, Esq. 



My Dear Sherer, — 



LXVIIL 

Agra, 22 Sept. Morning. 



As illustrating the " system of unlimited lying " practised by 
A, H. Cock*, our opponents, I may mention that two days ago Cocks inter- 
ceptetl a proclamation sent for publication throughout the country 
Ghous by Ghous Mahomed, stating that on the 14th and 15th we had 

Mahomed. ^^^^ completely routed, that the King's Forces were now in 
complete possession of our Camp on the heights, and that the 
False rumours " Infidels " were exterminatetl. It is by such deliberate and 
naUvee.^^ prodigious falsehoods that the s i^iip]^ ]v>pi^1fl.tifm h ^ve been mis- 
led. More, I hope, during the course of the day. 

W. MuiR. 

LXIX. 

Agra, 22 Sept. 1857. 4 p.m. 

My Dear Sherer, — No letter has yet come in from Delhi, 
so I send another copy of yesteitlay's, in case any mischance has 
occurred to those already sent. 

There is little to add from here, excepting as to the Gwalior 

Gwaliortroops. and Indore troops ; of the foiiner we hear continued favourable 
accoimts. They appear to be all for the present amenable to 
Scindia's influence, and therefore are not likely to move before 
the Dasserah. The Fifth Regiment and the Cavalry are said to 
have declared even that they would fight for the Maharajali 
against the othera Meanwhile they are collecting bullocks, etc., 
to be ready for a start. But the news of Delhi will interfere 

Indore troops, no doubt with their plans. The Indore men, though they have 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAVVNPORE, ETC. 105 

no idea yet of the state of things at Delhi (at least, they had 
not up to a day or two ago), yet begin to shake. They seized 
our Tehsildar and Thannadhar in Kheymgurh down in their 
direction. They got away and have cjome in. They describe 
their condition as very wretched. Many of the Sowars finding 
no provisions or means of feeding their horses at Dholepore, are 
going back to Gwalior. 

The party that passed lately through to Gwalior from Delhi as 
an escoi-t to Captain Jehangeer and a Shahzada excited an uneasy Captain 
apprehension amongst them, that all was not going on prosperously ® **°8?®®''- 
at Delhi. They begin to repent their position, and evinced an 
ill-concealed desire for restoration to the favour of Europeans. 

If any such overtures do come they will of courae be met by 
Mr. Eeade in the spirit of the Govemor-Genei'ars resolution. 
As yet they have not assumed any tangible shape of any sort. 

After writing the above, a letter from the Eajah of Bidlub- lUiah of 
gurh was received, pra}ing for orders to sj)are his buildmgs in 
the City. The King, he says, and his servants are alone in the 
Fort. The Army outside. The City in great distress. 

Major Macpherson's news-writer's report has also come in, 
and I give an outline of it in the absence of our official 
record. (Translation) : — 

"On the 17 th the King held a Durbar, and a great many Position of the 
officers of the Army were i)resented. They urged that numbers lySfnly i85^. 
of their Force were running away ; and begged that H.M. would 
make arrangements for the security of the Fort. H.M. replied : 

* Attend you to the protection of the people, the security of the 
Fort will be my care.' The officers retired in wrath. 

"100 Cavalry and 500 sepoys were observed flying across the 
bridge. H.M. ordered them to be brought back. When they 
had come into the Eoyal presence H.M. thus addressed them : 

* You have introduced confusion into this City, and turned the 
whole country upside down, and now you are running off ! This 
shall not be. Fight it out as best you can with the European 
soldiers ; ' so they were obliged to encamp under tlic walls of the 
Fort. 

" The European Force holds half the City — the environs of Position of 
the Canal, the Lahore Gate, and the Chandrue Cliauk. The Rebel inslde^ihr*^ 
Force holds the quarter of the Hauz Cazee ; the Khass Bazar,^ Khaas Bazar, 
the space outside the Palace, and Duryao Gunge ; the English 

^ Khass Bazar was the main street which led from the Delhi Qate of the 
Fort to the Jumma Musjid. After the Mutiny it was entirely cleared away 
to make the esplanade. — W. C. 



lOG 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



camp is as before, on the ridge. The ryots are fleeing in all 
directionp. Those that remain conceal themselves in their 
houses — having provided themselves with a week's supplies — and 
do not venture out. Doors of the Fort and City shut. H.M. i.s 
in the Fort. The confusion in the City is beyond description. 
The entrenchments of the English extend from near the Fort to 
the Lahore Gate. The genei-al belief is that in 2 or 3 days — 
or a week at most — the City and the Fort will be entirely 
carried. 

" There is gi'eat contention betw^ftn ^hy Hindoos and Mahom - 
medans. The latter accuse the former of not assisting them in 
the battles with the English. 

" It is reix)i1;ed that the English will put the King to deaths 
and give the throne and the country to the Eaja of Pattiala. 
Tliis rumour is a cause of grief to the King ; and the Shahzadas, 
hearing it, are flying from the Foi-t. 

" The Europeans have occupied 2 or 3 of the large Bankers' 
houses and made excellent arrangements for the protection of the 
l^eople, fio that no Sepoy or King's servant can molest them. 
Two or three of the great Bankers are still in confinement in the 
Palace, but it is said they will be soon released. The Sepoys am 
committing gieat excesses among the inhabitants. 

" The European Army is in great strength, and advances with 
fearful force. 

"Three regiments of Sepoys and 1000 Cavalry have gone otr 
towards Mewat and BuUubgurh, in the direction of Agra. Day 
and night they deseii;. The Gwalior and Indore troops have not 
yet made their appearance. When they arrive, we shall see 
what they can effect." 

Is not this a vivid pictm*e of confusion and distress ? The 
King of Deiiii. wrctchcd King ! If he had only thought of it l^efore. 

W. MuiR. 



DUsensioiis 
between 
Hindoos and 
Mahom- 
medans. 



Kigali of 
Patiola. 



Bankers in 
Delhi. 



Gwalior and 
Indore troops. 



LXX. 

Telegraphic Message — W. Muir to Foreign Secretary. 

No lettera received to-day. 

A khureeta from Eaja of Bidlubgurh and the Gwalior news- 
writer's report have come in, both dated 17th. They concur in 
showing that our position advances, and that of the enemy 
becomes weaker. Rebels continue to fly in great numbers. 
Intense confusion in Palace and City. ,,, ,^ 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 107 

LXXL 

Agra, 23 September 1857. 3 p.m. 

My Dear Sherek, — Our Delhi lettei-s of the 17th did not Progress of 
come in till this afternoon. They confinn my accoimt of yester- S^S in"** * 
day, excepting that the Lahore Gate was still held on that date JJ^"c^f^"^ 
by the enemy. It was likely to be taken the next day. We 
were advancing steadily : om^ front pickets were in occujyation 
of the Bank and the Begum's garden, and the communications 
between the right and the left are firmly established. 

" Kishengunge and all the suburbs," Mr. Greathed writes, Kishengnnj. 
" were evacuated yesterday. The enemy left their heavy gims 
in battery, and they have been brought in. This movement has 
improved our position very much ; for the Camp — comprising 
all the sick and wounded, the treasure chest, provisions, and 
ammunition — Was for two days exposed to great danger. We 
found in Kishengimge the bodies of two officers and many 
soldiers (plusieurs soldats) killed and left on the field on the 
14th." The two last sentences are in French, and have been 
omitteil in publication. I conclude he refers to European soldiei-a 

" Our Imtteries," he continues, " in the College Garden and Artuiery fire, 
the Magazine are firing shot and shell at Selimgtirh and the 
Palace ; 1 mortars play on the latter. No communication 
from the Palace. 

" The Bareilly Brigade has sent off its baggage under charge Bareiiiy 
of some picked men with light gims, and intend to join it by a ^"fif****** 
forced march. They have taken the Muthra road, and are said 
to be making for Gwalior. A Cossid, just arrived from Eewarree, 
says he met about 500 Sepoys yesterday marching towards 
Jyepore. The numbers of Sepoys foimd dead in all directions 
are considerably more than was anticipated. Many must be 
men who crept into out-of-the-way places and died miserably of 
their wounds. The King has his own troops and one regiment King's position 
in the Palace. They keep up a fire of umsketry. ** Palace. 

" The Lahore ( t ate and Bastion are still occupied in force by Lahore Gate, 
the enemy. An advance will be made on that side to-moiTow 
l)erhaps. Our entire force in the city to-day — British and Estimate of 
Native — is a little imder 3000. You will understand that it is inliiecity.* 
very necessary to spare our men. There are not too many of 
them. At the present moment it is not possible to send troops 
in pursuit. We bear you in niind. But complete success must 
first be secured here. The Palace in our hands and Selimgiirh 
fallen, all will be well. 



108 



MSS. VOL. I.: FIRST SERIES 



General 
Chamberlaiu. 

Colonel 
Seaton. 

General 
Nicholson. 

Colonel 
Becher. 



British Iosk. 



Van Cortlandt. 

BorotL 
Shamlee. 



Williams, C.S. 



Armstrong. 



Macpherson 
(Major C). 



News from 
Gwalior.. 



" Genl. Chamberkin is able to return to hifi duty, though he 
cannot ride ; this is a great assistance. CoL Seaton is chief of 
the Staff; GenL Nicholson is a shade better." 

There is a letter from CoL Becher, also of the 17th. Its 
details will be printed, and if in time a proof will be sent with 
thi& He says 150 guns were taken in the Magazine; the small 
arms had been removetL He contirms the prospect of a forwaixl 
movement next day. He states the loss on the 14th at above 
800 killed and woundeil, of whom 50 were officers. Since that 
date our loss has been trifling. 

( Ireatheil mentions that Van Cortlandt has routed the llissar 
rebels. 

He mentions a rei)ort from Kurnal that the Buroti 
insurgents (in the Meerut District) had risen on Shamlee (a 
large town on the Canal between Meerut and Kurnal) "and 
killed a Sahib and a Tehseeldar — " Since writing the above, 
a letter has come in from Williams at Meerut. He confirms 
the attack on Shamlftfi and murder of the Tehseeldar by a 
body of some 2000 fanatics from Thannah Bhowan in the 
Moozuffumuggur Distric t. Williams has reinforced the Magis- 
tiute of Moozuffumuggur, but he is hardly equal to cope with 
such a party. 

The Detachment at Haupper is all right, and guards Meerut 
on that side. The Meerut dak ma Kurnal having been closed 
by the Shamlee disturbance, they endeavoured to open out a 
direct line to Delhi via Moradnuggur. Our i)arty employed in 
this business, consisting chiefly of Pathan hon^e, killed 40 or 50 
of the rebels. They had a hand-to-hand fight in the town. 
We had one officer — Armstrong — woimded, 1 man killed and 
6 wounded. The effect will be gooil. I enclose for Lord 
Canning a slip from the papers, giving an account of proceedings 
at Gwalior. It is not official, but may be relied on, T think, as 
in the main correct. 

Macpherson lias news of a satisfactory character up to the 
17th. After describing the altercation between the M. Kajali 
and the Contingent — the guns being drawn out on both sides 
with port fires lighted for three days, and the M.R. having 
brought them to terms by stopping their supplies — tlie writer 
states that an arrangement was come to between them. Accord- 
ingly the Durbar sent them 1000 bullocks, 200 carts, 
elephants, and 50 camels, and desired them to march at once. 
On the 15th instant the 1st and 2nd Begiments and the 
Artillery sent to say that they had not killed any of their 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 109 

officers, and entreated H.H. to forgive them ; if he would allow Owaiior insur- 
them to stay, that they would obey his oi-ders, and go where he|^°^di«?gfop^ 
desired them. Besides, all the Sepoys — inhabitants of the Gwalior giv«»»«». 
Territory — declared that they would not join the Poorbeeas ; that 
they were the M. liajah's subjects, and if he woidd take them 
into his service they would depart to their homes. The 
Mutineers are also at variance among themselves, both as to the 
Magazine and the route which they should take. 

Please send on as usual to the Governor-General ; on the 
reverse is a telegmph message. ..^ ^ 

J. W. SnEKEK, Esq., Cawnpore. 

I send it on separate sheet. 

ijj:xiil 

Agra, 24th September 1857. 

My Dear Siierek, — This morning the despatches of the 
18th and 19th came in nearlj' together. The letter of the 18th 
is from Greathed ; that of the 19th from Colonel Becher, who 
I r^et states that Greathed was labouring under a severe Greathed, 
attack of Cholera, and " in a very precarious state." We shall wlS^hoiCTa!* 
gieatly miss his clear and comprehensive reports for a time at 
least. His illness is also embarrassing, as there is no one else on 
the sjwt of qualification and standing sufficient to be invested 
with the office of Agent. 

Before I proceed to particulai'S, I mention in brief that the 
news is all good. We had moved foi'wartl to the " Burn " Bum Bastion. 
Bastion, which is as good as taking the Lahore Gate, and were 
clearly in possession up to the Chouk. 

The following is from Greathed's letter of the 18th: "An 
attempt was made this morning to advance our post on the right, 
and to occupy the Lahore Gate; but there were unexpected 
obstacles in the way, and it did not succeed. The troops with- 
drew with trifling loss, and brought away their woimded. 
Another plan will now be tried. 

" The fire of Selimgtirh is subdued and the Palace is con- Enemy's posi- 
tinuously shelled. The enemy have at present no means of ****^ *" *^"y* 
annoyance, excepting by means of musketry from the neighbour- 
hood of the Bank. They continue to occupy the Lahore and 
Ajmere Bastions and Duryao Gunga 

" The population have abandoned the houses within our lines. Civil popuia- 
A great number of women, old men, and children have been *^°"* 



110 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



DruukennesM 
amonff the 
British troops. 



Estimate of 
killed and 
wounded. 

Captured 
oraance. 



Pogson's death. 



Progress of 
operations in 
the city. 



General 
Nicholson. 



Fugitives from 
the city. 



Bareilly 
Brigade. 



passed out in safety. General Wilson has given orders for all 
men without arms, or who lay down theii* arms, to be allowed to 
pass into the country (I conclude the order applies to Citizens 
only, and not to Sepoys). But few adult males venture near the 
pickets, and as two instances have occun*ed of stray soldiers 
being cut down by citizens it woidd be difficult to carry out the 
order. Our troops are a good deal fatigued. It happens, un- 
fortunately, that t here is much beer and brandy in the shop s. 
and in spite of all precautions drunkenness cannot be represse d. 
Our position is well sustained. But it is to be regretted that 
the number of our troops is very small for the capture of such 
a City, and that we cannot proceed very rapidly." 

Hence we cannot rely upon the advance of a moveable 
column at the present moment. This is vexatious. But our 
losses prove the undertaking to have been a most arduous one. 
They reckon 59 officei'S killed and wounded, and nearly 1000 
men. (The last five sentences were in French.) 

Greathed encloses a list of captured Ordnance ; this will go 
in a printed form. Bemarking on it he says : " You will perceive 
the Bastions were heavily armed. The shot and shell are in 
such vast quantities that the consumption by the enemy appears 
to have made no impression on the stock" 

He mentions Pogson's death. 

I have printed almost the whole of Becher's letter. We 
made good progress on the 19 th. We have moved forward our 
left posts, ie, those in the direction of the Palace, so as to embrace 
the dense buildings intervening between our former front and 
the Chandnee Chouk. On our right we have taken the Burn 
Bastion, which commands the Lahore Gate. We have thus uncon- 
tested possession of the Northern half of the city to the Chouk. 
" Poor General Nicholson," Becher writes, " is very ill, and the 
greatest fears are entertained of his recovery. I fear there is 
little hopa" This is a grievous misfoi-tune. 

We have consentaneous accounts from all directions that an 
immense body of the fugitive force is moving down the right 
bank of the Jimma. Other parties are moving off eastwards to 
Bohilkhund in a broken stata But this force would seem to l)e 
in a formed and somewhat orderly condition. 

You will remember that Greathed said the Bareilly Brigade 
had sent on its baggage with light guns imder picked men, witli 
the view of hastily joining it when their position in Delhi was no 
longer tenable — rushing forth as it were from the edifice about 
to fall upon them. The advanced guard at any rate was at 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. Ill 

Xosee yesterday, and it is probable that the main-body are not 
far behind them. They may thus have evacWted Delhi on the 
21st or 22nd. The body that is behind /no doubt consists of 
the remains of the BareiUy Brigade, which Greathed said was 
preparing to take this direction, and probably also of the 
Neemuch and Nusseerabad Brigadea We are anxiously watching 
w^hat course they will take. The most general report is that after 
passing through Muthra (which is already in a great panic) they 
will, if possible, form a junction with the Gwalior i)eople ; 
whether they will be inclined to join them in their present state 
is not at all certain. The party that went there from Delhi 8 
or 1 days ago, under " Captain Jehangeer," may have been sent 
to sound them. Another report is that they will take a circuit 
and go by Etawah to Oudh. If that had been their object, I 
should have thought they would have crossed higher up. 

At Hattrass the native report is that before the Palace was 
evacuated the King poisoned himself — likely enough. I add as 
usual a telegraphic message. 

W. Mum. 

To J. W. Sherer, Esq. 

LXXV. 

Agra, 25 September, Morning. 

My Dear Sherer,^ — No fresh news in yet from DelhL 
Cocks, from the statement of a man who professed to have been 
there, believes that up to the 20 th we had not obtained occupa- 
tion of the Palace. The King, the popular rumour went, had King of Delhi, 
diamond poison ready to swallow at the last moment. 

We are however receiving intelligence this morning of the 
movements of the fugitive Mutineers down the right bank. 
They appear either to be breaking up to some extent, or to be 
about to take the line via Khoorja to Bareilly. 

Salamut Eay, Deputy Collector in the North - western 
extremity of Allygui'h, has collected a body of evidence from 
eye-witnesses to the following effect. At a ghat (Belochpore) — 
somewhere between Pulwal on the right bank, and Tuppul and 
Jewur on the left bank, of the Jumna — ^a body of 2000 men, MovemenU of 
Cavalry, Infantry, and camp followers, were effecting a passaga MSVnwra. 
Half had crossed on the 23rd, the remaining half were to cross 
that night and next morning. Their intention, they said, was to 
go via Jewur and Khoorja to Bareilly. 

1 CJopied by Lady Muir.— W. C. 



112 MSS. VOL. I.: FIRST SERIES 

Another body of 500 Cavaliy and Foot were crossing at a 
ghat — Gurwaolie, — I believe a little higher up, — and they were 
to take the same route. 

On the other hand, messengers are coming in from Muthra 
to say that a jmrty of the advanced fugitive Cavalry had actu- 
ally arrived there yesterday ; that an immense mass of troops 
was behind ; and that after staying a short time in Muthra, 
they were coming on towards Agra. 

One can only speculate doubtfully as to probabilities in this case. 

If Salamut Ray's account is correct — as it would seem to be — 
one would expect that the whole force yet retaining any form 
and organisation, with their guns, would imite in moN^ng, by 
various ghats for the sake of rapidity — towards Rohilkhund — 
and there, perhaps in conjunction with Khan Buhadar of Bareilly 
and the Oudh Mutineers, form themselves into a last ralljdng- 
point. If this be the case, then the Mutineei*s moving on 
Muthra are likely to cross the Jumna there, and join the rest 
via Allygurh and the Anoopshuhiu: or Ranighat ferriea 

On the other hand, if the force have no one common plan, 
but is breaking up into parts each with its own object, then 
the force expected at Muthra may have an eye to Dholepore and 
Gwalior. They have no doubt already sounded them as to a desire 
for combination. For the unprovided fugitive force the abundant 
Magazine at Gwalior would be a treasure beyond all value, and 
woidd at once set them up again for offensive operations. 

But an amalgamation of this nature must of course depend 
entirely on the views and wishes of the Contingent itself. 
Scindia's Con- The Contingent is still subservient to Scindia. It is said 
GwS?or* ^t*t t^® conunon talk among them now is to go to Cawnpore — 
whither they have had pressing invitations from the Nana to pro- 
ceed. The Contingent has compromised itself less than any other 
body of mutinous troops in the coimtry. If a fraction of its 
least offending members could be brought imder the merciful 
clauses of the Govemor-Generars Resolution, the whole force 
might be paralysed, and the Magazine saved from going over to 
the enemy. The Artillery, in whose charge I imagine the 
Magazine specially to be, are very submissive to the Maharaja. 
However, this is a digression. 

The fugitive Mutineers from Delhi might join the Dholepore 
force — but that alone would foim but a misemble auxiliary 
without ammunition. 

It might, marching via Dholejwre, proceed onwards to 
Etawah, and thence across the Doab to Furruckabad or Oudh. 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 113 

Yours of the 19th just come m. Many thanks for it. God 
grant our gallant force a triumphant march on Lucknow, and a 
joyful day for that heroic band at the Bailey Guard. — Yours very 
sincerely, W. MuiR. 

LXXVL 

Agra, 25 September 1857. 

My Deak Sherer, — No Delhi letter in to-day, but con- Movements of 
tinned reports of the progress of the wave of mutinous forces "**°*®"- 
surging down this bank of the Juinna. A considerable nimiber 
have reached Muthra. They have given duections for a bridge 
of boats being constructed across the Jumna. One hundred of 
their number have crossed in boats already. This looks extremely 
as if that hypothesis were the right one, which makes them all 
to design a march towards Bareilly and a stand in that direc- 
tion. More news will prolmbly come in before I despatch this 
letter. 

A native messenger who left Delhi on Monday 21st declares King of Deiiii. 
that the King has evacuated the Palace and taken refuge in the 
tomb of Hoomayim. 

From his account the whole place would appear to be in our 
hands. 

By the way, when I mentioned that there was no one at 
Delhi qualified to take charge of the Office of Agent to Lieut- 
Governor, I was under the impression that C. B. Saunders had c.b. Saunders, 
not been able to proceed as he had been directed to DeDii. He 
is, I find, on the spot, and is a man of high character and good 
ability. His standing and experience would not of coui-se entitle 
him to the permanent post, but he is well fitted to take temporary 
charge of the Office. 

26th September, 8 a.m. — Nothing in yet from Delhi. Native 
letters and reports received via Khoorja and Hattrass, as well as 
the stream downwards of mutinous Sepoys, prove that Delhi must 
have fallen completely into our hands some days ago. Tliis at 
least is a fair inference. 

From Muthra we have frequent reports by the panic-stricken 
population. On the afternoon of the 24th, a considerable nimiber, 
say 4 or 500 Cavahy and Infantry, entered. They bear in their 
troubled downcast looks the marks of defeat, but as usual they 
are lawless and oppressive. They expelled our officials. Imdad imdad Ally. 
Ally has wisely concealed himself. They burnt the Cotwalee 
records and have seized all the boata They intend to have a 

VOL. I. — 8 



114 MSS. VOL. I.: FIRST SERIES 

bridge thrown across, it is said. The rumour is that they are 
going to Lucknow. By way of bravado, they say half of their 
number proceed to Agra and half to Hatrasa It is not likely that 
they will go near European troops and guns willingly again. But 
Mr. Eeade and Colonel Cotton have wisely determined to make the 
European detachment fall back to Khimdowlee, about 10 or 12 
miles from this, and to strengthen them, if we remain im- 
threatened on this side, by a further detachment and gims. 

This is the more necessary as Cocks has sent in news during 

Qobind SiDgb, the night that Gobind Singh, the Talookdar who was holding 
^ ^' AUyghur for us, lias been surprised there by a body of the 
fanatics of the district, and oblipred to fly — leaving his guns 
(they must have been some native ones of his own) behind him. 
It is to be hoped that Gobind Singli \vill be able to protect 
Hatrass, which, by our movement in that direction, has hitherto 
been completely saved from plunder and violence. 

MoTcmentsof 9 a.m. — The latest intelligence is, some 500 men crossed 

over at Muthra yesterday evening. A party has also come in 
this way towards Fiui-a, it is said en raute to Gwalior — but it 
may more likely be as a reconnoitring body to see that none of 
the dreaded Em'opean soldiery are upon them. 

Send on this. 

Moorteza I enclose a brief message in continuation. Moorteza Baksh 

Tehseeldar, in Zilah Futtehpore, has sent a representation through 

the Commissioner Meerut to say he is clear of any of the rebellious 

proceedings at Futtehpore, and left with his family for Meerut, 

where he now is. 

Kindly give us a statement of what you know of his conduct 

in the proceedings. Do you wish him back ? The case is before 

me at the Board — and I have intimated to Government that I 

would consult 3'ou about it. ,,^ ,, 

•^ W. MuiR. 

LXXVIII. 

Agra, 2(Hh September 1867. Evening. 

My Dear Sherer,^ — Still no letters from Delhi : it is now 
a week since the date of our last. It is probable that Greathed*s 
illness, who had the business of arranging for the despatch of 
Cossids in his hands, and the multitude of other concems to bo 
attended to by all our people on the complete capture of Delhi, 
may have interfered with the regularity of the correspondence. 

* Copied by AV. Lowe.— W. M. 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 115 

As regards ourselves, there is nothing fresh to say. Our Moyoments of 
accounts from Muthra are little more than corroborative of M§tinMr«. 
what we had before. A great multitude of the fugitives had 
arrived, and more were arriving, in Muthra ; they were crossing 
at various ghats, and one party as low down as a ghat which 
would take them via Saidabad or Khundowlee and Mynpoory 
towards Oudh. Notwithstanding their big words, the people had 
begun to perceive that they were a defeated force, wounded and 
ill off for arms, etc. Two guns, dragged by bullocks, had 
arrived, and more were behind. 

We have had pretty certain intimation to-day that the indore force 
Indore force at Dholepore are collecting carriage and contem- w^*Agra 
plate a very early move. They speak of coming this way, but ®^ Muthra. 
it is supposed that they will move via Futtehpore Sikri towards 
Muthra, to join the great body of the Mutineers, and with them 
proceed towards Oudh. The Maharaja at Gwalior has, we are 
assured, destroyed all the boats on the Chumbul, so that the 
Indore troops were in a very awkward position ; and their only 
alternative was to go off via Etawah or Muthra ; or to stand the 
chance of being attacked with the Chumbul in their rear. There 
is a talk by some that a move is projected on Bhurtix)re, into 
the Fort of which the Mutineers are supposed to desire to throw 
themselves. But I cannot find any confirmation of the idea. 

Upon the whole, so far as I can see at present, the universal 
intention of the Mutineers is to mass themselves either in Bareilly 
or farther to the eastward, in Oudh. 

We have had letters from General Lawrence from Chiliawas General 
dated the 20 th. He had had an engagement for three hours with 
the Joudhpore Legion, without afay successful result ; but both 
in this and in an affair at Neembhera, the Bombay troops had 
shown themselves stable and trustworthy — and this is a matter of 
sincere congratulation. 

I give Lawrence's account of his affair : " I left with a force 
of 5 H.A. gims, and 2 sc^uadrons 1st Bombay Lancers, 200 
H.M.'s 83rd, and 250 Mhairwarra Battalion, for Awah, a walled BatUeof 

A. wall 

town and fort about 3 J miles from this (Chiliawas). I left Beawr 
on Monday 14th, marched the first day to Burr — (finding the 
road through the pass very much cut up by the bad weather we 
had during this month, which detained me at Beawr for upwards 
of a week). On Tuesday we moved to Peeplia, Wednesday to 
Bugree, Thursday to Chaputtia, about 6 miles from Awah. On 
Friday morning I moved the Force on the direct route to Awah, 
and pushed forward to about J a mile from the town. The 



116 MSS. VOL. I.: FIRST SERIES 

approach was through thickish jungle, in which a few of the 
enemy's honsemen showed themselves, but speedily retreated 
before a few of the Lancers. 

"Their guns opened fire upon us at about 800 yards and 
soon got our range pretty accurately. They were placed on the 
l>ank of a tank just outside the town, and their fire was kept up 
for some time. We returned it and forced them to quit their 
position, and silenced their fire for a time. Their lioi*semen tried 
to tmn our right flank and threatened our baggage. By a change 
of position I placed my force between the enemy and our baggage 
again ; and finally retired on this village. 

"The whole affair lasted about three hours. As we were 
weak in Infantry, and I felt that I could not afford to lose any 
of my Europeans, and the force was inadequate to carry the 
place by a coup-de-main, I did not bring the Infantry or 
Cavalry where they could be actively engaged. 

" You will be glad to hear tfiat the Lancers behaved very well, 
and I have every reason to be satisfied with them, for they have 
had a great deal of hard work and irritation, more than half their 
numbers being daily on picket duties. I am very well pleased 
with the whole force, officers and men. 

" The casualties were trifling, only one artilleryman killed, 
and 5 or 6 Europeans wounded, with about like number of 
natives; 2 guns disabled. But I am concerned to state that 
Monck Mnsou that excellent political officer, Monck Mason, was killed close to 
Lawrence's force in attempting to join it. He had pushed in 
from Pallee, and on reaching the jungle, which his camel could 
not penetrate, had dismounted, and was making on foot for our 
force, when some of the Joudhpore Sowars came across his path, 
and he was killed by 2 shots from them." 

" I was not even aware," says Lawrence, " of his being any- 
where in the neighbom'hood ; he must have been scarcely 300 
yards from me at the time. The body has not yet been recovered, 
but I am endeavouring to get it." 

Lawi-ence feared he would be obliged to return to Beawr, as 
the European provisions were nearly expended. 
Captain Showcrs gives the following account of his attack on Nem- 

attack "n bhera. "We commenced operations yesterday (19th) about half- 
Neembhera. pagt one, but could not enter ; the gate attacked found afterwards 
to have been bricked up — night stopped our operations. A 
colunm of assault against another gate was formeii before day- 
break this morning (20th). On moving to the attack w^e found 
that the place had been evacuated during the night. The British 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 117 

troops were moved through the town and the British flag hoisted 
on the public Government HalL All the troops behaved admirably. 
This affair has pleased them mightily. They crowd round the 
guns parked in the garden, and say they wish to be taken against 
Mundessore or anywhere. Our loss: one corporal H.M. 83rd 
killed in carrying the powder bag, and some 15 or 16 native 
troops killed and wounded." 

Captain (?) Bose, in forwarding this to Nixon, writes : " Success 
is the usual criterion in such matters, and so far it is all right ; 
but what the effect will be in this part of the country remains 
to be seen. The 2nd Bombay Cavalry and 1 2th Sepoys beJiaved Bombay trooiM 
splendidly, and I am especially glad of this. The fellows on the ® *^* ^* 
wall called out * decn, deen* and tried to make them waver as 
they advanced to attack, but all they got in return was a 
shower of musketry." Three of the Cavalry and 9 of the 12 th are 
wounded. Captain Rose adds : " I expect now since the 2nd and 
12 th have proved they are to be trusted, a force will l)e sent 
out from liere against them." 

These facts, as evidence of a good and loyal feeling on the 
part of the Bombay troops in these parts, are of unspeakable 
value. And we may well presume that troops which then proved 
faithfid will, after they know of the actual fall of Dehli, be still 
more beyond the shadow of a doubt. 

Tuesday morning, 27th September, 6.30 a.m. Nothing as 
yet from Dehli, so I despatch this at once. In all probability 
we shall be liaving news during the day. 

Our Hatrass force safely retired on Khundowlee, 10 miles 
off, where it is now encamped. 

W. Muui. 

J. H. Sherer, Esq. 

LXXX. 

Agra, 21th September 1857. 

Mt Dear Sherer, — At last the joyful news ! On the 22nd Announces 

^f.i'«l^ fl^f ^gy^ J over the Palace of the Kincrs of gy^?!^.S^.g!" 

DehlL, Send this and the telegraphic message on quick to the Kings of Delhi. 
Govemor-Greneral. His Lordship is greatly to be congratulated 
on this grand event. 



I give Becher's letter to Nixon verbatim : — K^ «id 

. ^/% 1 4 11 • . 1 I. 11 11 1 rrii 17" chief Queen 

" 22nd. All 18 gomg on wonderfully well here. The Kuig, prisoners, 
the Begum, Zeenut Muhal, are close prisoners, and to-day the '^**^^°®** 
Princes Mirza Moghul, Aboo Bucker, and Khizzur Sultan were Hodson. 



118 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



Loot. 



Banquet in 

Diwftn-i* 

Khisa. 



Sinuoor 
Battalion. 



brought in by Hodson from Humaioon's Tomb, and shot at the 
Dehli Gate. Their bodies are now lying exposed at tlie Kotwalie, 
where so many of our poor countr}nneu were murderetl and ex- 
posed. A pursuing cohmm imder Colonel Greathed of H.M. 
8th leaves this to-morrow morning to go in your direction. It 
consists of 1600 Infantry, 18 guns in 3 troops, and 600 
Cavalry. They will soon join you, I trust, and render complete 
the eftects of the fall of tliis City. The City is a perfect pictui'e 
of desolation, completely abandoned. 

" A vast amount of property left behind, which our Nativ e 
t roops are poRSftRsmfy themselves of with great gusto, but with 
demoralising effect . 

** There are a gi^eat number of city Budmashes * and others 
coUecteil near Humaioon's Tomb,^ but it is to be hoped our coliunn 
will meet them. 

" Last night * Her Majesty the Queen,* proj)08ed by the 
Conqueror of Dehli, was drunk with all honour in the Deewan 
Khass by the Headquarter Staff. Never has the ohl building 
re-echoed with any soimd half so fine. The cheer was taken up 
by the gallant Goorkhas of the Sirmoor Battalion, who form the 
General's peraonal guaixl." 

" All is well in the Punjaub and elsewhere." 

God be praised for this glorious termination of this arduous 
struggle. 

W. MuiK. 



LXXXL 
TELEGKArillC MESSAGE. 



Fall of Delhi 
Palace 

announceil to 
(Governor* 
Qeneral. 

Telegraphic 
summary of 
foregoing. 



From W. Muir, Esq., to G. F. Edmoxstonk, Esq. 

Agra, 27th September 1857. 2 p.m. 

An Extm just issued to this effect — 

"On the 22nd inst. the Palace of the Kings of Dehli was 
occupied by British troops, and the capture of the City was 
complete. God save the Queen ! A Royal salute is about to be 
fired from the ramparts of the Fort." A pursuing cohmm about 
to start this way. King and chief Queen close prisoners. Three 
of piincipal Princes shot. 

W. Muir, 



' Biid characters. — W. C. 

« Some 5 or 6 miles S.E. of Delhi.— W. C. 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 1 1 

LXXXIL 

Agra, 27th September 1857. 

My Dear Shkrer, — I enclose copy of a letter I sent off an 
hour or two ago ; I now add a few particular regarding ourselves, 
or rather the mutinous force that surround us. 

From Muthra we have Cossid intelligence, and have caught 
one camp follower, who gives a complete account of the 
Mutineers — the following is an outline of the story. 

He left Delhi on Tuesday the 22nd at 4 p.m. in company 
with men of the 44'^ and 67*** liegiments, and the debris of 
mutinous corps, in all 20 in number, beside Cavalry from 
Meerut, Neemuch, Bareilly, Nusseerabad, and Oudh. He 
reckons from 100 to 500 ina regiment, so that there may be Movements of 
some 5000 or 6000 men of the Mutineer aiiuy at Muthra. troop*?"" 
The Cavalry men have their horses, but they are in a 
wretched condition, and obliged to feed on churru or chopped Their con- 
stubble — 2000 are sick and wounded and conveyed in carta *°"" 
There are 20 H.A. guns, each drawn by six horses; 20 tumbrils 
with ammimition ; and three carts containing hansels of gim- 
powder. They have 20 of the elephants that left this on the 
evening of the battle. 

The Sikhs crossed from Delhi in boats for their home in the Sikhs leave for 
Punjaub. The force at Muthra intend leaving for Lucknow in 2 **' ^^^ 
or 3 days. They have only one of the old golundazes : all the 
rest are newly employed on the guns. They have no reserve of 
cartridges. The above may be of use to Outram and Havelock 
if these fellows escape the avenging column, which ought, by this 
time even, to be at their heels. 

The Cossid who brought the Delhi news said the bridge was Bridge at 

Mnfnm 

being constructed, but they had a gap of 15 boats, which they 
could not supply. It is fervently to be hoped that they may 
not escape Oudhwards with their guns. 

Up to the 25th all was quiet at Gwalior. The Maharaja has Affairs at 
certainly taken all the boats away from the ghat to a creek 
several miles off, where they are guarded by a party w^ith guns. 
There are now no boats at the ghat. It is said he has also 
posted a small party of horse and guns at Cheounda, between 
Gwalior and the Chumbul, to deter the Murar troops from coming 
this way. The 5th Contingent Regiment has gone over to him, 
with all the Cavalry. There are about 3000 men in the 4 
remaining regiments. 



120 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



Tautia Sahib 
invites Con- 
tingent to 
Cawnpore. 

Jebangeer 
Rimn. 



The Muthra Mutineers have sent messengers to them to see 
if there be any eliance of a combmation with them. 

Macpherson has a letter saying that tliey want to make 
money of their Magazine. Tantia Sahib, imcle of the Peishwa, 
had arrived with a purwanah summoning the Murar Force and 
Captain Jehangeer Khan to go to liis aid. All the Poorbeas 
want to go in that direction. 

There is not likely to be any movement there till after the 
Dussehni. The fall of Delhi will have a further sedative effect. 
The Dholeix)re troops are said to have squeezed about a lakh of 
rupees from the Eana,^ and to have paid themselves with it. »Send 
this on, please, with the message. 

W. MuiK 



Banquet in 
Diwan-i- 

Kh&88. 

Goorklioj). 

Prince Mirza 
Moghul, Prince 
Abu Bakr, 
Prince Khizr 
Saltan, shot. 

Pursuing 
column. 



HovementH 
of rebel 
regimentH. 

Scindia. 

Indore force. 



LXXXIII. 
To G. F. Edmonstone, Esq. 

Fort Agra, 27th September 1857. 

(Supplementary Message) — Some lettera from DeDii of 19 th 
to 22nd evidently miscamed. Details of occupation of Palace 
wanting. It was taken possession of on 2l8t. On that night 
Her Majesty's liealth drank in Dewan Khass with grand effect. 
C/heers taken up by Ooorkhas outside. 

Princes brought in and shot are ilirza Moghul, Abu Bakr, 
and Khizr Sidtan. Zeenut Muhal in confinement with the 
King. 

Pui-suing column is under Col. Greathed, 1600 Infantry, 
GOO Cavalry, and 18 gims. City stiunge spectacle of desolation. 
All well in Punjaub. 

Debiis of 20 Eebel regiments besides Cavalry congregated 
at Muthi-a with 20 guns, preparing bridge to go to Oudh. 

Scindia has taken away all boats on Chumbal f rom Dholepore 
ghats. Indore force still at Dholepoi-e. 

Morar regiments quiet at Gwalior; 5 th and Cavalry are 
with Scindia, who is for the present successfully keeping all back. 

W. MuiR. 



LXXXIV. 

Agra, 28^^ September 1857. 

My Deaii Shkrer, — You will have observed that we were a 
little confused yesterday by getting Colonel Becher's letter of the 
22nd without the intervening despatches of the 21st and 20th. 

* t.tf., of Dholepore. — W. M. 




LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 121 

In the enclosed printed paper you will find the progress of 
affairs now distinctly described* 

A despatch from Mr. Saunders of the 20th has just come in ; Greathed'd 
he says : " Mr. Greathed was attacked with cholera yesterday ^**^ * 
morning, and expired at about midnight. 

" In the afternoon he told me that as his Principal Assistant, Mr. c. 
the Senior Assistant present with the Force, he wished me to civli charge 
take up his duties, and I have accordingly, with the concurrence ** ^^^^ 
of the General Commanding, this day assumed charge of the 
appointment. I shall of course act entirely in concert with the 
Military authorities, and be guided by what I have ascertained to 
be Mr. Greathed*s views and general line of policy, and also by 
the written instructions received by him from time to time from 
the late Lieutenant-Governor, and from Sir John Lawrence." 

As to general matters, his letter does not add much to what 
is contained already in the printed Extra. The Mutineers would 
seem to have himg about to the last moment, and then to have 
blown up their surplus ammunition and set out on their marcli, 
or rather flight, this way. They left, Saimders says, with 8 Mutineers 
guns, but evidently had sent others ahead with their baggage. 
The general belief is that they will ere long scatter and dis^^erse 
to their homes, being perfectly disorganised and dispiritetl. 

In his message of the 14th, Barnes says : " Out of our Force Weakness of 
we have scarcely fifteen hundred European Infantry fit for duty." foj^?**" 
But probably the number of disabled men was increased by those 
temporarily unfitted by fatigue or the effects of drunkenness for 
immediate duty. If so, the mmibers of efifective men would soon 
increase. Colonel Becher reports a satisfactory thing, that in 
the final operations our men sustained little or no loss. Our 
medical authorities here have been written to from Delhi for the 
purpose of ascertaining whether the sick and wounded could be 
properly accommodated and attended to here. There would, I 
conceive, be no diflSculty in this arrangement, which would have 
many advantages. For many of the duties in the Fort, invalids 
in certain stages of convalescence would, I believe, be suited, 
which might set at liberty some of the 3** Europeans now here. 

Young Wigram, writing fi*om Meerut on the 22nd, states 
that early on that morning a force of Sikhs, Eifles, Carabineers, 
with 4 guns and mortars and a party of the volunteer horse, had 
started for Mozuffemuggur. They will no doubt give a good 
account of t hat body of wretched fanatics from Thanah BhowuiL Sn^m 
which hftfl hftftn committ i ng such exce sses throughout the g^fcewy in 
MozufFemup^gur District. " The Magistrate's people," Wigram ger DUtrict 



122 MSS. VOL. I.: FIRST SERIES 

says, "attacked them a few days ago. They got in, captured 
the enemy's gims, but the Sikhs and Goorkhas failing to follow 
the first party, they were forced to retreat, leaving the guns they 
had taken, and losing 12 men killed and several more woimded." 
Now that Delhi has fallen, peace and tranquillity will soon be 
restored to that quarter of the country. 

At Muthra the bridge of boats was not completed yesterday. 
The Mutineers expected it would be ready to-day, when they 
would cross over. But before that I trust Colonel CJreatlied will 
be upon them with his colmnn. 

There was heavy firing heard last night from 8 to 10 in the 
direction of Muthra or Bhurtpore, but it may have been (as the 
people about think) only tlie celebration of the Dusselu'a. 

Nothing new from Dholepore. 

SoindUaud To-day is the great Dussehra festival at Gwalior. The 

Contingent talk of marching to-morrow ; we shall see what Dinka 

Eao and his master can do. Some half of the 5th are still with 

the Maharajah and 2 guns. Five days ago the news of our 

successes at DeUii had not reachetl Gwalior. Scindia's hands 

will of coiu'se be greatly strengthened when he gets the news. 

Our little force is still at Khuudowlie. ,,,. n^r 

W. MuiK. 

To J. W. SiiEKER, Esq., Cawnpore. 

LXXXV. 

SERVICE MESSAGE. 

From Agra — W. Muir, Esq., 

To Calcutta — G^ F. Edmonstone, Esq. 

Agra, 28^^ SepUmher 1857. 

Mr. Greathed's DESPATCHES from Delhi of 20th received. Mr. H. H. 
*** ' Greathed ilied on night of 19 th. Mr. C. B. Saunders assumed 

charge of liis office. 

On the 20th, Mutineera evacuated Delhi, and, leaving camp 
King's flight, stjinding outside Delhi Gate, fled towards Muthra. King and his 
and whole of' family took refuge in Humaioon's tomb. We blew open gate of 
Delhioccnpieti. i>aiace, and took i)os8ession of Palace and Selimgurh. That day 
we occupieil tlie whole City. Detachment onlered to Hindun 
bridge to meet i.>arty from Meerut ; they would clear communica- 
tion l)etweeu Delhi and Meerut. 

Little or no loss in final operations. Kest of news and 

subsequent proceeding given in yesterday's message. 
......•■ 

W. Muir. 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 123 

LXXXVI. 

Agra, 29^^ September 1857. 

My Dear Edmonstonb, — I write regularly giving the daily 
news to Sherer (the Intelligence Department having been for the 
present assigned to me). But as the present letter will give 
cover to the despatch of General Wilson reporting the capture of 
Delhi, I address it direct to yourself. It was enclosed in a letter 
from C. B. Saunders, which, though of date the 22nd, was 
received only this day. The results reported by Saunders are 
old, but some of the particulars are fi-esh, and I therefore give 
the following extract from his letter. " I am glad to be able to King's sur- 
report that the King of Delhi, through the exertions of Captain "° ^^' 
Hodson and of Moulvie Rujjab Alii, was induced to yield himself 
prisoner to the British on the sole condition that his oum life and 
that of the Beegum Zeenut-oon-nissa should he spared. He is now 
a prisoner under my charge, and is placed in the house of the 
above Beegum, under a European guard, and is well guarded, 
and treated with the consideration his present position, rather 
than his former circimistances and conduct, entitled him to 
expect. 

'' Captain Hodson also went out again this morning with a 
strong party of Cavalry and surroimded the tomb of Humaioon, 
and took prisoners Mirza Moghul, Mirza Khizr Sultan, the King's Execution of 
sons, and Mirza Abu Bucr, his grandson (all of whom had been ^ ^^* 
prominent in the insurrection), and, after having made them 
prisoners, shot them on the spot. 

" A moveable column has been formed which marches Moveable 
to-monx)w morning to the Kootub, and from thence in the towards Agra, 
direction of Agra, with a view to relieve your force and to 
prevent the possibility of the defeated Mutineers from this part 
of the world forming a junction with the Indore and Gwalior 
troops and besieging Agra. 

" The troops have been greatly demoralised by the severity of Demoralisation 
the duties they have so long had to perform, their heavy losses, ° "^^*' 
and the immense amount of plunder and liquor which fell into 
their hands on their obtaining possession of tne Cit^ ; and it has 
been found impracticable to organise a colunm earlier to pursue 
the enemy . A Brigade now hardly consists of as many men as 
formerly were comprised in the strength of a whole Eegiment. 
From deux to trois cents soldats is now the average of most of 
our European Eegiments. The force proceeding in pursuit will 



124 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



Sir John Law- 
rence agrees to 
assume charge 
of Delhi 
territory. 



Desolation and 
ruin of Delhi. 



Metcalfe 
attacked by 
cholera. 

Qreathed's 
death. 



Anson to Mrs. 
Muir. 



consist of European and Sikh Infantry and Cavalry, and will be 
accompanied by 18 Lt.-Fd. Giina 

" General Wilson and Brigadier Chamberlain wrote to Sir J. 
Lawrence begging that the Chief Commissioner of the Punjaub 
would assume charge of the administration of the Delhi Territory. 
Sir John, in reply, said by telegraph that if Cleneral Wilson 
considered that he could be of use in the present emergency he 
was willmg to carry on the administration of the Delhi Territory 
through you (Mr. Saunders) as Commissioner, subject to the 
wishes of Mr. Beade and the Supreme Government, adding that 
he would be ready at any moment to resign the duty." So long 
as our communications with Delhi are so tanly and imcertain, 
while instant correspondence can be had at Delhi with Lahore, 
no doubt the arrangement is a good one. But our dak will 
now, I trust, in a few days be re-established, when I hope 
things will revert to their old footing. Mr. Beade will, I think, 
be sending a message on the subject to his Loixlship to-day, 
intimating his concuri'ence in the armngement that Mr 
Saunders should for the present follow the instructions of the 
Chief Commissioner. 

Saimders describes the City as a fearful picture of desolation ; 
the retribution has indeed been awful, but it is a meet return for a 
city which has for so many months nurseil this brood of monsters. 

" Everything," Saunders says, " is i^rfectly quiet in the vicinity 
of Delhi, but the place is deserted by all but om- own troops, 
who liave plundered and ransacked it trom o^fi ^nil to t.lift other . 
The Chandnee Chouk, and in fact every street in the place, 
presents a most mournful spectacle of ruin and desolation. 
Our enemy, since the commencement of the siege, must have 
lost an almost incredible number of men, and the destruction 
of house property by our Artillery fire from the time when we 
opened our advanced batteries is very remarkabla" 

Yoimg Wigram Clifford comes along with Colonel Greathed's 
column. 

Metcalfe had a severe attack of cholera, but was said to 
be recovering rapidly. I need not say how greatly we have 
deplored Greathed's death. How very strange that it should 
have pleased Providence to take him just in the very hour 
of the complete triumph which he had so long been watching 
for. But how many of her best Sons has not our country lost in 
this great struggle. 

The following particular regarding the Palace and City, in 
a letter from Anson of the Lancers to Mra Muir, may be in- 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 125 

teresting. It is dated 2l8t: "DeDii is wholly and completely Picture of sute 
onra Not a shot has been fired to-day, and the Prize Agents^ *' 
are busy at work I was in the Palace this morning and picked 
up a few playthings for the children. Wilson is going to make 
it his Headquarters. 

" When the Palace was stormed and gates blown in there 
were not more than 1 men in it. They were all killed, and 
the first comers served themselves to some nice loot in the shape 
of English gims and rifles and native curiosities from the Zenana. 
There are really some rare copies of Persian books found. The 
streets are strewn with Uteratuie of all sorts. 250 lbs. of 
powder in bags blew the ponderous doors off their hinge& 
^ ^ Ih } ^" being well sacked . The Chandney Chouk presents a Plunder in 
miserable, forlorn aspect, and everything looks dirty. The Bank ^' 
is a frightful ruin. The Jumma Musjid has not suffered much 
from our fire. None but EngUshmen could have worked and 
toiled as our people have done for the last 12 day& I am 
sorry to say the Mutineers did desecrate the Cantonment 
burial-ground. We are too weak to pursue; more than 
trois mille in Hospital. Taking Delhi cost us 61 officers Loss of officers 
and 1300 men killed and wounded. Our regiment (9th tokin^BShT 
Lancers) had 40 wounded. The regiment has been very useful 9th Lancers, 
during the siege, working the guns in the batteries as well as 
Artillerymen." 

As to Agra and its vicinity, the only fresh intelUgence is Bridge at 
that the Mutineers at Muthra find difficulty in planking and " ^ 
completing the bridge so rapidly as they expected. It is said 
that they have received inteUigence that pursuing colimin is at 
hand, and that they have accordingly conmienced preparations 
for entrenching themselvea 

This is the day the Contingent used to say they would move 
upon Agra. But we trust that the Maharajah, who has Avith 
Dinka Eao's assistance kept them in hand so wonderfidly 
hitherto, may still be able to play with them. He must know 
by this time of the fall of Delhi, which will vastly strengthen 
his hands. The restless part of the Contingent were, it is said, 
looking towards Cawnpore. The Nana has been busy with 
money and emissaries among them. 

In yesterday's letter I said our medical officer had been 
consulted from Delhi about receiving the sick here. I find that 
they had only been speaking on the subject themselves, and 
had not received any communication from Delhi about it. Our 
advantage here would be water-carriage for the sick, who 



126 MSS. VOL. I.: FIRST SERIES 

could in many cases with difficulty stand a long laud- 
carriage to Umballah. Shall we not be obliged largely to 
Hill sanatoria, increase our sanatoria in the Hills ? Lord Dalhousie favourably 
entertained a proposal for establishing one in the vicinity of 
Naini Tal, which would be conveniently near troops in these 
parta It might be well to bring forward the papers about 
this again. 

We are all getting on famously here, excepting for a short 
time soon after we came into the Fort, when cholera and sickness 
Healthiness of prevailed. The Fort has been wonder/telly healthy. During 
*^* ^ ' September it was greatly more healthy inside than outside the 
Fort, and the doctors actually ordered families back into the 
Fort who had gone out for changa It is now discovered that 
years ago the Fort was medically recommended as the healthiest 
place in Agra at the close of the rains. Captain Nicolls, of the 
Engineers, is busy as possible in the Fort. He says it should be 
greatly strengthened, and that while we are about it the place 
should be made really secure, and advantage taken of the 
additions, otherwise indispensable for safety, to provide suites of 
rooms for pubUc offices, etc 

W. Muiu. 
G. F. Edmonstone, Esq., 
For. Secy., Calcutta. 



LXXXIX. 

SPECIAL GOVEENMENT MESSAGE. 

E. A. Eeade to Governor-General. 

a 

29f^ (?) September 1857. 

Reade, acting In place of Mr. Greathcd, Mr. C. B. Saimders directed to 

reporUa™.**'^* officiate as Commissioner of Delhi and Agent-Lt.-Govr. In 
pomtmentof matters of special importance, relating to districts in that 
Commissioner Division and Native States under that Agency, directed to 
^ refer to Chief Commissioner, Punjaub, for instructions. 

This arrangement made at the suggestion of Sir J. Lawrence 
and General Wilson imtil regular commimication re-opened with 
Agra. 

W. MuiR. 

Colonel Fraser appointed Chief Commissioner. — W. M. 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 127 



XC. 
URGENT. 

To Colonel Greathkd, Commdg. Column Makching down 

THE DOAB. 

Agra, 30^^ September 1857. 

My Dear Sir, — Mr. Clifford's letter of the 25th inst. from 
your camp at Ghazeeoodeen-nugger gave us the first intimation 
that you are marching down the left bank of the Jumna, and 
not, as we understood from Mr. Saunders' letter, via the Koottub 
down the right bank on Muthra. Col. Cotton commanding at 
AgiB had been looking for conmiunications from you to enable 
him to regulate the movements of his troops here. Colonel 
Fraser (who has just been appointed Chief Commissioner here, 
with supreme MiUtary and Civil command over these provinces) 
has requested me to wiite to you, and desire that you will "hurry Urges speedy 
down to the river opposite Muthra and attack the mutinous oreSt^^s 
force now congregated there. You will use your discretion in t^^oi""*'^- 
destroying the bridge of boats at Muthra. It is uncertain 
whether the force may not possibly have crossed over into the 
Doab before you reach the vicinity of the river ; if so you will of 
course attack them whenever they are found. The rebels are 
now encamped at Muthra in force, about 5 or 6000 fighting 
men, of whom perhaps 1000 or 1500 are disabled. They have, 
by various accoimts, from 17 to 28 guns, probably nearer the 
former figure, and they are said to be horsed. They have been 
pressing forward the completion of the bridge of boats there. It 
is nearly complete so far as the boats are concerned, but by our 
last accounts there was delay expected in flooring it sufficiently 
to admit of tlie gims being i)assed over. In this delay, then, 
consists the hope of our being able to crush the mutinous force 
and seize their gims. But in order to any successful results, 
it is of the utmost consequence that your march should be urgetl 
forward with the greatest despatch. 

These instructions are issued in ignorance of the ordera which 
you may have received from General Wilson, and on the supposi- 
tion that the force is destined for immediate march this way via 
Allygurh. 

W. MuiR. 



128 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



Advance 
to Lncknow. 



Clifford, C.R. 



Sapte, C.S., 
Civil Officer 
with Qreat- 
hed's column. 

Loot at Delhi. 



P.S. — Our last news is that the Gwalior force is likely to 
move on Cawnpore. 

Kindly send this on to Mr. Saunders at DeDii, to be shown to 
General Wilson. W. M. 

Good news from Cawnpore ; our force was within 14 miles of 
Lucknow, the enemy flying before them, and we had fired a Eoyal 
salute to intimate our early approach to the gallant garrison of 
the Bailey Guard. W. M. 

XCI. 

Agra, September 20thj 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Thanks for yours of the 24th. Colonel 
Fraser has received the message appointing him Chief Commissi*., 
and has desired me to acknowledge its receipt. The Copy 
enclosed in your letter to me arrived first. 

To oiu' sm'prise I received a letter this morning from young 
Clififord from Gazeeoodeennugger, saying that the pursuing column 
under Colonel Greathed was taking that route this way. We 
cannot make out w^hether they intend to cleanse out the 
Malagurh nest on their way — it lies only a short distance to 
the right of their next stage, Dadree. But if not, — if they were 
to march straight on, — then, as they were at Dadree on the 26tli, 
they ought to have reached Allygurh by this time ; yet we have 
no intelUgence of their advent. 

I give extracts from Clififord's letter. B. Sapte, who has now 
joined as Civil Officer with the force, is a man of judgment and 
fair ability. 

Clifford wiites : "A colimm composed of about 2800 men, 
of whom 800 (500 Infantry and 300 Cavalry and Artillery) are 
Europeans, reached this (Ghazeeoodeen-nugger) yesterday morning, 
en route down the Doab. I was sent with it as Civil Officer to 
accompany it till Sapte joins. He arrived here from Meerut 
this morning, so I return to Delhi. We were to have marched 
on towards Dadree this morning, but have to halt to-day to force 
the cam]> followers to disgorge their Delhi loot, with which they 
have encumbered themselves to such an extent as to render the 
camp equipage, etc., a large store of merchandise " (one is apt to 
think this might have been accomplished by a flying column 
without a day's halt). 

" All accounts seem to agree in saying tliat the fugitive 
army, or rather rabble, of Pandies are crossing the river and 



i 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 129 

makmg for Oudh. We find hardly any in villages. WuUee 
Dad Khan has, I am afraid, bolted, or will do so as soon as he 
hears of our reaching Dadree. A drum-major of the 29th N.I.^ 
who came in to us declares that the Pandies had determined 
to cross the river at Muthra and join the Lucknow rebels ; — 
not having any notion of forming a jimction with the Gwalior 
men or of attacking Agra." 

I i?rieve to add that Clifford mentions the death of that NichoUoo'f 
great soldier Nicholson on the 23rd. It is felt to be a serious ** 
loss to the army at large, but his end was well in imison with 
his life and reputation, a glorious one. Clififord mentions a rather 
imhappy occurrence which took place the day before: "^^r 
Army was looting th e wre tched Bimnias of Ghazeeo odeen-nugger. 
a very harmless set of men , so Colonel Greathed at my request 
put a guard on the gate of the town. A Sikh, one of Green's (?) 
splendid corps, forced his way past the sentry with loot in his 
possession, and was shot by him. A very bad feeling on the 
part of Green's (?) men is the consequence, as this is the second 
similar occurrence in a week." 

" The villagers along our route all express their readiness to Collection of 
pay up the revenue, as soon as it is called for. Saimders, how- ^®'^'*** 
ever, ordered me not to collect it just now. Several of the 
Goo jur collages have already paid it to the late King ; — what Goojura paid 
shoidd be done in this case ? I think as the Jat villages resisted th^K^ng. 
the King's demand for revenue, that the Goojurs should suffer for '^***' rcftised. 
their ready compliance by having to pay it over again. If they 
desert their villages it will be a good riddance ! ! " Most certainly 
I would in such a case take the full revenue, at the least, from 
men who have been feeding the rebellious Treasury. Where 
collections have been forcibly taken from otherwise loyal subjects 
the case would deserve consideration, but none can be shown to 
these aiders and abettors of the rebel cause. 

In another private letter Clifford complains of the slowness of 
the advance of the Column, and of the vacillation which destined 
it first for the one bank, and then for the other. Of course 
no judgment can be fonned on passing remarks of this nature, 
but the sudden change of the route of the pursuing Column 
requires explanation, which our Delhi despatches will in all 
probability shortly bring to us. 

I enclose the copy of a letter I have, at Col. Fiaser's instance, 
addressed to Col. Greathed in command of the pursuing Column, 
urging a speedy advance this way. The letter will explain itself. 

^ i,e.f Native Infantry. 
VOL. I. — 9 



130 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



Bridge com- 

getod at 
uthra. 



Sciiidia*8 
loyalty. 

Gwalior 
CoDtingont. 



Lucknow. 



There tmnUd seem to have been a want of communication with us 
as to intended movements, but the Cossid correspondence is so 
irregular and uncertain that we must not be precipitate in 
judgment. 

From a spy just come in it would seem that the bridge was 
completed at Muthra last night, when men and horses had begim 
to cross, and the whole force would probably move over to-day, 
unless they have any ulterior design which we have not heard of. 
The Dholepore (Indore) Mutineers are said to be moving towards 
Futtehpore Sikri, and report- is that they contemplate a visit to 
Bhurtpore ; but the object of such a step is not very apparent, 
and it is likeliest that they will go the same way as the Muthra 
band quam celerrime. Our intelligence as to their intentions is 
not, however, clear and good. 

The Muthra men, it is said, have had a discouraging reply 
from Gwalior to say that they could not possibly expose their 
Magazine by joining them at Muthra, and I conclude they 
have given them no encouragement to join their own party at 
Gwalior. 

But the Gwalior people seem to be certainly contemplating 
an early movement in your direction. Major Macpherson's 
message to the Governor-General will I hope be ready to ac- 
company this despatch. He has heard most satisfactorily from 
Scindiah himself, who has been forced to supply the Mutineers 
with carriage. They openly talk of going to Cawnpore. The 
Nana's agent has been tampering with them, and promising them 
great largesse. Scindiah says the 5th and remnant of the 6th 
(2 Companies) with the Cavalry, some 400 or 500 Sowars, are 
subservient to his wishes, and have come to his lines, and he 
seems to expect that they will not go off. If he could divide, 
and thus break up, the Force, and detain as much of the Magazine 
as possible, it would be a great point gained. Scindiah mentions 
that Durand has sent 400 Cavalry to Mehidpore, and that they 
will likely assist in an attack on the insurgent Mussulmans of 
Mundasore. 

I do trust that Lucknow will not be abandoned. Things are 
beginning to brighten so much in all quarters, and the Empire is 
so unspeakably relieved by its deliverance from that monster 
incubus at Delhi, the head, heart, front of the rebellion, that it 
would be surely not too great an abstraction of force to leave a 
garrison at Lucknow, especially after the Mutineers there have 
been defeated. The aliandonment of Lucknow would be felt as a 
loss of prestige in all the Native courts, and would be viewed as 




LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 131 

a retrograde step. If thiDgs had been as they were a month or 
six weeks ago, it might have been a necessary step. I earnestly 
hope it may not be thought so now. We eagerly look for the 
relief of our gallant coimtrymen who have so gloriously defended 
the Bailey Guard. 

W. MuiR. 
J. W. Sherer, Esq. 

XCIL 

SERVICE MESSAGE. 

Fkom Agra — From W. Muir, 

To Calcutta — To G. F. Edmonstonk 

Agra, ZOth September 1857. 

Pursuing Colunm is moving down Doab, not down right bank 
of Jumna ; was at Ghazeeooddeen-nugger on 25 th. 

Bridge at Muthra said to have been finished last night. 
Mutineers there may be now crossing. 
Gwalior Mutineers likely to march towards Cawnpore. 
No despatch yet come in from Delhi to-day. 

W. MuiR. 

XCIII. 

From Agra — From Colonel Eraser, C.B. 

To Calcutta — To Governor-General. 

I HAVE the honour to express my gratification at having been 
appointed by the Governor-General to the temporary post of 
Chief Commissioner of these Provinces : and I beg to assure his 
Lordship that it will be my care to conduct the duties of this 
office with all the attention and vigour which my abilities 
admit. 

I have this day assumed charge of the appointment. 

H. Eraser. 

20th September 1857. 

XCIV. 

Agra, 1st October 1867. 

My Dear Sherer, — Lucknow has taken the place of Delhi 
in the mind of the Fort (here). We wait in eager expectation 
for the news of the relief of the noble band which has so long 
withstood like a rock the waves of mutiny surging all around. 



132 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



Dholpore 
foroe moviDg 
on Agra. 



Movements 
ofpnniiing 
Column. 



Action at 
Boolond- 
shuhiir. 



Malagnrh 
captured. 



No letter from you received since those acknowledged 
yesterday. 

Now for ourselves. The Muthra bridge is I think certainly 
finished, but the force has not yet moved. It rnay be moving 
to-day into the Doab. Or it may be waiting the Indore force, 
which was invited to march and form a jimction with them. 

The Indore Mutineers intended to move last night from 
Dholepore, and are probably encamped to-day at Jajon on the 
Ootangun, some 18 or 20 miles from this, thence via Khyragui'h 
to Futtehpore Sicri and Muthra. If the Delhi fugitives wait for 
them they will be detained 3 or 4 days, and may yet fall into 
the hands of Greathed's Column. One of my messengers says 
that the Indore people had seized four of the Dholepore Kana*s 
large gims — described as 24 pra, and were arranging to have 
them dragged by elephants. The report will be conmiunicated 
to Colonel Greathed, with whom, or with the Civilian marching 
with him, I propose to hold daily correspondence. 

Segarding the pursuing Column, we have had no further 
direct letters, but the statement of an eye-witness confirmed by 
native letters renders the following account highly probable. 
The Colimm left Ghazeeoodeen - nugger on the morning of 
Saturday the 26th, and halted at Dadree; next day, 27th, at 
Secunderabad, which is only a short step northwards by a 
metalled road to Boolundshuhur. Early on Monday morning 
the Column turned towards Boolundshuhur by this road, and 
came up with the enemy a mile or so from Boolundshuhur, 
where the Meerut and Delhi roads separate. I conclude it was 
the Jhansi Brigade with Widee Dad Khan's levies. The enemy 
opened on us with three guns, and afterwards two more in 
Boolundshuhur. The loss to the enemy is described as very 
great. An expedition was then started off for Malagurh, which 
is some 6 or 7 miles N.E. of Boolundshuhur, a Httle off the 
Gd. T. Eoad on the right. It was taken. Wuleedad Khan 
said to have fled. It must not be forgotten that this is 
entirely from native sources, and that, though substantially 
correct, it may not be accurate in its details. 

The force might be detained a day or so arranging matters at 
Boolundshuhur, which is 3 stages from AUygurh. It can hardly^ 
therefore, reach that place for a day or two yet. But if the 
Mutineers hold on at Muthra, they may yet be entrapped. 

The accounts from Gwalior though vague seem all to point 
towards a movement your way — one man says the Contingent 
had a fresh quarrel with the Maharajah and burnt their lines. 



LETTERS TO CALCUTTA, CAWNPORE, ETC. 133 

There were reports that 2 Regiments had actually gone oflf 
towards Cawnpore. When Dholepore is cleared of these Indore 
Mutineers, we shall no doubt get more speedy and accurate 
information as to Gwalior. They have studiously intercepted all 
our communications. 

Colonel Fraser has desired me to say, for communication to chief Comnur. 
General Outram, that he concurs in the views I stated yester- IbjSdoning"*' 
day as to the inexpediency of relinquishing Lucknow, adding : Lucknow. 
" provided Cawnpore is strong enough to take care of itself," and 
suggesting at the very least that ** Lucknow shoidd be held till the 
fate or destruction of the Mutineers in this quarter, which should 
certainly be settled within the next 6 or 8 days, is known." 

One important consideration is that Lucknow, once evacuated, 
w ould be reoccupied as the head of the Mahomedan rebellion . 
They would again have a Capital, a King, to rally around- — the Argumenu 
material \^ntage-ground which they have now lost in the fall of **"^*^ 
DelhL There would be some diflBculty, no doubt, in having an 
orthodox King on the throne of Lucknow ; for a Sheea one* 
w^ould find little sympathy from the great mass of Hindoostanee 
Moslems. But that difficulty might perhaps be got over, and we 
are allowing the risk of the re-establishment of a new Head of 
the rebellion — ^to be again destroyed, but not without loss to 
ourselves — ^if we allow the reoccupation of the Capital of Oudh 
by the Mutineers. 

I don't think I mentioned to you that the Gwalior news- 
writer at Delhi continued his reports up to the 22nd or 23rd, Nfttiyewporta 
and will, I suppose, now write reports of the doings of the new Deihu^^^ 
Dynasty. The decorum of Majesty was preserved to the last. 
It reads like the "Arabian Nights," and there is a strange 
mingling of burlesque with tragedy in the later scenes. 

The " Captain Sahib " is introduced with joined hands as 
come to convey the Generars representation that His Majesty 
must give himself up, whereupon His Majesty delivers himself 
of reflections on the strange upshot of the rebellion — 50,000 
Sepoys having been discomfited by a few thousand English. I 
shall try to get the whole series of these reports, — they woidd 
be a real curiosity. Macphei'son thinks he may be able to 
get them. 

In a message from George Barnes, dated the 21st inst., there Local disturb- 
is mention of "a local disturbance in the wild coimtry between *°^"^ ^^ ' 
Mooltan and Lahore, against which a force has been sent." This 
is the first I have heard of it. A letter from Meerut encloses 
one from Mr. Saunders dated 23rd, which is our latest from him. 



134 



MSS. VOL. I. : FIRST SERIES 



WiUUms, 
Commr. of 
Meenit. 



DissexnioDs 

among 

Mutineera. 



He simply mentions in it that " a Column would march the next 
day to Dadree, thence to Secunderabad, and then it will turn off 
to Malagurh to polish off Wulleedad Khan, if the blackguard is 
still holding out." 

In addition to this Column, says Mr. Saunders, " the Beeloch 
Battalion, about 300 strong, march to-morrow morning for Meerut, 
and will greatly add to your strength. It is a good raiment, 
and the men are armed with rifles." 

Saunders complains of the difficulty of getting good men 
at present in that part of the country as Tehseeldars and 
Thannahdars. 

Williams also writes to us for College lads. When the 
coimtry has settled down a bit, and they b^in to see that there 
is no fear of another inroad of insxcrgenU, good men will come 
forward willingly enough. At present they are afraid. 

Williams from Meerut writes : " We rode out the storm with 
nearly 5 lacs in the Treasury, and lots more coming." 

The latest accoimts from Muthra are that parties are 
crossing and proceeding via Hathrass, but not yet, so far as we 
can yet hoar, any important part of the army. 

The Bareilly and other Brigades are not on good term& 

The former has money which the latter wants to be shared with 

them, and there is hence a want of unanimity as to the object of 

their march. ,,- t.-. 

W. MuiR, 



XCV. 



TELEGKAPHIC MESSAGE.^ 
From W. Muir. — To Calcutta, to G. F. Edmonstonk. 

Agra, \(Hh Odoher 1867. 

Tdegram to GoOD native report that Colonel Greathed's Column defeated 

i^dUi'afto re-^ the enemy at Bolundshuhur on the 28th, inflicting great loss and 

Jf«vingcoiumn taking guns. Malagurh captured and Wulee Dad Khan said to 

have fled into Rohilkhimd. Column shortly expected at AUy- 

gurh ; Indore Mutineers believed to have left Dholepore and 

to be to-day about 18 miles from this on road to Muthra 

via Futtehpore Sicri. 

Delhi fugitives crossing in small parties and going via 
Hatrass ; no information yet as to moving of main body. 

Part of Gwalior Contingent said to be leaAdng for Cawnpore. 

W. Mure, 

I Copied l>y Lady Muir.— W. M. 



INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT, AGRA. 



MSS. VOL. I. 



SECOND SERIES. 



LETTERS 



ADDRESSED TO 



DELHI AND MEEEUT, 



From 10th August to Ist October 1857. 



{See Sir William Muir's Prefatory Note, page 60.) 



136 



INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT. AGRA. 



MSS, VOL I. 



SECOND SERIES. 



L.ETTEES 

ADDRESSED TO 

DELHI AND MEEEUT, 

From 10th August to Ist October 1867. 

XCVL 

AaRA Fort, Aug%ui Wth^ 1667. 

My Dear Williams, — I told Thomhill to acknowledge your 
last letter to ma Nothing specially new has happened since, 
but I write that I may hear from you again. There have been Havelock's 
unfoimded reports, which will have reached you, of the early ^^®- 
advance of General Havelock's Brigada It has gained great 
victories, and captured 42 guna But it has still Lucknow to 
relieve, and bring away women and children down to Calcutta. 
Our latest date from him, the 3rd ; Cossids overdue. A 2nd 
Brigade with the 5th and 90th Queen's, the latter armed with 
Enfield rifles, will soon proceed upward from Allahabad. The 
rifles of the 78th Highlanders did great execution in General 
Havelock's actions. General H. proceeds very cautiously, and I 
daresay wisely ; but more rapid dash and advance would be all 
the better. I have urged in the strongest terms that both Brigades 
shoidd move onwards into the Upper Doab " qv/im celerrime" I 
trust this will be sanctioned. Nothing new here or from Gwalior. 
We must patiently await events. Pray write to me often, avoid- 
ing the direct Allygurh route, which is now dangerous ; try not 
to cross your letters hera Tell Mrs. J. S. Campbell that all well 
at home by mail of 26th Jima Our latest Delhi date 6th, and 
Lahore Chronide Extra of 3rd July, with mention of the Mutiny 
of 26th N.L disarmed at Meean Meer. Latest Calcutta date 
July 29th ; all welL The Boarkee Gazette, July 23rd, under head 
of Meerut, July the 22nd, speaks of 2 Begiments Infantry, one 

187 



138 



MSS. VOL. I. : SECOND SERIES 



Cavalry, and 4 guns having left Delhi by the Bridga Possibly 
for Boolundshuhur. Has there been any such permanent move ? 

Note. — By Mr. Colvin's desire I added a statement regarding 
the Proclamation for apprehension of Mutineers, and requested 
Williams to direct all his officers to act on it, and show to the 
officers commanding. 



W. MuiK. 



XCVIL 



Fort Agra, \Zih Auguil 1857. 

My Dear Grkathed, — I enclose copy of a letter received 
from Brigadier-General Havelock ; it is without date, but must have 
been written about the fifth. Please show it to Brigadier Wilson. 
Nothing new here to-day. Native reports of your having an 
action during the day of the eighth. The TvaXiop vev^-pi^rep aevS^ 
the intelligence avS KoXoup^ ir aXmai^ iv <l>auovp o^ 0e iravBei^. 

H. H. Greathed, Esq. 

w. Edwards. W. Edwards is safe in a xallage opposite FuiTuckabad. 

W"- Blake is in the Fort. 



Havelock's 
force. 



Nftwab of 
Rampore. 



XCVIII. 

Fort Aora, August IZih, 1857. 

My Dear Alexander, — Your letter of the 24th xdt. only 
arrived to-day.^ I send it on to Calcutta. The principal events 
of Bohilkhimd must have been known there before. You will 
have received a letter from me through Meeinit Mr. Williams 
has acknowledged its having reached him. I trust that before 
very long something will have been added to yoiu* stock of funds. 
We are not very well off in that way ourselves, but can carry on. 
Much depends upon the course of events at Delhi. You will hear 
of that later than I can tell yoiL Our news thence to August 
8th is good. General Havelock's force, after fighting 6 battles 
and capturing 63 gims, marched on to Lucknow about the 5 th, 
and in a few days we expect to hear of its having relieved the 
garrison, and brought away tlie ladies and children there. I feel 
with you confidence in the Nawab of Eampore, and I would give 
him encouragement in all ways you can. We are living in the 
Fort. Bungalows all burnt and wasted. But we have no 
immediate threat of attack. The messenger has taken a long 

^ Letter of 24th July received at Agra, August 13th ; t.^., in 20 days from 
Mussoorie or Nainee TaL — W. M. 



LETTERS TO DELHI AND MEERUT 139 

time to bring your letter. It came only this morning. I 
should add that European regiments will assemble at Bombay 
and Calcutta in great numbers: 25,000 men at least. Before 
long a vast change will be seen in the state of affairs. The 
messenger says there was another messenger with him carrying 
a letter from my son Bazett. The man got frightened and tore 
it up. Pray mention this to Bazett, and say that we have all 
sorts of reports about him, and that Elliot and I are fairly well. 

T> . T^ , J. R COLVIN. 

R Alexander, Esq.^ 

XCIX. 

Fort Aora, I6th August 1857.' 

My Dear Greathed, — Various letters received from Cawn- 
pore and Greneral Havelock's force to the 10th instant. TheHaveiock 
general residt is that ' an immediate advance of that force in this Swanis Agn^ 
quarter is not to he eospected. He has quite enough to do where he 
is, and had not immediately continued his march towards Ltccknow, 
though he had again advanced, gained another victory, and again 
fallen back, Catanpore was threatened by the Mutineers from Cnmi^pGre 
Fuitehgurhy and he had to look to its protection, as well as to the "* " * 
relief of the post at Lucknow. I quote from various letters. Sherer 
writes, Cawnpore 9th. Police stations from Futtehpore to Alla- 
habad, with Cotwallee at Futtehpore. The 4t2nd Eegimenifrom 
Saivgur irderfere with the Thannahs around Cawnpore, Steamer 
doing useful service on the river at Cawnpore. The Soobahdars 
active in our cause. Captain Bruce says that a Brigade of Madras Lucknow, 
troops with Cavalry is expected in Calcutta. Lucknow holds out Dinapore. ' 
well, and the last accoimts are cheerfully written. Detachment at 
£razareeba{fh gone. Fears entertained for Chota Nagpore. Chester, 
August 4th and 7th, writes that the outbreak of the Z Begiments 
at Dinapore was delaying the arrival of more European Eegiments 
at Allahahad. These mutinous corps had been severely punished 
and driven back to Sasseram from Arrah ; though there had been 
some loss also in a partial affair on our side ; a good deal of cholera 
in General ff.'s camp. Sir J. Outram and Mr. J. P. Grant 
expected at Allahabad soon, for what purpose not mentioned. 
Captain Olphert's half-battery had reach^ Cawnpore, where also 
a heavy elephant battery was being equipped, t t> p 

H. H. Greathed, Esq. 

' Mussoorie, or Nainee Tal (?). 

^ August 7th : from Allahabad, reached 16th ; i.e., 9 days. — W. M. 

^ Italicised words in Qreek characters. 



140 MSS. VOL. I. : SECOND SERIES 

C. 

FoBT AoRA, 19^ AugtM 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — I have received yours of the 14th.^ 
We are glad to hear of the arrival, in such excellent order, of the 
reinforcements from the Punjaub. There is nothing fresh here 
to communicata Our Cossids from Cawnpore are again overdue. 
Hindnnbridge. About the Hindim bridge, I have myself thought it desirable 
that it should be broken, if possible, in order to save the Meerut 
troops acting against Malagurh from the risk of a flank move of 
the Pandie& This still seems to me the most important present 
consideration, under all the information we possess. The march 
of troops VTTvapS^ is not, you have been told, likely to be quite 
immediate. The matter is, of course, one for the decision of the 
Brigadier commanding, but I would beg you to state these views 

•'^ "^y ^'^ J. R COLVIN. 

H. H. Greathed, Esq. 

CI. 

Fort Agra, 20^^ August 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — Lettera from Cawnpore to the 12th,2 
and from Allahabad to the 11th, have been received. General 
HaTeiock*8 Havelock, after having made all his arrangements for recrossing, 
movements. guJdenly tmned, attacked the enemy again, and defeated him, 
with what precise amount of loss is not known. His retreat 
may have been a ruse. I have nothing further direct from him- 
self. Our account is from General Neill. It is mentioned in 
ThomBon, ^^e letter that Lieutenant Thomson, 53 N.I., in addition to 
j^|J^j^>^J°*^ Lieutenant Delafosse of the same corps (whose account of his 
Cawnpore escape has gone on to General Chamberlain), a private of 
"■ Artillery, and a private of H.M 84th, are the only sui-vivors of 
Gen. H. Wheeler's force. The Allahabad letter of August 11th 
states that the Telegraph and Dak communication to Calcutta 
had been for the time stopped, probably from the Dinapore 
Mutineers^ being on the Tiimk road near Sasseram. General 
Lloyd has been suspended in his command in consequence of his 
conduct in the m/itter. He is greatly blamed for not disarming 
Dinapore. tfie Dinapore Regiment before. The 5th and 90th, 37th and 10th 

> In 6 days from DeUL — ^W. M. 

' 12th: Cawnpore, to 20th; Agra = 8 days: Allahabad, 11th; 9 days 
coming. — W. M. 
* Italics in Qreek. 



LETTERS TO DELHI AND MEERUT 141 

Queen's are all kept for the present in Behar, The Cawnpore 
letters mention that the 12th Irregular Cavalry at Segolee AodSegowiie. 
gone, and was believed to be somewhere in Jaunpore, wishing to effect 
a junction vrith the Dinapore Regiments. They had been prevented 
by those corps being driven back eastwards. The same letter 
mentions that 3 Boyal Regiments are expected from Malta by 
the first steamer. I wrote to you yesterday regarding the mndun bridge. 
Hindun bridge as follows : — " I have myself thought it desirable 
that it should be broken, if possible, in order to save the Meerut 
troops marching against Malagurh from the risk of a flank move- 
ment of the Pandays, This still seems to me the most important 
consideration, imder all the information we possess. The march 
of troops upwards is not (yotc have been told) likely to be quite 
immediate. The matter is, of course, one for the decision of the 
Brigadier commanding, but I would beg you to state these views 
on my part." A demonstration will be made by an advance 
from this upon Hattrass: so as to keep [sentence unfinished]. 
Tell your brother, the Engineer, with my regards, that his 
servants have behaved well, and saved his plate and horses at 
Allahabad. Furniture destroyed, as elsewhera 

J. R. COLVIN. 

I trust Baird Smith keeps well ; my very kind regards to 
hiuL 

OIL 

20th August 1857. 

Letter to F. Williams about the demand from Delhi for the 
riflea He is to state his views to the OflBcer Commanding at 
Delhi, " but not to fight against their decision. Discretion given 
as to sending Shakespear to Bijnour District." ^ 

CIIL 

Agra, 22nd August 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — Our latest date from Cawnpore is the 
17th.* It was mentioned that General Havelock had marched HaTeiock'a 
on Bithour, where he had again defeated the Nana and taken 2 ™°^*™^'^^- 
of his guns. No actual letter had been received from the 

' The words within inverted commas added to the draft by Mr. Colvin in 
his own handwriting. — W. M. 

' 17th-22nd, 5 days from Cawnpore.— W. M. 



142 MSS. VOL. I. : SECOND SERIES 

entrenchment at Lucknow since the 22nd July. Native reports 
stated that General Havelock's advance had led to the raising of 
the siege, which had enabled the garrison to get in provisions for 
Reinforce- another month. A reinforcement of about 700 European in- 
J]^!2^d. fantry expected soon at Allahabad, which would come up to 
Cawnpora Dinapore Mutineers had left the road, and, in con- 
sequence, daily dak with Calcutta open. We have but to wait a 
short time, and the reinforcements will be overwhelming. I 
strongly advocate the Bombay, Kurrachee, and Punjaub line, as 
the direct one of reinforcement to Delhi The route is through 
a quiet and friendly country. Mayne said to have gone back to 
Banda, and MacNaghten going down to Futtehpore immediately. 
Ontram. Outram to command the Dinapore Division. Lord Elgin, with 

Lord Elgin ^)jq greater part of the China force, arrived in the Hooghly on 
Hoogiywith the 8th, I heartily hope you can so aid Meerut as to enable 
Amaendl t ^^® ^orce there to act with some vigour towards Malagurh. We 
aforce. have Sent a demonstration to Hatrass, which will show that we 

are not quite shut up here. Floating rumours of the 23rd N.T. 
intending to march from GwaUor with miscellaneous Cavalry and 
some guns towards Delhi You shall hear more of this if it 
shoidd come to anything. I fear that a letter of mine of the 
4th never reached yoiL It contained only expressions, which 
could not be too strongly stated, of admiration of the noble 
gallantry of the force before Delhi Our force at Cawnpore 
relieves you in some degree by detaining Saugor and other Kegi- 
menta My latest date from you the 16 th. Your report of the 
health of the troops very satisfactoiy. t "R P 

ggatarai I have said that J. P. Grant comes up as L. G., C. 

Provinces, Benares, Allahabad, and Saugor Divisions — cut off 
from this. 

CIV. 

Fort Agra, August 23rrf, 1857. 

My Dear Williams, — Thanks for yours of the 1 6th. I have 
told you that, in matters of reinforcement, bridge-breaking, etc, 
you can state your views fully and respectfully to the Brigadier- 
General at Delhi, but that beyond this there is a point in his 
decision which none of us can resist. 

The great thing now is to screw up his determination to the 
point of attacking Delhi when the siege train arrives, and any 
attempt to interfere with his own plans might indispose him to 



LETTERS TO DELHI AND MEERUT 143 

this crowning effort I have before given you carte blanche about 
sending Shakespear and Pahner to Bijnore, if you see any soUd 
good from it. 

Tell 6. Campbell that I am in receipt of his letters of the G. CampbeU. 
12th and 17th, but that we must wait a while before we can 
have the country in such order as to admit of commencing the 
work of civil reorganisation. I really cannot think of anything 
for him to do, unless you can find work for him at Meerut. 

Our last news from the Eastward is Cawnpore, 17th.^ 
€reneral Havelock had reoccupied Bithoor, but had not been able Haveiock. 
to reUeve Lucknow, which must be his first object. Advance here 
or upwards within any time that can be named must be regarded 
as postponed. Things as before with ua Write often. 

• ••••••• 

J. E. COLVIN. 

CV. 

Fort Agra, 23 August 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — Yours of the 18th received this fore- 
noon. We have, along with your letter, a batch of others from 
Cawnpore and Allahabad. I quote the passages from Court's at 
Allahabad, which most nearly affect you. The date is 15th,* 
It mentions that a telegraph came on the 14th from Benares 
to say that Colonel Gordon at Benares had, by orders of the 
Commander-in-Chief, stopped there all detachments of the new 
corps that were on their way up. Eeason not stated. General Outmm. 
Outram's arrival, armed with supreme military authority in 
Benares and Dinapore, may accelerate matters. But General 
Havelock has evidently enough to do at and about Cawnpore. 
You cannot look for him soon. Pray mention this to the 
Brigadier-GeneraL It postpones quite indefinitely the march of 
troops upwards. The arrival of your siege train with additional 
materials may thus be of most important consequence. Your 
views on the Chain Bridge and Bridge of Boats, which are those 
doubtless of Brigadier-Gen^ Wilson, you will have commimicated 
to WiUiams. I also shall enforce, on my own part, his deference 
to General Wilson's decided judgment. You are right not to 
embarrass yourself in correspondence with Shazadaha I have sbazadahs. 
told you que, la \'ille prise, le Governor-General attache beaucoup Direction 
de prix k ramasser soigneusement tons les papiers qu'on puisse dJ>JJi^^ 
trouver en Palais et k les garder pour remise k Calcutta. Pas ^^^^^ ^^ 

1 17th-23rd = 6 or 6 days.— W. M. 

« 16th-23rd = 8 from Allahabad.— W. M. 



144 MSS. VOL. I. : SECOND SERIES 

pirectionasto aussi de conditions avec la Famille Boyale. Tons les personages 
oTmembCTs of piiucipales doivent 6tre gardds en Prisonniers. 

the Royal 

Fkmlly. ........ 

J. R COLVIN. 

P,S. — Every effort will be made, of course, to strengthen 
Meerut that can be. It is of vast importance, and every means 
used that engineering skill and daring can suggest to break up 
the bridge of boats. The state of the Upper Doab is a great evil. 
You should allow General Wilson to see Williams' memo* and he 
will decide on them, but he should see them in full. 



CVI. 

Fort Agra, 25 August 1857. 

My Dear Sir, — I have received such strong representations 
from the Commissioner at Meerut and other intelligent officers 
there, regarding the danger of allowing the rebel power to 
consolidate itself in the Doab, that I cannot be doing wrong in 
bringing them to your notice. The evil certainly is of the 
gravest consequences, as we have full experience in our own 
neighbourhood. If there be a good prospect, on the receipt of the 
Ferozepore train, etc., of a final blow at the gi'eat aim, then to 
that everything must yield. If, however, the question, for some 
indefinite time, sliould be only of strictly maintaining our ground, 

Aid to Meerut. then I would request you deliberately to consider whether 
additional aid cannot for a time be sent to Meerut. The point is 
one on which I can only state my great sense of the value of 

Action against acting from Meenit on Malagurh and other places. It might 
"^^ * even perhaps save the tix)ops some unhealthiness in a stationary 
camp at this season near Delhi. The mischief done by th e 
country being from week to week orpanisftd againat us. and th e 
affair being thus one not only of a mutinous Army> but of a 
generally hostile papulation, is of a verif serintL^ (^h/imriery It is 
right to state this ; while the military decision is, of course, one 
with which it would be out of my place to interfere further than 
by what I have now said. The EngUsh Mail of the 1 0th July * 
is in, and does not promise any early arrival of troops. Neither 
is there a move upwards of troops from the Eastward. These 
are the facts of our position, and I would be obliged by youi- 

^ The words in italics are a correction in pencil written by Mr. Colvin 
himself. — W. M. 

* English Mail, 10th July, a month and a half old.— W. M. 



LETTERS TO DELHI AND MEERUT 145 

telling me the i^esult of your best reflection on them. I will ask 
you to show this letter to Mr. Greathed. 

j. e. colvin. 

Brigadier-General Wilson, 

Delhi. 

P,S. — Extract of letter from Brigadier-General Neill, dated 
1 9th inst., from Cawnpore. 

CVIL 

Fort Agra, 25f^ August 1857. 

My Dear Williams, — I have received youra of the (?)th 
regarding the expediency of reinforcing Meerut and taking more 
vigorous steps against the insurgents in the Doab. I can only 
in reply send you the enclosed copy of a letter which I have 
this day written to General Wilson, from which you will see that 
I have pressed the point as far as I can. There must be some 
mistake in the reports about Sir Patrick Grant, as he has not yet 
left Calcutta. But a note of your views and a copy of your letter 
shall be sent on to Calcutta. 

J. R. COLVIN. 

CYIII. 

Fort Agra, Aiufutt 29th, 1867. 

My Dear (tREATIIED, — Au E. T. message has been received 
from G. F. Edmonstone, Calcutta, of 20th August, to the Government 
following effect : — " Eumours have more than once reacheil this overtures by 
Govt : that overtures have l)ecn made by tlie King of Delhi to ^^°8 <^' ^"*»- 
the Officer commanding the Troops there, and that tlie overtures 
may possibly l>e reneweil uj^n the basis of the restoration of the 
King to tlie position which he held before the Mutiny at Meerut 
and Delhi ; the Governor-General wishes it to l)e undei-stood that 
any concession to the King, of which the King's restoration to liis 
foimer position would be the basis, is one to which the Govern- 
ment (as at present advised) cannot for a moment give its assent. 

" Should any negotiation of the sort be continued, a full report 
of all the circumstances must be submitted to the Governor- 
General in Council before the Govt : is committed to anything." 

I telegraphed at once in reply how the matter stands, having 
before written on it by post, on the 23rd July, to the Governor- 
General You will have the goodness to show this extract to 

VOL. L — lO 



146 



MSS. VOL. I. : SECOND SERIES 



Proposed 
pardon for 
Rangburs of 
Rohtak. 



Brigadier-General Wilson- I also mentioned to the Governor- 
General in my answer the allusion to a Palace message in yours 
of the 22nd. Tell your brother that I had gieat pleasure in 
recei\4ng his yesterday of the 23rd.^ It came alone, and not 
with any official letter from yourself, as its pm-port seemed to 
imply. 

We liave some renewed talk of the Gwalior Regiments 
moving this way ; in a month or five weeks hence I think it will 
be probable enough, should it not be possible before then to 
reinforce ua 

Our small expedition to Hattrass and Alyghur has been so 
far very successfid. They have had information sent to them of 
the move of the Jhansi men from Delhi to Alyghur. 

J. E. COLVIN. 



CIX. 



Fort Aqra, 4ih September 1867. 



My Dear Greatiied, 



P,S. — I have brought to the notice of the Governor-General 
the circumstance you mention of the petition for pardon of 
the 2QQQ Ranghurs of the Rhotuck District. The Snprftme 
Government may gjye directions for such cases of quieting a 
whole revolted population. You coiJd not, I think, do wrong, 
meanwhile, in promising the strongest recommendation to the 
Governor-General on arms being laid down, with exception of 
such persons as have been guilty of heinous crimes, especially 
against Christians. 



J. R. COLVIN. 



To H. H. Greatiied, Esq. 



[Note in Sir TV, Muir's hand : " Mr. Colvin's last letter to 
DehU."] 

(6th September, I gave Greathed our latest news of the 
movements of the Indore force. — W. M.) 



Mr. Colvin*8 
last illness. 



OX. 

Fort Agra, September Sth, 1857. 

My Dear Williams, — I received your two notes of the 
3rd yesterday evening. I am sorry to tell you that Mr. Colvin 

1 5 days from Delhi.— W. M 



LETTERS TO DELHI AND MEERUT 147 

has been getting rapidly worse during the night, and we fear the 
worst. 

Beade has undertaken the duties, and by his desire I write 
now to tell you that it was not intended to give any authority 
regarding the Sikh Horse police to Spankie independently of your 
control. 

C. B. Thornhill. 

[NoU by Sir W. Muir : " C. B. Tliornhill (Secy, to Govt.) 
wrote above by Reade's directions."] 



CXL 

Agra, 10 September 1857. 

My Dear Havelock, — Mr. Colvin's remains were buried Mr. CoMn's 
this morning, seventeen minute guns were fired, and every respect j^«^j 
shown by the Military. Mr. Beade has assumed, as before assumes chaige 
intimated, charge of the Government. ment! ^*" 

We have just received very satisfactory accounts from Dehli 
up to the 5 th inst. The siege train arrived safely on the 4th. Arrival of 
"The supply of shot and shell," Greathed writes, " seems liX!"^"" *' 
inexhaustible. It was escorted by 230 of the 8th Queen's and 
a wing of a Beloch Battalion." The Detachment of Bifles and 
Foot Artillery from Meerut was to come on on the 5 th. Each 
of the siege guns was drawn by two elephants. Lt.-Col. Hogge Lieut-Coi. 
had arrived from Meerut as Commissary-General of Ordnance, °^*** 
and, Greathed adds, " is admirably suited for the post." Wild's 
Punjaub Infantry was at Paneeput on the 4th. Goolab Sing's 
force VKts not to be waited for. They were marching leisurely, and 
probably had no great inclination to be on the front of the action. 
" My brother's Begiment, the 8th," writes Greathed, " claim tlie 8th Queen's, 
post of honour, being the Senior Begiment in camp. Our troops 
are animated by the best feeling." He writes in warm admira- Sirmoor 
tion of the noble bearing of the Sirmoor Battalion. " Too much * ^^ 
cannot be said in their favour. They have served as the main 
picket at Hindoo Bao's ever since we arrived, and have lost half 
their number in action. They insist on having their sick and 
wounded on the upper storey of Hindoo Bao's house. Traverses 
have had to be erected opposite the windows to keep out round 
shot, and only yesterday a 10 -inch shell carried away a comer of 
the roof. Major Beid has never been in camp. He is our Major Reid of 
watchman. The Corps should bear the motto of * Vigil et tenax.'" *^® Goorkhw, 



148 



MSS. VOL. I. : SECOND SERIES 



Disorder in 
Delhi. 

Pay of King's 
troops. 

Patiala re- 
ceives present 
of guns from 
Sir J. Law- 
rence. 

Oeneral Bnkht 
Khan. 



Patiala army. 



Lumsden at 
Candahar. 

Evacuation of 
Herat by the 
Persians. 



Sickness in 
Delhi camp. 



Offers of 
service by 
Delhi princes. 



Palace over- 
tures. 



Gwalior. 



Indore troops. 



The disorder in the City continues to increase. The troops 
are dissatisfied at not receiving their pay. The King has made 
them an advance of one Rupee to each Sepoy, 2 to each 
Cavahy, and 4 to each Officer. "The four Hindoostanee guns 
taken by Genl. Nicholson have been given to the Futiala Eaja 
by Sir J. Lawrence, who purchased them at a vahiation, as they 
were prize of war." 

The zemindars of Faniput and Sonput reported to the King . 
on the 3rd, the approach of the siege t.rftii], Rnrl nffpr^] to help in 
capturing it. The project was referred to General Buklit Khan. 

Greathed had a letter from Mr. Ford, dated the 1st instant, 
stating that a conspiracy had been discovereil among the 
Mussulmans of the Puteeala army. No harm has been done, 
but the discovery justifies Van Cortland's caution. 

A letter from Major Lumsden at Candahar intimating the 
evacuation of Heerat by the Persians on the 27th July. 

All was quiet in the Punjaub. Writing on the 5th, Greathed 
says : " It is confidently expected that the ball will open on the 
7th, Monday." 

The Artillery force is mentioned as the healthiest in camp. 
Fever prevalent among the Infantry. Admission to hospital 
of Europeans about 100 a day. Cholera had appeared among 
the 6l8t(?). 

The offers of service on the part of some of the princes, 
which were rejected by Mr. Greathed, were made again to the 
General in a somewhat altered form. There was a distinct offer 
to destroy the Bridge and to enlist the services of the Cavalry, 
and with their aid to put an end to the Infantry, on condition 
of favour being shown to the Royal Family. General Wilson 
refused positively to entertain any commimications from the 
Palace. Greathed says he wrote full accoimts to Mr. Edmon- 
stone via Bombay of all that was passing on these occasions 
between the end of June and middle of August ; and explained 
all the particulars regarding the Palace overtures. It is not 
known whether the communications have reached. 

There is nothing fresh from Gwalior side. As far as we can 
make out, the Ivhcap troops have all /cpoaaeS the XvfifivX, but 
whether they mean to fiove 0i<; vai, or to go to Dehli, or to stay 
for a time at JcdXtto)/}, so far as we can make out the Koprivyevr, 
they have none of them moved or intend to do so till after the 
Avaa'€j(pa, 

The above intelligence should all be communicated to the 
Governor-General. 



LETTERS TO DELHI AND MEERUT 149 

I have now at Mr. Beade's desire taken a more exclusive 
charge of the " Intelligence Department," and will endeavour to intelligence 
send daily news for Calcutta either in MSS. or printed. ®^ ™*^ * 

As you will be away shortly, I shall address in future to 
Sherer, that they may be surer of immediate despatch. 

Our last from your camp is dated the 4th from General 
NeilL We are all in high spirits at hearing that so large a force 
is on its way up, and that you will be able to go on now to 
Lucknow. God preserve them till you reach, and give you a 
final glorious victory over the enemy there — is the prayer of 
many hearta — Ever yours, ~ ^, 

General H. Havelock, C.B. 

Note. — In future addressed through Sherer. 

Dehli gets Calcutta news through Bombay. — W. M. 

CXII. 

AORA, 11 September 1867. 

My Dear Greathed, — The Indore people remain in statu 
quo. It is not indeed certain whether all have got across the 
ChumbuL We have a native account from Dehli up to the 7 th, King calls ou 
stating that the King had issued an urgent perwanah to the Owaiior troops 
Indore and Gwalior troops to come to his aid, and sent it by j^hJ^i^' 
(Tholum Hyder and Jehangeer Khan — the latter an old deserter Khan, 
from Scindia. You will know better the particulars of the 
summons, and whether it is likely to have any other effect than 
showing in what straits the unfortunate monarch must be. The 
City and Country near have been in some alarm in consequence 
of these Mutineers. We look anxiously for the grand denouement 
of the Dehli play and for the march of Columns downwarda 
We hope they will come on both banks of the Jumna; but, 
as you observe in one of your letters, the movements of our 
Army (depend) on the course taken by the fugitive Mutineers. 
Hattrass doing well ; accoimts of Lucknow confirmed ; they have 
plenty of com, and millstones to grind it with. 

We should be glad to entertain Sikhs or Punjabis here, either Sikhs, Pun- 

iahis. 

mounted or foot, for our police. We hear you (have) hangers-on 
of this class in camp. Would they come down, if given to 
understand that they should have employment here ? See, please, 
if anything could be done in this respect. 

You might send down a few as Cossids to be kept here. One 
of your letters by the Customs men reached. The other you 



150 MSS. VOL. I. : SECOND SERIES 

mention I do not recollect. I have distributed the 3 letters 
sent with yours of the 5th. ,^ ^ 

H. H. Greathed, Esq., 
Agent Lt.-Govr. 

CXIII. 

AoRAy 12^^ September 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — Macpherson has received information 
of a serious character from Dinka Sao this morning. It is 
Gwaiior probable that the Contingent regiments have been unsettled by 

R^imenteand the departure of the Indore Rebels. They appear to have raised 
S^^de* ^*^y'^ the green flag, and demanded carriage of Scindia. He remon- 
strated with them, and succeeded in detaching the 5th and what 
remains of the 6th, with the 2 Mahidpore guns, and the whole 
Cavalry, say 600, from the main body — so that they are for the 
present amenable to Scindia's commands. 

The remainder, say quatre (?) full Regiments et cinque 
batteries, are in opposition to Scindia. They demand carriage, 
and the messenger who brought the letter says that they had 
their gims out on the roads leading to Scindia's Lushkar. It 
seems almost certain that he will not be able to detain them any 
longer. You may imagine, consequently, how anxiously we look 
for the movement of a column from your force this way. If the 
Contingent imites with the Indore troops, we are exposed to all 
the chances and risks of a siege. Please God, however, by that 
time General Wilson will be set at liberty from his present 
position, and able to succour us. Kindly let General Wilson see 
this, and give us as early intimation as you can of what movement 
may be made hither. We know well that his movements will 
depend in great measure on the course the fugitives from Dehli 
may take, but our necessities should also be borne in mind. 

Our last from you is the 5 th. Durbar native news we have 
up to the 8th. It is here stated that 4 Companies, 200 Sowars, 
and 2 guns have been despatched to Dholepore. Coupled with 
yesterday's notice regarding the perwanah to the Indore and 
Gwaiior troops, it looks like an escort to the two men Golam 
Hyder and Jehangeer, who were directed to take the perwanah. 
Movements of The news-writer also says that 4 Companies of Sappers and 

bodies. Miners were ordered to go off for the purpose of driving a mine 

under the Fort of Akbarabad. 

Cawnpore letters up to the 6th. Reinforcement would be 
there by the 10th. Lucknow expected to be relieved before 
the 20th. W. MuiR, 



LETTERS TO DELHI AND MEERUT 151 

CXIV. 

Agra, 12^^ September 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — The following is the copy of a Message 
received from the Government of India in reply to a letter from 
Mr. Colvin and Colonel Cotton to the Governor-General, suggest- 
ing an advance from the East in order to crush the rebels in the 
Doab. 

" The letter of the 11th instant addressed by the Lieutenant- 
Governor and Lieut. -Col. Cotton to the Governor-General in 
Council has been received. 

"I am directed to acquaint you, for the information of the Views of the 
Lieutenant-Governor and of Lieut.-Col. Cotton, that it is impossible oen^in 
to name the time at which a column from the south will be Council as to 

position at 

able to advance beyond Cawnpore. The force under General Agra. 
Havelock, when joined by that imder General Outram, will still 
be too weak for the work which lies before them at Lucknow 
and Cawnpore. Parts of Behar are in insurrection, and the 
means of protecting Bengal are altogether inadequate. You 
must not build upon the prospect of (?) an early advance to 
Agra. Several Eegiments must arrive before this advance can 
be made in force, and their time of arrival is very imcertain. 
As to Cavalry, it does not exist in this Presidency, and the 14th 
Dragoons cannot be spared from the Bombay Moveable Columns 
in Central India, where there is plenty for them to do. 

" "n^fi nrpflnif ^tion of the rebel power in the Doab is greatly^ 
to be_ deplored, but there is no force to direct agaiD «<^ i^ frnm 
here at present , and the Gov. -General in Coimcil desires me to 
say that he trusts to the Lieutenant-Governor being able to 
maintain his position in the midst of his difficulties with the 
same success as hitherto has attended his efforts, and with his 
own resources and defences. Not a day will be lost in pushing 
on relief to Agra when the means of doing this are at the 
disposal of the Government. 

" You are requested to send a copy of this letter in a safe 
form to Brigadier Wilson, and to inform him that the expecta- 
tion expressed by the Governor - General in a private letter 
to Major-General Bernard, that a force might be detached from 
Dehli southward, was founded upon the reports from General 
Bernard that an assault was about to be made. The Governor- 
General in Council does not doubt that Brigadier Wilson has 
used a sound judgment in not attempting an assaiilt hitherto, 
but he reckons confidently that at least the intention to retire 



152 



MSS. VOL. I. : SECOND SERIES 



from Delhi will have been abandoned now that the Army has 
been largely reinforced, if indeed no opening for a decisive blow 
can be found. — I have the honour to be, 

" B. H. L. Birch, Col. 
" Secretary to the Government 
of India, Military Department. 

" Council Chamber, Fort William, 
the 3l8t August 1867." 

W. M. 
CXVI. 



Gwalior 
Contingent 



Agra applies 
to Delni for 
troops. 



Aqra, 12^ September 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — Enclosed the translation of two 
letters intercepted on their road from Gwalior to Dehli. They 
tally with our other information that tlie Contingent ai-e 
detennined to move on the twenty-fourth Mohurrum, that in, 
on the dix-huitieme of this month. 

All our Authorities here are very urgent that this circum- 
stance should be pressed upon the notice of General Wilson. If 
all has gone well, Dehli has by tliis time fallen, and if so a 
Column could be spared to at tlie least protect our frontier, if 
not to attack and punish these mutinous bodies. Witli a small 
body of additional Euroi.)ean8 and some hoi^se we would be able to 
repel anything that came near us ; for we have a superabundance 
of heavy artillery. Our field battery, however, is not strongly 
horsed, and we need more Artillerymen. 

I thuik I sent a list of our Ordnance and Ammunition. 
I am going to send, at Colonel Collins* instance, a duplicate 
of it. . . . 

We Imve Colonel Becher's letters up to the 9th.^ Yours to 
the 8th.^ AVe eagerly look out for more tidings. Of the final 
residt we can haKlly hope to hear for a couple of days. When 
it does, we shall look out anxiously for the appearance of a 
Colunm to protect this frontier and scatter the threatening 
bodies of troops. 



W. MuiR. 



» 3 or 4 days to Dehli.— W. M. 



LETTERS TO DELHI AND MEERUT 153 

Letters just come in from Havelock. He speaks of an early Mr. Ommaney, 
advance on Lucknow, and says, I regret to say, that it is but too commissioner, 
certain that Mr. Ommaney, Civil Sei-vice, was killed during the ^*^^®^- 
siege. 



CXVIL 

Agra, 15/^ September 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — ^Yours of the 10th come in this 
morning, with a copy of General Wilson's to Sir J. Lawrence. 
Also a letter from Anson, for which kindly thank him, and one to Captain Anaon, 
Captain Chahners from Captain Dickens. They have all been ci^mera, 
taken advantage of for the " Memo, of Intelligence," as you will SjJ^ 
see in to-mon-ow's budget at any rate. The eagerness with which 
intelligence from Dehli is sought after is natiu'ally very great. 
Added to the general considerations which turn the eyes of all 
India at present to Dehli, we are at this moment more than ever 
dei)endent on its speedy fall. On Satui'day the 12th I wrote at 
length regarding the position of affairs at Gwalior, and every day Gwaiior troops 
confirms the intelligence that the Contingent are resolute on September, 
moving sur le dix-huitieme de ce mois cL They will join the 
Indore Troops, and intend moving on Agra. But long before 
that we trust that the " flying Columns " will be striking terror 
not only iuto the fugitive rebels of Dehli, but into those of the 
Gwalior Contingent. 

It is the wish of Mr. Keade and Col. Cotton that these 
circuuistances, as I before wrote, should be prominently brought 
under Gen* Wilson's consideration, in order that his plans, 
however they may be affected by the direction taken by the 
fleeing " Pandies," may, under any circumstances, make provision 
for the security of our frontier towards Gwalior and for the 
community of this Fort. 

• ••••• •• 

W. MuiR. 



CXVIIL 



Agra, 16*^ September 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — Colonel Becher's and your letters of 
the 11th came in last night, and have given high satisfaction 
and confidence to all here. The position held by you during 



154 MSS. VOL. I. : SECOND SERIES 

these stirring events has been a very enviable one, as you have 
seen so closely all the proceedings and known the causes which 
influenced them. 



W. MuiR. 



H. H. Gkeathed, Esq. 



cxx. 

AORA, September ISth^ 1857. 

My Dear Grkathed,^ — Late last evening your most satisfac- 
tory despatch of the 12 th reached. I beUeve I only express the 
general opinion here, when I say that we have reason to be 
Mr. H. H. deeply indebted to you for the full, clear, and comprehensive 
^2^5^ manner in which you commimicate to us the details of these 
momentous proceedinga You will see from the printed precis 
the reports which Cocks has sent us. We do not build upon 
them, but must wait patiently one or two days. 

We have had a letter from Beadon, dated 4th Sept. He 
says : " I begin to think that succour will reach you (at Agra) first 
from the direction of Dehli, and I trust it may be speedy and 
effectual." So they are beginning to perceive the real position 
of affairs. 

Our reports from Gwalior are that the Contingent intended 
to march last night, but it has continued to rain heavily, and that 
may detain them. 

We wait to see the effect of the news of the state of things 
at Dehli upon them. Anyhow, we look to General Wilson to 
furnish us with a Column sufl&cient to ward off and disperse 
these mutinous bodies, for they still talk of this Fort as the 
object of their attack. 

Enclosed is a statement of Ordnance and Ammimition ; 
Colonel Cotton is desirous that it should be submitted to General 
Wilson, in order that he may know what heavy Artillery is 
moimted and in readiness here, and not send down with the 
coming Colimin what we can ourselves supply. 

AV. Muiii. 
H. H. Greatiied, Esq., 
Agent and Commissioner, Dehli. 

* This letter, and the subsequent ones up to CXXIV. of 26th September, never 
reached Mr. Greathed. He died on the 19th September. — W. C. 



LETTERS TO DELHI AND MEERUT 155 



CXXL 

Agra, September 22n(2, 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — My last to you was on the 18 th, 
Friday. Saturday and Sunday we had not a line from Dehli, 
and began to get anxious. Native reports, however, from various 
quarters, and especially the budget of the Gwalior news-writer at 
the Dehli Court, assured us (notwithstanding Ghous Mahomed's 
ishtehar that the Boyal troops had taken the Puharee) that all 
was going on well. 

Yesterday forenoon your welcome letters of the 15 th and News of the 
16th arrived. Thank Anson also for his of the 16th. What^gwA^^' 
noble fellows English soldiers are ! What do we not, under 
God's providence and blessing, owe to them for the noble daring, 
intrepidity, and endurance they have displayed in this great 
struggle ! 

I send the sheets of printed intelUgence. I may add that 
the Bamgurh battaUon with the freebooter Kooer Singh are 
reported to have made their way to Eewah, so that Osborne has 
been obliged to fall back on Dumoh (it is said, but more probably 
Nagode if that continues firm). 

After all, the Gwalior Contingent did not march on the 18th, Gwalior 
as far as we know. They had a quarrel with the Maharajah, ^'^i'"- 
demanding of him treasure and carriage. On his refusing, both 
parties had out their guns, but after a time the Contingent came 
to terms. The 5th and the Cavalry are entirely subservient to 
him; the rest wait till he gives them carriage, so it seems 
probable there will be no move imtil after the Dussehra. The 
Indore men are still at Dholepore. Some Sowars with one 
Lall Khan are said to have reached Gwalior on the 1 6th with a 
perwanah from the King asking why they did not come to Dehli. 
There are symptoms of shakiness in the Indore men already, 
I imagine occasioned by the reports from Dehli. They are 
feeling if there be room for pardon. We are now looking 
out for your despatch of the 17th. 

W. MuiR. 

H. H. Greathed, Esq. 



I do trust to hear that General Wilson has recovered from 
his fatiguea How prudent and admirable all his arrangements 
have been ! 



156 MSS. VOL. I. : SECOND SERIES 



CXXIV. 

Aqra, 26th September 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — Nothing has come in from Dehli since 
the 19th. Our native reports and the flight of the mutinous 
soldiery give us a tolerably firm assurance that Dehli must have 
completely fallen some days ago. Still, we crave for details. 
We are also anxious about yourself. 

By the way, it was not till I had written my yesterday's 
C.B. Saunders, letter that I was aware Mr. Saimders was at Dehli. I fancied 

c s 

he had not been able to join. So long as you are disabled from 
writing, kindly ask him to give a daily bidletin of proceedings so 
long as there is anything of great public interest to chronicle. 
Some account of the state of the buildings in and about Dehli 
would be interesting. Have they been much injured by the pro- 
tracted cannonade and final bombardment ? The Church, the 
Palace, the Jumma Musjid ? Have the burial-groimds been 
respected ? What is the state of the little one outside the 
Cashmere Gate ? ^ 

By this time we doubt not that, with God's assistance, 
our troops have effectually relieved the heroic band in 
Lucknow. 

We continue to get panic-stricken accounts of the rebel 

Movements of forces from Muthra, etc. A considerable number crossed, as I 

nmmouB before wrote, by ghats higher up. Say 2 or 3000 men, 
some 4 or 500 reaching Muthra on the afternoon of the 24th. 
An immense body is reported to have arrived yesterday. A 
number are said to have already crossed, and to be taking a 
north-easterly route. A body of horse is also said to have come 
on in this direction as far as Furruckabad, people say with 
the view of going to Gwalior. It may, however, be only a 
reconnoitring party to see that no attack is intended from this 
side. There is a report, but as yet unconfirmed, of a move by 
the Gwalior Contingent this way. We long to hear some tidings 
of the pursuing column. 

AUyffurh AUygurh was attacked yesterday by the fanatics of the 

district, and Gobind SiTigh. o^r ^hief there, obliged to flee. 

Detachment We are withdrawing our European detachment from Hathrass 

m Agra. ^^ Khundoulie, 1 miles ofif. We very much need, in all these 

quarters, the support of the pursuing column. And it will be a 

* Where our little Maggie was buried in 1855. — W. M. Grave seen in 
good order in 1894.— W. C. 



LETTERS TO DELHI AND MEERUT 157 

grand object when Allygurh can be occupied by a force that will 
be able to retain it against all comers. ,^ ^ 

H. H. Greathed, Esq. 

P,S. — This moraing's news from the soutli is that the Indore 
troops at Dholepore are collecting carriage. They are in an 
awkward predicament at present, as Sindia is said to have 
destroyed the boats at the Dholepore ghats. They talk of 
coming this way ; but it can be only bravado : they will prob- 
ably join the Dehli fugitives. 

cxxv. 

AORA, 27 September 1857. 

My Dear Colonel Greathed,^ — The last I had from your 
brother was the 18th. Colonel Becher's letter of the 19th 
mentioned that your brother was very ill of cholera. The 
despatches of the 19th, 20th, and 21st have apparently mis- 
carried. And we knew only by native report of our success at Agra hears 
Dehli till this afternoon, when Colonel Becher's letter of thetemberof^ 
22nd arrived. He mentions that you are coming down in com- ^^^'i^hY 
mand of the pursuing column. We shall be very glad to have 
copious details from you of all the proceedings from the 19th. 
We were then in occupation of the northern half of the city 
down to the Chouk. What were the operations which led to the 
occupation of the Palace ? 

You will no doul:)t now l^e near Muthra. We hear that the 
debris of some 20 Infantry Eegiments, besides Cavalry, is con- Position of 
gregated there. Say 5 or 6000 men, of whom 2000 are sick Muthra^** 
and wounded; some 20 H.A. guns. They are making a bridge; 
but I hope you will get to them before they have finished it. 

They are corresponding with the Gwalior Contingent, whoGwaiior 
have a siege train and well-furnished magazine. But it is ex- " *°^" * 
pected that the Maliaraja will l)e able to hold them back. The 
Dholepore men have no ammimition, but some 10 or 12 gims. 
The Contingent are about 4000 men; the Dholepore people Dhoipore 
about 2000 or under. The troops at Muthra have not much ^"^ 
ammunition. 

W. MuiR. 
To Colonel Greathed. 

' Supposed to be marching down by Muthra. (He came by the Doab.) — 
W. M. 



168 



MSS. VOL. I. : SECOND SERIES 



CXXVI. 

Agra, 28 September 1857. 

My Dear Sir/ — I was very glad to receive youra of the 
20th. It was very long on the road, having come in only 
Mr. Greathed'8 to-day. Your letter to Mr. WiUiams had already acquainted us 
with the melancholy tidings of Mr. Greathed's death ; and 
Colonel Becher's of the 22nd, which reached yesterday, had 
communicated the news of the complete capture of DehlL* I 
enclose our printed budget, which contains some other infor- 
mation. 

It is a cause of great satisfaction that there was on the spot 
one so well fitted as yourself for taking up the important and 
delicate duties of the Agent's office. 

Besides the ordinary news of the day, we shall be much 
interested by any political intelligence you may communicate 
regarding the Chiefs and Princes in and about Dehli. Evidence 
regarding their complicity in the late proceedings will be best 
obtained by immediate investigations. I am very anxious to 
JbiyjurChiet hear whether the Jhu i jur Chieftain has comprom isftf^ l^imRf^lf 
The acts of his subordinates were certainly hostile to us . 

The Cawnpore news in this extra is not official Cossids 
are overdue from that place. 

W. Munt. 

C. B. Saunders, Esq. 



Havelock 
defeats the 
enemy near 
Cawnpore. 



P,S, — Pray offer very hearty congratulations to General 
Wilson for the glorious conclusion he has achieved to the long 
struggle. 

CXXVII. 

AoRA, 29th September 1857. 

My Dear Sir, — ^We have good accounts from Cawnpore, 
which I hope to be able to send you in a printed form. In case 
the proofs should not come, I may mention in brief that on our 
first march on Monday morning, the 21st, Havelock drove the 
enemy before him with great loss to them, and the capture of 
6 or 7 gims; and with the loss of only one or two killed on 
our side. No further opposition had been experienced that day, 
or on the march on the next, and all were in high spirits. 

1 Copied by W. Lowe, C.S.— W. M. 

* The garrison of Agra heard on 27th of the complete capture of Dehli by 
letter of Dehli, 22nd.— W. C. 



LETTERS TO DELHI AND MEERUT 159 

I was delighted to hear from one of our native Christians 
here that my excellent friend, Professor Earn Chunder, was safe. Professor Ram 
He teUs me he is with Captain Tytler of the Pay Office. ^^*"^^*''- 
Pray tell him that I have mourned deeply over the fate of CapuinTytier. 
Chimman Lai, and trust that he himself has been spared to be a Chimman Lai. 
blessing to his countrymen. 

It was on my mind several times to write and ask Greathed 
to save as many rare MSS. as he could, but I forgot. In 
Captain Anson's note I observe that some vcdudble books have 
been taken possession of. They should be carefully arranged and 

catalogued. has 

a fine library. Especially a good copy of the Seerut flwAa^/wJe, Copyofthc 
which should, if possible, be saved. Eam Chunder will know Hishdmu 
al)out it.^ 

In which burying-ground was Mr. Greathed interred? 
Kindly mention about the state of the new burying-ground out- 
side the Cashmere Gate. Are any of the former gravestones 
standing, and were any of the graves desecrated ? 

We liave not had a word from Colonel Greathed, but there 
is a warm report in the bazar that the pursuing column has 
come upon the Muthra men and dispersed them, etc. But this 
is, I fear, rather what the people desire than what has been 
obtained from carefully checked evidence. 

W. MuiB. 

C. B. Saunders, C.S. 

CXXVIIL 

AoRA, 30^A September 1857. 

My Dear Sir, — Your last letter is dated the 22nd. It surprised 
us rather to get a despatch from W. Clifford from Ghazeeooddeen- 
nugger, as your last communication led us to expect that the 
column would march via the Kootub down the right bank of the 
Jumna. Colonel Greathed has been written to, to hasten down Greathed 
as rapidly as he can, otherwise the Muthra Mutineers will^^^^^^* 
elude pursuit, as they have got their bridge ready, and will be S^?' 
able to carry off their guns to annoy us hereafter in Rohilkhund Neenmch 

r\ ju advance. 

or Oudh. 

It is now probable the Gwalior Mutineers will go towards Nana tempera 
Cawnpore. The Nana has been tampering with them. AMutiMere.' 
message from Calcutta has come in to-day appointing temporarily 
Colonel H. Fraser, C.B., to be Chief Commissioner in these Pro- 

* We got this, and I gave it over to the India Office Library.— W. M. 



160 



MSS. VOL. I. : SECOND SERIES 



Col. H. Fraser, vinces, with Supreme Military and Civil command, but not 
ed cLief^^om- affecting the Dehli force, or other forces in the fi6ld ; — ^in Revenue 
and Judicial matters to have the advice of the Board and Court. 
Other news you will get from the enclosed printed slip. 



missioner, 
N.W.P. 



W. MUIR. 



C. B. Saunders, Esq., 
Delhi. 



CXXIX. 



AoRA, October Ut, 1857. 



My Dear Sir,- 



Disposal of 
documents 
found in 
Palace, 



and Arabic 
and Fenian 
MSS. 
Setrut- 
Hishdmi. 



What has been accomplished in the matter of seizing corre- 
spondence and papers in the Palace at Dehli ? The Governor- 
General desired that all documents of the kind should be taken 
into custody and carefully preserved, with the view of examination 
as to whether they incriminated the Royal Family. We shall be 
glad to hear from you how your political investigations go on, 
and what proofs you find of any previous plot. Subsequent par- 
ticipation will Ibe more easily susceptible of proof. 

In a previous letter I asked about the preservation of rare 
Arabic and Persian MSS., particularly a copy of the Secrut' 
Hishami belonging to the Principal Sudder Ameen. 

Hoping soon to hear from you again, and begging that you 
will still favour us with a daily report. 

W. MuiR. 
C. B. Saunders, Esq., 

Off. Agent and Commissr., Dehli. 



INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT, AGRA. 



MSS. VOL II. 



THIRD SERIES. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTEY 



TO 



CAWNPOEE, CALCUTTA, ETC. 



From 2nd Ootober 1867 to 19th November 1867. 



VOL. I. — II 



INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT, AGRA. 



MSS. VOL II. 



THIRD SERIES. 



LETTEES DOWN COUNTEY 

TO 

CAWNPOEE, CALCUTTA, ETC. 

From 2nd Ootober 1867 to 19th November 1867. 

CXXX. 

Agra, 2nd October 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Letters from CoL Greathed's Camp confirm 
the news I gave you yesterday on native authority. 

Mr. B. Sapte, writing from Boolundshuhur on the 29th, 
states that on the 28th they marched on Boolundshuhur and Fight in Bool- 
came upon the enemy at daybreak — our Force consisted of 2 (M^lai^rh^ 
European Eegiments, the 8 th and 75 th, 2 Punjab Infantry 
Eegiments, 3 Punjab Cavalry Eegiments, the 9th Lancers, 1 8 
guns and 2 mortars. Wulleedad Khan had besides his Malagurh 
levies the whole Jhansi Brigade. They had entrenched them- 
selves outside the town on the road leading through the Civil 
Station. "They fired as we advanced, and after two hours* 
pounding or more we drove them from their position, killing 
some 150 of them, and losing ourselves some 50 killed and 
woimded, among the latter six officers. We took one 9 -pounder 
gun and one 3 -pounder, two 9 -pounder ammimition waggons, a 
quantity of small-bore ammimition, and 25 barrels of gun- 
powder." Wulleedad Khan, as I feared, escaped from his fort 
during the action and fled to Eohilkhund. " The Nana Sahib was The Nana, 
said to be with him," but I conclude it is the Nana's wounded 
brother, regarding whom I had information about a fortnight 
ago that he had passed up with a retinue of sowars through 
Anoopshuhur to Malagurh. 



164 MSS. VOL. II.: THIRD SERIES 

Mftiagurii On the morning of the 29th we took possession of Malagurh, 

and operations were in progress for mining and blowing up the 

Fort. The detachment would then march via Anoopshuhur and 

Debhaee to Allygurh, which they might reach on the 4th or 5th. 

Mr. Sapte says he has applied to Meerut for a force to settle 

his district, which is naturally, after Wulleedad's long reign, in a 

disturbed state, — Greathed of course cannot spare any men from 

his colunm. 

Country Notwithstanding this, things are already beginning to tran- 

sett ng owu. ^^^Qjigg^ f^p « jj^ jg establishing his Police, and hopes the Mail 

Carts will be running in a very short time, the road between this 

and Meend will be quite safe in a few days." After that, who can 

Country not say th^ country is against us ? It has only to be rid of a few of 

Government, these heads and fomenters of rebellion to quiet down again into 

peace and order. 
Movemenu of The Jhansi Brigade still retains 3 of its guns, but can have 

but little ammunition. The fugitive Sepoys almost all have 
taken the road to Eohilkhund. 

Sapte says : " It is uncertain what road this column wiU take 
after Allygurh — but possibly Futtehgurh." 

" There is another column out on the other side under 
Showers" This is the first intimation we have had, and that in 
a passing remark, as to any column being out on the right bank 
of the Jumna. 

We have not had any letters from Delhi later than the 22nd, 
and cannot make out what has stopped our communications. 

Meanwhile we have authentic information that the Bareilly 
portion of the fugitive troops at Muthra have crossed the bridge, 
and are now encamped within a few miles of the bank. 

The policy of the remaining portion we cannot exactly make 
out. Tl^firft hft ye been violent altercations between ttie Ear^illy 
and the ot her Brifapxies: the latter ftffi hungry ^"^ J^^ fiimiRhed. 
the former have their purses well stocjke^ with silver and gold. 
There was a strong party against the BareiUy troops being 
allowed to cross with their arms and treasure and go off to 
Bareilly. It talked loudly (after the repose of a few days had 
recruited their strength and again raised their spirits) of the 
necessity of striking some blow nearer at hand, and of improving 
their impoverished resources. 

The BareiUy Brigade/ however, has evidently the advantage in 
every way, both in resources and mind, — and having actually led 
the way, its authority is not unlikely to draw all the rest of the 

* Dr. Farquhar's handwriting. W. M. 




LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 165 

force over. A recent report, in fact, states that a portion of the 
Neemuch Brigade has actually crossed the river. 

Of the Dholepore Mutineers we cannot learn that the main 
body has even yet moved. They have been detailing bodies of 
cavalry to reconnoitre, and perhaps collect supplies. They have 
also been looking at the road to Bhurtpore. What all this may 
portend one cannot say, but I still incline to thinking that, unless 
scared away by the Flying Brigade — (people begin to smile when 
it is called by that name), they will pass over into the Doab by 
Muthra. 

Nothing new from Gwalior. 

Col. Eraser has recalled the detachment from Saidabad, and 
ordered it to fall back on Agra. He does not wish it to risk 
the chance of an encounter with a body of mutinous troops on 
their flight across the Doab. 

The Hatrass expedition has nevertheless done great service. Hatrass 
It prevented the " Naib Soobah " establishing himself at Allyghur. ^ ^^^'"^'^^ 
raismg levies, and collecting the revenue^ at a very critical 
perioo. 



It also protected a large quarter of the country. I do 
trust Hatrass may yet escape being plundered by the Mutineers 
as they pass. 

A letter from Meerut of the 23rd ulto. gives the following Engagement 
particulars of the Mozuffumuggur business. " All our available Juggerl* ^^ 
force has gone out northwards, to pimish a very large collection 
of Mussulmans at a place called Thana Bhowun to the north- 
west of Mozufiumuggur. It is the breeding place of all those 
Irregular Cavalry. Brigadier Smith's brother with a small force 
went at them last week, but failed in polishing them off 
altogether, owing to the Seikhs and Goorkhas having held back 
in a most shameful manner. The former are young soldiers and 
the latter mongrel Goorkhas, — both requiring Europeans to show 
them what to do. Smith Johnson of the 18th, and Low, C.S., 
were wovmded. Of course this has made the faithful very cocky, 
but it will soon be taken out of them by the Eifles, Dragoons, 
H. Artillery Mortars," etc. The same writer adds a few interest- 
ing details regarding Delhi 

" The breaches were found impracticable, and scaling-ladders Assault of 
had to be used. You recollect how little of the walls could be 
seen at the distance of 200 yards. Salkeld with 5 Sergeants 
went to blow in the gates ; but one escaped unhurt. Salkeld has Saikeid. 
lost an arm; they hope to be able to save his leg. Of 14 
engineers told off for duty, ten were knocked over. The casualties Engineen* 
amount to 65 officers and 1160 men — many but slightly *^°*^*^^' 



166 MSS. VOL. II.: THIRD SERIES 

wounded." I give the figures, as the writer, an engineer, is 
likely to be well informed. He adds that loads of caps were 
found in the city, and indeed that nothing but powder seemed to be 
Church at scarc e. They had begun a field work near the church ; the dome 
^^^*' of the latter building is well perforated. The health of the troops 

is better since they came into the city. " The town people are 
asking to come back, but the General will not allow them at 
present." I fancy there must be some mistake about this latter 
statement. 

Nothing yet about Lucknow. We have had nothing from 
you later than the 24th. 

W. M. 
Sick from Delhi said to be going to Agra. 

J. W. Sherkr, Esq., Cawnpore. 

CXXXII. 

Agra, 3r(f October 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Still no letter from you, — your last is 
now 9 or 10 days old. 

After a silence of nearly a week, a Delhi letter came in yester- 
day to Capt. Nixon from Col. Becher. Mr. Saimders' despatches 
of. previous dates may have miscarried. But he has oflBcially been 
Administrative reminded that the Government of India wishes a daily Cossid 
JJ'JjJglll*®"** communication between this and Delhi to be regularly main* 
tained. I have given the scanty intelligence of Becher's letter 
CoionelBrowii, in the extra sent herewith. Col. Brown is Military Governor of 
Ooionci*Joiie8 ^^Ihi, and Col. Jones Commandant of Palace. From the manner 
Commandant in which the expedition under Brigadier Showers is mentioned^ 
it would appear to be a mere local business — not to imply a 
march down the right bank of the Jumna to Muthra. The 
words are — "a small Force under Brigadier Showers is at 
Humaiyoon's tomb. A number of city badmashes had assembled 
there and at the Kootub, where the Force will go afterwarda" 
Delhi Princes. Two more SOUS of the King had been sent in by Brigadier 

Showers, — Mirza Mundoo (Mehdi ?) and Bukhtawar Shah. I do 
not remember to have heard their names prominently mentioned 
in any of the rebel proceedings. They are to be tried by a 
Military Commission. 
VanCort- General Cortlandt had arrived at Boh tuck on the 26th. 

*" The quotation given from General Penny's letter is gratify- 

Payment of ing ; the fall of Delhi has had, as we expected, " a marked effect 

revenue m " * i- » 

MMrat. on the Meerut District, revenue being brought in rapidly." 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 167 

From Muthra our intelligence is that the entire Bareillj BaroOiy 
Brigade had crossed the bridge by the evening of the 2nA They ^''*^®- 
are still encamped on the opposite bank, but may have moved 
towards Hattrass to-day. From Saidabad an £1. TeL Message 
came in this morning (for the vnre Jias "been set up so far) to say 
that heavy firing had been heard in the direction of Moorsaun 
(between Muthra and Hattrass). Mr. Cocks had heard that 
the troops which crossed had been recalled to Muthra, and 
attributed the cannonade and recall to the approach of the Fly- 
ing Brigade down the right bank. But we have no reason to 
expect this Brigade at Muthra. The fact of the recall is not 
corroborated by any reports we have yet received direct from 
Muthra, and no very certain conclusion can be drawn from the 
mere cannonade. Col. Greathed and Mr. Saunders will, I trust, 
have got my letters urging on their column towards Muthra; 
and these Mutineers may yet be crushed. 

Our last account direct from Muthra was that nimibers from Movemente of 
the other brigades had crossed after the BareiUy Brigade and ^''"®^' 
were following them. A detachment which the Neemuch men 
had sent to Bindraban had returned on the night of the 1st with 
some monfty IT fig-^ P^ there. They had also collected pnmtf^ at^ 
Mahabim. 

The Indore Mutineers had not moved from Dholepore up to indore troops, 
yesterday forenoon, but they were preparing to start, and were 
likely to march yesterday evening or this morning. A later 
messenger says that they had not moved last night: that 
they daily made preparations to start, and daily deferred them. 
It will take them three or four days to get to Muthra, and their 
course may yet be altered by the advent of Greathed's column. 
At present none of the Indore troops seem to have any other 
idea than to go to Muthra. 

The Contingent are said to have invited them back to 
Gwalior, as they stood in need of their Cavalry ; but Scindia's Scindia'i ar- 
arrangement in carrying oflf all the boats eflfectually prevented'*"**™*"*'* 
this. 

There are at Dholepore 25 sowars deputed by the Delhi 
fugitives at Muthra ; and a daily correspondence is kept up be- 
tween the Mutineers at both places. 

From Gwalior we have news to the 30 th ultimo, both by Gwalior news, 
messenger, and by letter received by Macpherson from the 
Gwalior Durbar. 

The messenger's account, which is consistent and intelligent, 
is to the effect that the fifth R^ment and 50 or 60 men of the 



168 MSS. VOL. II.: THIRD SERIES 

4th, with the Cavalry, had gone over entirely to Scindia. The 
remaining four Regiments with 250 Cavalry remain at Morar. 
They have forty guns, of which 3 or 4 are 24-pounder, the rest 
light. They have laden a part of the Magazine on 1200 bullocks, 
1000 camels, and 800 carts (the figures as given by a mere spy 
must be taken with reserve), and they want more carriage still. 
Scindia's The Maharajah has entrenched himself on one side the 

arrangemen . g^j^gg^^^ ^^q Mutineers on the other. He has given them no pay 

for last month. They have not yet decisively fixed where they 
are going to. The Poorbeahs are resolute in demanding to be 
led to Cawnpore. The men from the upper Doab talk of advanc- 
ing on Agra. The two parties are about equal in numbers per- 
haps ; but the Poorbeahs are the most influential, and likely to 
carry the day. 

The Maharajah has told the Contingent he will not allow 
them to march towards Agra ; they may, he says, if they choose, 
go in the direction of Cawnpore. 

The Contingent endeavour to stop desertion by severe 
punishment. They made an example of one man who tried to 
run away, by cutting off his nose and parading him about the 
camp on a jackass. 

Major Macpherson's letter also contains particulars which 
make me hope that no immediate attempt will be made on 
Cawnpore. 
Movements of The following is an extract from the letter he got : " Tjie 

^ ^"' Morar Mutineers have changed their mind. Now thev want to 
go first to Duttiah, Jhansi, and Jaloun. to ask them to join : 
if not, then to take from their Rajahs certain sums: then thev 
will go by Calpee : this is what they are talking about. 

" The guns and army which were put out for (i,e., to check) 
the Morar Mutineers are still at the same place, and will remain 
there till the Mutineers start from Morar." 
Colonel The following is about some troops disarmed by Durand, the 

disarms troops, particulars of which we have not yet had. " The four Companies 
6th Contingent Regiment who were in Aseergarh, and one Com- 
pany 5th Regiment who were at Boorhampore, were disarmed by 
Colonel H. M. Durand ; they first came to the Lushkur and asked 
for service ; H. H. refused them, on account of Colonel Durand's 
order. Now they are with the Morar Mutineera" 

The scene described in this sentence is one of the most 
ridiculous that can well be imagined. 

"Yesterday (29 th September) the Mutineers were all in full 
dress, and gave a salute to the Nana's Vakeel, who is still with 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 169 

them. In return, the Vakeel granted the rank of Brigadier- Nana's Vaku 
Major, Brigade-Major, Captain, and ensign to some Subahdars and ^S^, * ^ 
Jemadars, and has promised that when they will arrive at Cawn- 
pore they will then get pay and batta and Enam (gifts)." 

A letter has been received from Mr. Donald, 2nd Assistant Mr. Donald's 
at Sirsa, giving, on the whole, an encouraging account of the state strand 
of Bhuttiana. He is, however, anxious lest the disturbances in Bhuttiana. 
the Punjaub towards Gogaira should spread to his district . The 
only previous intelligence we have had of these is in the notice 
on the 21st ultimo by Barnes of a '* local disturbance, in the wild 
country between Mooltan and Lahore, against which a force has Sirsa news, 
been sent." This I quoted in a previous letter. Mr. Donald, on 
the 24th idem, speaks of it thus : " I regret to say that on the 
opposite bank of the Sutledge towards Gogaira the country is up. Gogaira revolt. 
Mr. Davis, the patrol, writes that the peonl^ ^ftye attacked the 
jail and TehseeL A plundering party came over to Fazilka and 
plundered one of the small villages there. Mr. Oliver has there- Mr. diver 
fore moved up there with a gun and some troops to awe the overawe the 
Wuttoo tribes at Fazilka. The Natives have a report that the J^j^J" ** 
troops at Mooltan have mutinied, and have possession of the fort ; 
this latter part of the story appears to me improbable. All about 
Sirsa is quite quiet. The Buhawulpore troops stationed here 
appear at present well disposed. I am all alone at Sirsa, and on 
the *qui vive.' It is generally supposed that the Minister of 
Bahawul Khan is at the bottom of the rise of the Beloch tribes Baiiawui 
on the Eavee." ^^"'• 

Of his own district he gives otherwise a fair account. The Sirsa District, 
town of Sirsa is gradually becoming reinhabited. All the revenue 
had been paid in, plundered and deserted villages being reoccupied 
and cultivated. The crops as forward as could be expected 
from the season. Crime rare. All heinous cases being taken 
up; restitution of property insisted on, camels, cattle, etc., being 
recovered. It is verv remarkable that here, as in very many Cnntoms 
other places, " next to the troops, the Customs establishment f^^^\ "^"^ 
took the most active part m the rebellion" s ^^^ nutmyijg^ He 
speaks of a vast number of claims for restoration to property. 
If it be so in this thinly populated tract, what will it be in the 
crowded districts of these provinces ? How have you foimd this 
in Cawnpore, or has your authority not yet become so generally 
re-established as to bring you to this stage ? 

Notwithstanding the present tranqidllity of his district, Mr. 
Donald is very anxious as to the effect of the Gogaira rising on 
the connected tribes of Bhutties and Wuttoos. 



170 MSS. VOL. II.: THIRD SERIES 

As Col. Becher on the 28 th makes no mention of any 

Mooltan mutiny, or any disturbance at all in the Punjaub, we 

may hope that the local rising has been quelled. 

Waiiid-uz- Waheed-ooz-Zaman, Dy.-CoUr. of Humeerpore, has written 

Dy.-(5)Uector. *° exculpatory address to Government. He says he obeyed the 

Nana for a week as a " put off" ; that he has now been proclaimed 

Ruah of as a rebel by the Bajah of Chirkaree, whom he accuses of being 

ChirkAn. himself guilty of traitorous correspondence with the Mutineers, 

and in proof thereof sends a letter written by the Bajah in reply 

to the invitations of a Soubadar. 

What has been done about Waheed-ooz-Zaman ? I ^rrieve 
over the defection of so many of our old settleme nt Dv.-Co l- 
lectors. 

W. MuiR, 
J. W. Sherer, Esq. 

P,S. — A Telegraphic Message has just come in from Saidabad 

dated midday : " Intelligence has just been received of a portion 

Outbreak at of the rebels ha\dng reached Moorsaun, taken possession of the 

oorsaun. jjajah's fort, and burnt Mr. Saunders' factory at Chutoa. It is 

said they have two guns." 

I enclose a copy of my Revenue Administration Memorandum. 
I will send one occasionally, and you can supply the Commr. with 
copies. One copy you can send on to the Gov.-General, to show 
that we are doing our best to commence a restoration of Govern- 
ment at the earliest xx)S8ible moment. 

CXXXIV. 

AoRA, 4 Od. Sunday. 

My Dear Sherer, — The train of events at Muthra has had 

Movements of a denouement, in one respect unexpected. The Nusserabad and 

Mutineers. Pelhi troops followed the Bareilly Brigade as we expected. The 

Neemuch Neemuch Brigade alone remained on this side. And instead of 

Brigade. ^.^^ Indore troops marching from Dholepore to join the fugitives 

at Muthra, the Neemuch men, under Heera Singh (an old friend 

— he was Brigade-Major of the force that attacked us on the 

5th Jvdy), are marching to join the force at Dholepore. 

Indore troops. They are now nearly half-way. The Indore troops are still 

at Dholepore. They talked yesterday of coming on a stage this 

way and attacking Agra. They will probably form a jimction 

with the Neemuch Brigade a couple of days hence. We must 

wait to see what their course will be then. The Nawab who 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 171 

was with them from Bhopal has gone over, it is said, to Gwalior Nawab from 
to see whether no combination can be made with the Contingent ^^' 
force. The Neemuch and Indore troops might perhaps go east- 
ward via Etawah, or they might, as they threaten, ravage this 
district. Col. Fraser has written to Gen. Wilson, begging that 
if Gen. Showers' or any other column can come down the left 
bank, the demonstration would have the happiest effect. 

Poor Hatrass has at last suffered the fate of most of ourHatrass 
towna It was plundered yesterday by the Bareilly and other ^ ^" 
troops, who have gone off towards Secundra Eao, and will either 
go on northward by the Kuchla Ghat and Budaon to Bareilly, 
or by the Trunk lioad to Mynporee, and Furruckabad or Canouge. 
You shall hear more of their movements the moment we have 
intelligence. Nothing further from Greathed's colimm or from 
Delhi, and no news of Lucknow ! 

Yours of the 25th to Capt. Nixon, and the 27th to Col. 
Fraser, came in yesterday. The latter conveying the letter of 
appointment of Col. Fraser — the receipt of the Message I have 
before acknowledged. ™ ^ 

CXXXVI. 

AoRA, 5 Oct. 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — It is not often we have two Eoyal Relief of 
salutes fired within eight daya The ramparts of the old Fort j^ p^ 
gave proudly forth to the country far and wide the booming of &«■ salute*. 
100 guns yesterday, to testify our joy and thankfulness at the 
rescue of the gallant Lucknow band. But after the first burst 
of joy is over, anxiety again overclouds us till we know who have 
fallen and who survived the hardships of those terrible three 
months. We trust that you will give us the earliest information 
of all casualties. 

Yesterday more letters came in from Delhi, but of no later 
date than the 28th. Mr. Saunders has given the reasons for 
the change in the intention to send a Colimm down the right 
bank of the Jumna. The Army was too greatly reduced from 
the grievous losses and other disabling effects of the siege to 
admit of 2 efficient ColimMis being detached. 

" The preponderance of evidence went to show that they — Movementa of 
the fugitive Mutineers — would certainly avoid Agra, and in all coiumnf"*'* 
probability cross at Muthra, or even higher up." It was 
expedient therefore to endeavour to intercept them as they 
crossed the Doab, so it was determined to take that line. 



172 MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 

Their long stay at Mutbra would no doubt bave enabled 
CoL Greatbed to efifect tbis, if be could bave come down 
promptly after bis victory of tbe 28tb. But be was delayed 
two days at Boolundsbubur, and I mucb fear tbe fugitive trooj^s 
will bave by tbis time clean eluded bis grasp. But more of 
tbat below. 

Tbe otber Colunm is, as we apprehended, a smaller one, and 

destined for comparatively local objecta Mr. Sapte says " it is 

now marching about tbe neighbourhood of Humaiyoon's Tomb, 

and will from thence go towards Bohtuck or Goorgaon to 

reorganise our Police and Bevenue Establishments in those 

districts." 

w. Ford, c.s. A letter bad just been received from Mr. Ford announcing 

General Van bis arrival at Bohtuck with a portion of Van Cortlaudt's force, 

^J^"^^ ** and " had re-established our rule in that district" Mr. Ford is 

Rohtuk. ^ ]jQ relieved at Bohtuck by Mr. J. S. Campbell, when the 

bell* c.s. former will proceed to Goorgaon again. Sir T. Metcalfe had so 

caif'^'c^s^ mucb recovered as to be able to assume charge of tbe Delhi 

district. Guthrie was expected from the hills, and would go 

probably to his old charge at Hissar. So things are shaking 

into order throughout the Division. Everything is quiet Mirza 

Mina Jewan Jewan Bukht is mentioned, in addition to the other princes, as in 

confinement, and about to be tried. Nothing has been said as 

to the discovery of documents, etc., in the Palace. Saunders has 

been reminded of tbe Govemor-Generars wishes on tbis point. 

Instructions to Saunders mentions the instructions given to Col. Greatbed 

hed°rreiieWng ^s follows : " He was directed to place himself in communication 

column. ^jijJj Agra as soon as practicable, but to use bis own discretion 

with reference to following up and cutting oft* any detachments 

which might be crossing tbe Doab to get into Bobilkhund or 

Oudh in tbe direction of Anoopsbubur and the other ghats in 

tbe neighbourhood, and be was directed to march promptly to 

tbe relief of Agra, if necessity required tbe presence of the 

Column in your neighbourhood." 

MoTements of A message just received from our Detachment at Khundowlie 

hed^s^coiurun. Btates that Mr. Cocks bad received a letter from Colonel 

Greatbed, dated Khoorjab the 3rd. He bad been " unavoidably 

detained 2 days at Boolundsbubur." He was to be at Somna 

on tbe 4tb, and to-day would certainly reach Allygurb. But 

to-day the fugitive force with all their guns and elephants are 

at Secundra Bao, some five and twenty miles in advance of 

Allygurb, and I fear can march faster than our flying column, so 

they may be r^arded as gone. Unless CoL Greatbed sees any 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 173 

near and certain prospect of overtaking them (which he might 
possibly do if he heard they were entangled at the Kuchla or 
Kadur Gunge ghats), he has been requested to move without loss 
of time this way, with a view to attack Dholepore and crush the 
combined forces of Heera Singh and the Indore men. From the 
nature of the messages sent to CoL Greathed, and from the great 
probability of the Doab fugitives being beyond his reach, it is 
not at all unlikely that the Column may be here in 3 or 4 days, 
and that a movement may be made towards Dholepora 

Heera Singh, with the debris of the Neemuch Brigade, is now Neenmch 
on his way to Dholepore, which he may reach to-morrow or the ^^"^^*- 
next day. I cannot ascertain with any closeness his numbers : 
some say a portion of the Neemuch Brigade followed the rest 
with all their guns into the Doab; others, that all have come 
this way with 6 guns. The fighting men are likely not above 
a thousand, half cavalry and half infantry — thev are wretchedly 
off for evftrylil^j jijg. The latest intelligence gives number of the 
whole as under 1000, including camp-followers, and without 
guns. It is not imlikely they may disperse of themselves, imless 
taken by the hand by some better-equipped force. 

Macpherson continues to hear good accounts from Scindia — Scindia*8 
who says he fired a salute in honour of the fall of Delhi. loyalty. 

There are three parties bidding for the Contingent: 1st, TheOwaiior 
" Capt. Jehangeer of Delhi," who has now lost the small chance °**'^8«"*' 
he ever had ; 2nd, the Nana's Vakeel, who promised money, but 
gave only titles ; 3rd, the Jhansi Vakeels have been urging the 
Contingent to proceed there and support the Banee in her 
possessions. They have promised a payment of 2 lacs to them 
on their reaching Jhansi — which is supposed to include 1 J lacs 
as payment for the Magazine. 

All their talk is now to go via Jhansi levying contributions 
as they march, from Duttiah, Jaloun, etc. ; eventually they might 
go by Calpee to join the Nana. It would be rash to venture an 
opinion as to the movements of the Contingent, but I agree with 
Macpherson in thinking that on the present information their 
likeliest course is via Jhansi. The Nana's present inducements 
are haroly substantial enou^ to make them esTX)use his cause^ 

It is doubtful what course the Bareilly and other Brigades Bareiiiy 
will take. If they continue in the same direction their line of movenieuts of. 
march from Secimdra Eao, it would take them across the Ganges 
via Budaon to Bareilly. They may, however, dread the ghats 
with a force behind them. They may go on towards Furruckabad 
if their relations with the Nawab are friendly ; they may go on 



174 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Bareilly 
equipment of. 



Thannah 
Bhowun. 



Rohilkhund, 
loyalty of 
people. 



Mnzhubi Sikhs 
at Delhi. 



Fleet poet- 
ranner. 



to Canouge and cross into Oudh there ; or, which seems highly 
improbable, they may move your way towards Bithour. 

The latter step they would hardly take unless joined by 
some other body of Mutineers. They have 17 or 18 guns 
(light), and from 50 to 80 elephants. 

A letter from Meerut of the 25th states ''that the force 
that went to Thannah Bhowun found it empty. The rebels 
were said to have gone towards Shamlee and Baroti," — i,e, down 
the E. I. CanaL " Our force is after them, and we are making 
arrangements to secure the individuals. The body will evaporate, 
I fear, and not fight." Williams says that the people are 
urgent in petitions for our return to Bohilkhund, which he 
advocates our doing at once in forca But we had better first 
secure the Doab. " All well here," says Williams, " and loyalty 
the order of the day. The city to be illuminated to-night." 
He adds the following particulars about Delhi '* The Muzhubi 
Seikhs came across a party of Mahomedans in Duryao Gunge 
who had English property on them and boasted of their mal- 
treatment of our peopla They killed one or two of the 
Muzhubees, who set to work and polished off 300 of them, and 
among them one of the head Moulvees of <j}|^ 'J^iniinft ^najifl " 

Yours of the 28th just in. I mentioned in a P.S. in yester- 
day's letter that the news of the relief of Lucknow had been 
brought in by Nixon's wonderful runner in 2 J days. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq. 



P.S, — The country is now all quite clear from this to Dellii. 
A dak is immediately to be run, and indeed is already organised, 
if not running, to Delhi ; so the days of Cossids in that direction 
are numbered. My last letter to Saunders I hope, by Cossid, 
goes to-day. W. M. 



CXXXVIII. 

Agra, Qth October 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — ^Yours of the 30th reached yesterday to 
Nixon's address. To-day we have letters from Col. Greathed's 
camp, which reached Allygurh yesterday morning, the 5th. You will 
remember that a week or ten days ago the Mahom fidan fanatics 
of this district , joined by some of the bad characters, ejected our 
adherent, Eajah Gobind Singh, who with Doorgah Pershad, Dy.- 
Collr., and a few others, were holding Allygurh for ua Since 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 175 

that time they have been strengthening themselves there, and Affairs at 
they were bold enough to ofifer opposition to our pursuing column, -^ys™'"* 
They took up a position on the Meerut road with 2 5 -pounder 
guns, and as Campbell rode up towards the gate " the Jehadees 
saluted us with a roimd shot which/' he says, *' sent my sowars 
flying, and we were obliged to wait for Artillery ; then they were 
quickly smashed." We took their two guns and several of the 
little ordnance they have attempted to construct out of the 
EL TeL screws. " The Cavalry," writes CoL Greathed, " did most 
excellent service, and cut up fully 400 men with arms in their 
hands." They rode round the outskirts of the town and cut up 
the fugitive rebels. A few hours after our first appearance, Town of Ally- 
Campbell " marched in with some Sahibs and took possession of *^ ^^^^ 
the town imopposed." 

The Column was to move on this morning to Akrabad, half- Movementa 
way to Secundra Eao, to inflict chastisement on that town, whicb^][ iPlT°^ 
is the nest of f an aticism and d isaffection. After that, CoL Great- 
hed says '' his movements must be regulated by circumstances, 
and he is unable to say whether he will go to Khassgunge or 
Hatrass." " I am in great hopes," he continues, " of intercepting 
some part of the rebel force, who appear to think of nothing but 
escape with their plunder." But the fugitives must have been 
at Secundra Bao on Sunday night, and have therefore a clear 
start of 2 or 3 days in advance of CoL Greathed, who cannot 
reach it till to-morrow morning. Under these circumstances I 
have written, at CoL Eraser's instance, to say that, as the chance Colonel 
of overtaking the flying force appears to be gone, " the Chief SwoiMtirato 
Commissioner still desires CoL G. to march direct on Agra. He Colonel Oreat- 

hed s column. 

may now come via Secundra Eao." When he approaches we can 
then send out a small force for the permanent reoccupation of 
Allygurh, and CoL G/s Column can operate first on the Dholepore 
and other rebels to the south, and then upon Mynpoorie, perhaps 
on Furruckabad on the N.R The Doab and the left bank of 
the Jumna will thus be gradually swept clean of these rebel 
bands. 

In a previous letter, dated the 3rd inst., from Khoorjah, CoL 
G. mentions an unfortunate accident at Malagurh, terminating in 
the death of a valuable officer. The Column was detained, he 
says, at Boolundshuhur " by the necessity of providing for the 
safety of my wounded men and blowing up the Fort of Malagurh 
— in doing which, I regret to say, a most excellent officer, Lt. Lieutenant 
Home, Engineers, lost his life by the explosion of a mine which kiued at * 
was fired too quick." He complains of the small number of his Malagurh. 



176 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Movements 
of Delhi 
Mutineers. 



Condition of 

Oreathed's 

column. 



AUytnirh in 
the Mutiny. 



The Terai. 



Mi^or Ramsay. 



Action at 
Huldwanee. 



effective European force. " If you can give me any European 
Infantry it will be a great boon — I have not 400 with me fit 
for duty." We shall be able to help him for any near duty with 
200 or 300 at least. 

From all I can hear, the Delhi fugitives are making straight 
for Bareilly via Khassgunge and Budaon. We have no actual 
information of their movements after Secundra Bao, but the 
sepoys generally talked of taking that course. 

Greathed's force will not, however, be the worse of a little 
rest. George Campbell (now the Civilian with the column) writes : 
" At that point (Agra) I think it most desirable that some of your 
fresh Europeans shoiQd join the Column, for there is no mincing 
the fact (their officers say) that the European Infantry from 
Delhi, besides being so small in numbers, are quite done up in 
pluck as well as in everything else, and unfit for hard work and 
hard fighting." Greathed left a small detachment at Allygurh. 
" In spite of the fighting," says Campbell, " I think I have 
managed to save the wretched people of the town from further 
looting. It is rather empty, but they will soon return." Poor 
Allygiu'h has fared, excepting Delhi, worse than any other town, 
having changed masters so often. 

Eamsay ^ gives a capital account of the discomfiture of Khan 
Bahadoor's army sent against Nynee Tal. It occupied Huld- 
wanee on the 17th, and in the evening ad\^nced to Burokhuree, 
whence they were driven back by Eamsay's people on Huldwanee. 
At night Eamsay sent down a force of " 150 Goorkhas, 80 levies, 
with sowars and Volunteer cavalry to the amoimt of 60." In 
the morning they went against the Bareilly army, which was 
drawn up in array outside the little town. They stood till our 
army got within 400 yards of them, when the Goorkhas gave 
a cheer which put all to flight. " The bag " (such is Eamsay's 
sporting phrase) "was 114 killed and counted. On our side 
one Naib Bessr. was killed, and one Goorkha wounded." Two 
Flags and an immense amoimt of cooking utensils were captured. 
Huldwanee was uninjureil. 

Heera Singh must by this time have reached Dholepore, but 
it is a miserable band he has with him — the mere wreck of the 
proud force which measured its strength with us on the 5th July. 
What the Dholepore people mean to do we cannot divine. Some 
say they are already beginning to cross over on the single ferry 
boat left by Scindia to the other bank ; some, that they think of 
levying contributions from Bhurtpore, as they have done from 

* Afterwards General Sir H. Ramsay, K.C.B. 




LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 177 

Dholepore. One of their Nawabs is said to have gone ofif to 
Muthra with 300 or 400 followers, horse and foot, — the other two 
Mohammedan Chiefs (a Bhonal man ft^rl a Shl^■7fl.f^ft^ a re Raid to 
have quarrelled, and some believe that the whole force jf} ^rfift]nngr 
up. They still talk of Agra, and have been trying to mount an Dhoipore and 
immense gun, but the moment they began to have it dragged by SX^taik 
20 bullocks and propelled from behind by elephants the carriage ^^^is^ 
broke down. In fact, all we can say is that we must wait to 
gather their intentions — meanwhile I trust they will hold on till 
Greathed's Column comes up to give them a lesson. 

At Gwalior the troops still hold on at Morar. Macpherson Gwaiior. 
has received tidings from some outposts of vague nmiours that 
the Maharaja has gathered his troops around the Contingent, and 
was pouring grape into them. The account even mentions that 
H. H. got wounded in the shoulder, but we have been so often 
misled by rumours that we must suspend credence till further 
evidence is received. 

At Muthra all is quiet. Imdad Ally, the Deputy Magistrate Muthn quiet 
and Collector, resumed his office as soon as the Mutineers were 
fairly away — on the 4th inst. The town is quite loyal and 
quiet. 

The following from a yoimg officer at Dharwar, dated 6th Dharwar 
September, may be interesting. After referring to a few incipient 
and suppressed mutinies in the Bombay army, he says : " There 
is no doubt that the Collector of Belgaum, a Mr. Seton Karr, has Seton Kan. 
saved the whole of this country, and both Belgaum and Dharwar 
in particular. The native Regiments were to have led off the 
ball, and were to have been joined by all the scum found in large 
)lacea_ About the 1st August this pretty business would have 
come off had not Seton Karr found out, little by little, what was 
intended. We here were in some anxiety till we got in about 
120 men of our two European Regimenta The Fort, being the 
place where the Treasury and all the arms and ammunition are 
kept, would have been the first place they touched. It was no 
too desirable thing living in the Fort a month ago, but now that 
we have two guns and 120 Europeans inside, we who live in the 
Fort are objects of envy. I think all danger in this part of the 
Presidency is now over." 

I enclose a letter for Lord Canning, which please send on 
with this, and specially acknowledge its receipt at Cawnpore. 

You mentioned delays in the Post Office affecting despatches 
to Calcutta — were they of any material extent, and affecting our 
despatches from Agra ? 

VOL. I. — 12 



178 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Find out about the vxyman who brought in one of my de- 
spatches to you — it was that of the 23rd, I think — what was 
her story? 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherkr, Esq. 



AdTMioe of 

Dholpore 

Mntlneen. 



Gall to 
Oreathed. 



Akrabad 
occupied by 
Greathed*8 
Column. 



Agra detach- 
ment recalled 
to head- 
quarters. 

Reported aid 
from Nepaul. 



CXL 

Agra, lih Oct, 1867. 

Mt Dear Sherer, — Last evening information came in both 
to Macpherson and myself (though of a conflicting character and 
directly opposed to some other tolerably good evidence) that the 
entire Indore Force had moved with its Artillery from Dholepore 
to Munnia, a stage ten miles this side, where it was joined by the 
Neemuch remains. The force, it was said, menaced Agra. This 
morning the Dholepore Vakeel confirmed the intelligence, but we 
have had no messengers in to-day, and the information is open 
to some doubt, — if true, it will no doubt very soon be corroborated. 

It is possible that a detachment may have been mistaken for 
the whole force. Detachments have been out frequently in 
various directions phmdering the country, and this may be one of 
them. 

Meanwhile, to be prepared for any advance on Agra and to 
prevent the possibility of our enemy gaining time to entrench 
himself in any near vantage-groimd, Col. Fraser has ordered Col. 
Greathed's Column to march this way with all practicable 
despatch. And in case anything delays him he has been desired 
to detach 500 Cavalry and one troop H.A., and send them in 
advance to our relief by forced marches. Reinforced thus, we 
shall be able to maintain our position outside the Fort, and can 
wait quietly for the rest of the Colimm. 

A teL message came in from our detachment at Khundowlie 
this morning to say that '* information had been received of the 
occupation of Akrabad by CoL Greathed, and the destruction of 
a great number of rebels together with the capture of the leaders 
Mungal Singh and Metab Singh." This, however, seems to be a 
native report ; no direct communication from the Column seems 
to have reached Mr. Cocks. Our little detachment is to return 
to Agra this evening in consequence of the news from 
Dholepore. 

A letter received here from Nynee Tal, dated the 22nd ult., 
states that Jung Buhadoor had sent two Goorkha Begiments and 
1500 recruits to Almorah, and that Major Bamsay proposed at 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 179 

once coming down and occupying Bohilkbund. This is the first 
we have heard of it. 

Sapte has just sent me a brief receipt for a letter I addressed Booiundshu- 
to him on the 3rd : it is dated Boolundshuhur, 5th. He says : dutiirbed?^^^ 
" No news here ; Boolundshuhur district still very much disturbed." 
Nothing further from Gwalior. If the Indore men are really con- 
templating an attack on Agra, they must merely be calculating on 
the assistance of the GwaUor Contingent. 

To-morrow's letter will no doubt contain some more certain 
intelligenca 

W. Munu 

J. W. Shbrer, Esq. 

CXLI. 

Agra, Sth October 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — It is now certain that the Indore Force, 
joined by the debris of the Neemuch Brigade, is advancing this intimates near 
way. A considerable portion of the troops were 2 days ago at SS^^ ^ 
Munnia. To-day they are probably pitched in some numbers at ^^^^ "^ 
Jajow, some 18 miles off. Some camp equipage was sent on Brigade, 
yesterday to a spot on the other side the Kharee, 4 or 5 miles 
this side of Jajow, and the Zemindars have been seized and 
ordered to furnish supplies at Kakooba on this side the Kharee, 
and only 8 or 9 miles off. Bodies of sowars are also moving to 
our Tehseelee and Police posts on both sides the river. 

We are directly threatened by this enemy whatever course 
they may eventually take. The orders issued to Col. Greathed Orders to 
have accordingly been a peremptory reiteration of yesterday's column. * 
ultimatum, that CoL Fraser wished him to march promptly to 
Agra. 

I enclose a copy of my letter to him of this forenoon, which 
please forward with this to the Govemor-GeneraL 

This morning has brought us letters from Col. Greathed's 
Camp — dated the 6th inst., Akrabad — confirming the statement 
which I gave yesterday on native reports of the operations at 
Akrabad. Greathed's accoimt is '' that the Cavalry caught and Operations 
cut up the 2 brothers Mungal Singh and Muhtab Singh, and Mangai sin^ 
about lOQ of thftir Eajpoot followers^ A great number of armed g^^^^^Ri?-^ 
rascals have been since destroyed : and as I have just set the place puts, kuied. 
on fire, and sent the whole Cavalry out to cut up any fugitives 
who may be found in the fields, I hope we shall make an 
example which will ring through this District. Mimgal Singh's 



180 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



house has been blown up with his own powder. We found 
4 guns primed and loaded at the entrances." 

The village was no doubt a very bad one, and a severe 
example was required, but I fear, from what Campbell says, that 
m^ y trof^ps are too ready to execute jndiRfirim inate vengeance o n 
the innocent and guilty alike. Campbell's statement is, that as 
he was afraid the Colunm at its ordinary pace " was not likely to 
catch any one here, I got the Commander of the Cavalry to give 
me the Irregulars in advance, and we made a very successful 
Chapao (surprise) ; killed thfi^ notorious town Thakoors. and took 



several native guns anoTpowder, grape, plunder, etc. I think we 
polished off almost all the Thakoors' followers, and the refugee 
indiacriminate Mahommedans from Coel, etc. But I fear when the camp came 
^"* * up they killed a great many more besides, whom we had spared, 
as they went out native shooting in the fields, besides getting a 
good many in the town." In fact, he says in another place that 
'' we have established such a terror, that it is impossible to get 
any one to come in." 

The thing may be overdone ; it will require a very careful 
and judicious officer to restore confidence to the District, and this 
A. Cocks, C.S. we have in Cocks, who will, I conclude, go out in due course. 

Greathed left 100 Sikhs in Allygurh "as a temporary 
measure, but must withdraw them in a few days." In fact, our 
paramoimt object now is to be relieved of these Indore Mutineers, 
and until that is done we cannot detach any of the troops here 
to hold Allygurh. If, therefore, Greathed withdraws (as I con- 
clude he will) his Punjabees from Allygurh, its reoccupation must 
be delayed for a little. 

Greathed was to march yesterday morning " a short distance 
towards Hattrass : my men and cattle," he says, " are both weary. 
I shall make my way on towards Agra." He expects a rein- 
forcement of 240 fresh Europeans, 50 natives, and 20 gimners 
from Delhi shortly. They will join him, I suppose, here. 

Campbell's information as to the route taken by the Muthra 
fugitives was imcertain and imperfect, as he could get nobody to 
come near him. So far as he could hear, only the 8th Irregular 
Cavalry had taken the direct road to Bareilly, the rest having 
gone on towards Etah on the Grand Trunk Eoad. This infor- 
mation, at any rate, decided CoL Greathed to give up the pursuit 
even before (I conclude) he received our summons to Agra. 

Campbell adds : " Now that Lucknow is relieved, I trust that 
soon Havelock's Infantry, being joined to our Cavalry and Artil- 
lery (after clearing the country about Agra), there may be formed 



Allygurh. 



Route of 

Oreathed'8 

Columu. 



^ 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 181 

about Mynpooree, or Etab, a force fit for anytbing, whicb will 
quite clear tbe Doab, etc., and do a great deal more besides." 
Tbere will be no great difficulty in clearing tbe Doab, I fancy, 
Furruckabad being tbe only tough work, as tbey will try to 
entrencb tbemselves. But tbe great battle will be, I apprebend, 
on tbe borders of Eobilkbund and Gudb, and for tbat tbe Cavalry, 
eta, of Greatbed's force will be of essential service. Tbe Dbole- 
pore and Gwalior people must, bowever, be first disposed of, and 
tben tbe country soutb of tbe Ganges cleared of rebel bodies. 
Once tbrown nortb of the Ganges, the enemy can be operated 
upon in strength by a combined force. 

At Gwalior things are as before — the Maharajah has now Gwalior. 
every inducement to bind him to our cause, and he seems to 
make no secret of his attachment to us. Macpherson's letter 
conveying the news of the fall of Delhi was taken first to Dinka 
Eao, who read it and sent it at once to Scindia. H. H. was at Scindia's 
tbe time on the ramparts ; he read the letter aloud with exulta- ^^'^ ^' 
tion, ordered a Eoyal salute, and had it fired before him. The 
Contingent still talks of going to Jhansi, and thence to Cawnpore. Owaiior 
It would almost seem that Scindia has it commanded by his own °" "^" ' 
forces and guns, and if so he may prevent them taking away 
their Magazine. But one requires to be on one's guard against 
the " couleur de rose " reports which we too often get, so some 
grains may be taken from the conclusion that the M. E. has the 
Contingent at his feet. A letter has been received from Delhi, 
dated the 2nd Oct., from Capt. Halsted, who says : " We are now Captain 
working hard to get matters settled here and in the District." * 
Showers' force had returned from tbe Kootub. " He found 



niunbers of Delhi people at Hamaiyoon's tomb and at the Kootub. Policy at 
and drove them away. They are scattered all over the surround- 
mg country y and in the pp:eatest misery." I do not quite under- 
stand this policy : if persevered in indiscriminately it must drive 
these exiles into lawless habits. The guilty should be punished 
— sufficient example made, and the remainder, if peaceably in- 
clined to return to their homes, allowed to do so. 

" Another force," the same writer says, " under Brigadier General 
Showers, will march to-morrow towards Goorgaon, and will visit 
Rewaree and other places." The Delhi news-writer, who still 
flourishes imder the new regime, mentions, in his entry of the 
2nd Oct., this force as ordered in consequence of the receipt of a 
letter from Agra\ so until we got Capt. Halsted's letter we 
thought it possible it might be coming on here, but that seems 
more than doubtful now. It is odd to find the news-writer 



182 



MSS. VOL, II. : THIRD SERIES 



amuaiDg 
reports ftrom 
Delhi. 



News-writer's chronicling the acts of the " Sahib Knlan," his retiring to sleep, 
rising in the morning, taking exercise, holding durbars, etc., just 
as he before did, the acts of the old Xing. He states the force 
coming down in this direction at 400 Europeans, 2 Sikh and 
Guide Begiments, 8 guns, and 20 elephants. 

Hoping that we may soon be able to give you a better 
accoimt of our Indore invaders. 

W. MuiR 
J. W. Sherer, Esq. 



Telegraphic 
summary of 
foregoing. 



CXLII. 

MESSAGE. 

W. MuiR TO G. F. Edmonstone. 

Indore Force has made two marches this way from Dholepore, 
joined by the Neemuch Brigade. They threaten to attack this 
Fort. Reiterated summons to Col. Greathed to advance rapidly. 

Akrabad chastised by CoL Greathed on the 6 th. On 7 th he 
made first march this way. He may be here by 10 th or 11th. 
Ordered to send on some Cavalry and H.A. to us by forced march. 



Advance of 
the Indore 
force. 



CXLIII. 

Agra, 9th October 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — The Indore Force is moving steadily 
this way. It is to-day at Tehra, and is making preparations for 
bringing its guns across the Kharee river, about 10 miles 
distant. Some himdreds of Sowars have already crossed, and 
are prowling about the country and obstructing the road. A 
reconnoitring party of our Militia Cavalry went out this morning. 
It was fired on at the river, and followed — though at a respectful 
distance — by the enemy's Cavalry to within a few miles of Agra. 

Meanwhile succour is at hand, providentially, in Greathed's 
Column. Urgent summonses have gone out to hurry him on, 
I give copies of some of these as an enclosure to this letter. 
Agra cut oflf It is now more than three months since we have been cut 

three months. oS from the rest of the world, and have not seen a new face 
excepting 2 or 3 officers, who joined us from Ajmera We look 
forward therefore with special pleasure to receiving the Column 
here to-morrow. 

A letter has been received from Delhi, dated 5 th October, 
from Captain Shute. General Wilson left on the 4th for 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 183 

Meerut and the Hills, on Medical Certificate for 2 months. 
General Penny had arrived to take the command. Colonel General Penny 
Becher had left some days previously for Simlah. He speaks wu^lt^"^ 
thus of the Column now out on this bank. " Another strong ^^^ 
Column is out in this District under Brigadier Showers, having General 
for its object the visiting of Goorgaon, Fureebabad, BuUubgurh, coS!^ 
Eewaree, etc., and to look up any Mutineers in these parts." 
They were supposed to be at Goorgaon on the 5th. 

The reinforcements for Greathed's Column were to leave Reinforce- 
Delhi on the 6th. They would be here in a week Tne 52nd o^hed's 
(H.M.) had returned to the Punjab at Lawrence's summons. Column. 
There remained at Delhi the 60 th, 61st H.M., and 1st European Details of 
Regiment— 4th Sikhs, Guide Infantry, and Sirmoor Battalion, ^"^ «'"^- 
" all weak," and 2 troops H.A., so that the garrison of Delhi is 
regarded as not more than is necessary for holding it. 

A letter, dated the 30th ultimo, has been received from Mr. w. Ford, c.8. 
Ford at Rohtuck. General Van Cortlandt had arrived there. General Van 
as I think I before stated, on the 26th ultimo. They had ^'^^^*- 
visited Bhewani, which was illuminated on the occasion. 
Tehseels, Thannas, and Daks are being re-established. The Re-estebiish- 
large villages have tendered their submission, and the land Sovermiwnt. 
revenue collections are coming in well. The roads are opening Land revenue 
again for travellers ; the Customs Line is being set up. Ford is ^^^ *°- 
detained till Mr. Bicketts joins from the Punjab, whose place Geo. Ricketts, 
is to be supplied by Colonel Clarke, who is on his way from * 
Kurrachea Although the country is pretty quiet^ Ford thinks 
the presence of a Military Force will be required for somft t^mA opposition of 
as the JJla hommftd an population there " have been particularly TOpuiSioi^ 
o pposed to us." Our Cavalry is, a good deal of it, from that Kontuk. 
quarter. 

Eao Toola Ram of Rewarie, in Goorgaon, will need to be Rao Tooia 
proceeded against. He was frequent in protestation that he was ^"^ 
holding the Pergunnah for us, and complained to us of the 
invasion on his domain by some of the Delhi Nawabs ; but from 
Ford's present statement he would seem to be still in arms, and 
that of course against us. 

This morning we received letters from Greathed's camp. Movements of 
dated the 7th June, Akrabad. The Column was to have coSmn. ' 
marched that morning towards Hathrass, but the night before 
Colonel Greathed had countermanded the order, and " announced 
a halt and a return to Allygurh " — so Campbell writes. On 
receipt, however, of Colonel Fraser's orders to march on Agra, 
he issued orders to move forward next morning — and this 



184 MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 

morning he would be encamped at Hathrass. " The reason for 

changing his mind yesterday," says Campbell, "was that his 

Quartermaster said the road was very bad ; but it turns out the 

Quartermaster looked at the wrong road." The Sikh Guard will 

probably be left at Allygurh till the European reinforcements 

arrive from Delhi, when a portion of them will probably be 

stopped there. 

Colonel Great- Colonel Greathed strongly advocates the disarming of the 

dSmSng* population. " The \"illage8 appear all to be in arms as^ainst each 

popuiatioii. other, and till they are deprived of the means of warfare there 

will be a f^^\ diffipnlt^y i n telling friend from foe ." Is this 

question being discussed below ? 

Begarding the main body of the rebels, Greathed says : " The 
Bareiiiy Mutineers' force which goes by the designation of the Bareilly 

™gj^ gone Brigade has cei*tainly gone down to Etah. The messenger who 
was sent round from Allygurh to Khasgimge and Secundra Eao 
came in this morning and reported that not a Mutineer is to be 
seen on the Khasgunge Boad." 
Captain the 3 p.m. The Hon. A. Anson has just ridden in from the 

Hon. A. Anson, j^^jy^nce Cavalry and Artillery camp. It consists of 500 sabres 
in all, including 200 H.M. Lancers and 2 troops H.A., and 
Rapid advance was just 17 miles off at 11 a.m. to-day. They marched 25 
Colomn. " miles last night, and are to come in to Khimdowlie in the after- 
noon, and if necessary into Agixi this evening. It is commanded 
by Major OmTy, and is in excellent order. He thinks that Col. 
Greathed with the main body cannot be here till the day after 
to-morrow, the 11th, as "the hot weather before Delhi and the 
fatigues of the siege have seriously affected the health of the 
men." We shall help them in with waggons, and bring them in 
to-morrow^ morning. 

Begarding the general body of the rebels, a letter just 

received from George Campbell, dated yesterday, half-way 

Movements of between Akrabad and Hathrass, says : " I finallv ascertained 

from Secundra Bao that only the Mahommedans and the, 

residents of Bohjlkhund anions; the Mutineers took the direct 

road to Bareilly. All the rest, with all the gims (22 1 believe), 

took the Etah route to Cawnpore and Lucknow, they said, — but 

no doubt Futtehgurh must now l)e their point, where they will 

either join the Nawab or cross. 

Mutineers' All accounts agree that they are very much disorganised, and 

force diaorgan- marching like a rabble, not by regiments. But it is also clear 

that there are a great many of them. Our move has certainly 

had a good effect in making them go off in a more fugitive style. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 185 

The Bareilly Brigade were to go to Bareilly, and a division of 
guns bad taken place ; but wben be beard of our being at Coel, 
Bukbt Kban discovered tbat tbe cutcba Boad would not do for Bukht Khan, 
bis guns. 

All tbis is of importance to you. 

By tbe way, Colonel Cotton was talking tbe otber day about Traitorous 
tbe investigations into tbe Palace traitorous proceedings in ^jjjj pJJSe*^ 
1845 (?) (be formed a member of tbe Court of Inquiry) as^^^^-^- 
being in tbeir incipient stage very analogous in many points 
to wbat may be supposed to bave been tbe first stage of tbe 
present Mutiny. It would be a good tbing — if indeed it bas 
not already been done — tbat tbese papers sbould be bad out and 
gone over again at Calcutta. Tbey migbt belp to elucidate tbe 
modus operandi of tbe Mutineers. 

I bave been writing to-day imder more tban usual inter- 
ruptions, so tbe disconnected style of tbe letter must be excused. 
Wbat witb messengers every balf-bour, or oftener, from tbe 
Mutineers' vicinity, and communications witb Greatbed's camp, 
and our first reinforcements after tbree montbs* expectation 
coming in to-day, tbe mind becomes ratber unsettled. 

W. M. 

A letter from Baroti, in Meerut, dated 30tb ult, — tbe Eebels Meerut district 
bad been dispereed. " Every one is bumble and submissive, and ^^^^ "*^ ^^^' 
tbe Eevenue for tbe Eubbee of 1857 is coming in fast." 



CXLIV. 

MESSAGE. 

From W. Muir to G. F. Edmonbtone. 

^ih October 1857. 

Eeinfokcement of Cavalry and Artillery expected tbis Telegraphic 
evening. Capt. tbe Hon. A. Anson just ridden in from camp. fo^^JJJJ.^ 
Eest of moveable column probably to-morrow. 

Indore Mutineers are crossing tbe Kbaree, and insolently 
menace us. They will be attacked to-morrow or next day, 
unless news of our reinforcement makes tbem fly before. 

Meerut quiet and Eevenue coming in ; same at Ebotuck. 



186 MSS. VOL. II.: THIRD SERIES 



CXLV. 

Agra, lOt^ Oct. 1867. 

My Deak Edmonstone, — I write this to you direct, as it 
contains some important intimations regarding the political corre- 
spondence captured at Delhi But first for the stirring intelli- 
gence of the moment. We have had a fight, — I tnist a signally 
decisive one. 

The Governor-General is already aware, from my letter of 
yesterday and its enclosures, that the Indore Force has been 
threatening us most insolently. Our information last night was 
that they were crassing the Kharee some ten miles off. Urgent 
despatches were sent off to Col. Greathed by rei4}erated messen- 
gers during the last two days, directing him to march on with 
all practicable speed to Agra. Copies of some of these have been 
Airiyai at sent through Sherer. This morning the entiie Colunm marched 
h<S^ Column. ^ — ^^s^ ^^^ Cavalry, then the two troops H.A., which had 
been marching in advance at our first urgent call ; then all the 
Infantry, and the remaining troop H.A., the two latter greatly 
fatigued by a march of some 30 or 40 miles within the last 24 
hours. 

They were encamped on the Parade-giound, opposite the 
Metcalfe testimonial, our Militia picket, and near the bmying- 
ground ; and the baggage being mostly behind, they were endea- 
vouring to have a little refreshment as best they could. They 
were all about in this miscellaneous way about 9 o'clock when 
I drove over the camp. 
Sadden atuck About 11 we were all startled in the Fort by hearing a 
^INk " °" heavy cannonade in the direction of the camp, and, hurrying to 
the ramparts, found the whole front of our Column was engaged 
by the enemy. It had come suddenly upon our camp, concealed 
by the fields. And the first notice they had was a roimd shot 
bowling in upon the tenta 

How they brought these guns over in this quiet way no one 
can yet tell ; however, more of this hereafter. 
French killed. Some of their sowars got in upon our camp, and cut up some 

wonndS*" ^ ^^ ^^^® Lancers and others — one officer, French, is killed, and Jones 
badly wounded, a third slightly. 

But we were not long before we were ready for them ; in 
fact, although we were surprised in one way, they, I suspect, were 
greatly more surprised, and to their cost, in another. They 
could have no idea that they had ventured into the vicinity of a 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 187 

well-equipped force of above 3000 men and 4 troops H.A., with 
3 or 4 eighteen-pounders. 

I believe they had not fired five shots before oui* Artillery 
replied. CoL Cotton hastened from the Fort to the scene of 
action (some one or two miles off), and sent back for the 3rd 
Europeans. 

This corps was soon in full march under the inspiriting cheers Attack 
of the Fort ; meanwhile the Artillery was loud and fast, but it **" ^ • 
gradually became more and more distant, and it was evident that 
we were rapidly dislodging them from their position. By midday 
they might have been three miles off — a tumbril blew up at that 
time ; we don't yet know on whose side. By one o'clock the 
firing had become very distant, with frequent long interruptions, 
indicative of successful pursidts and unlimbering. A Sikh horse- 
man has come in to say that 6 guns have been already taken. 
As theirs is bullock-drawn Artillery, and ours all horsed. I con- 
f identlv trust that we shall have all their ordnance ; we must 
come up with it at any rate at the Kharee. There is evidently 
just now a full pursuit. I trust I shall have more to communi- 
cate before I close this letter. 

I could get no information in this morning, and what the 
Magistrate and other parties brought was to the effect that, 
alarmed by our reinforcements, the enemy was running away. 
Two days ago I reported that the enemy was about to cross the 
Kharee, and recommended a reconnoitring party and mile pickets. 
The reconnoitring party was sent out yesterday morning, and 
was fired upon. I do not know what Military arrangement of 
the kind was made this morning to prevent surprise. 

At any rate, as I said before, the surprise has in reality been 
on their sida They expected to beard us and break our bridge, I 
believe, before our reinforcements came in ; but the wise urgency 
of CoL Fraser in hurrying on the Column prevented this. 

Now for the Delhi news. Saunders, in reply to my inquiries, Delhi Palace 
reports on the 4th inst. that the whole of the correspondence of ^J^f^"*^*"^ 
the King and the Mutineer chiefs was carefully collected on our 
taking possession of the Palace. He is having all the papers of 
any importance " carefully arranged and docketed, with an ab- 
stract in English of their contents. The information thus 
acquired," he says, "is of the most important character, and 
affords ample proof of the wide extent of the inaurrection^ Hardly Native sutes 
a native State in Upper or Central India escaped the contagioa ; the'rebeiiion. 
ani against some of the more nearly situated States, like Jhujjur J^^iJ^^. 
and Bullubgurh, the correspondence discovered is of a character BuUubgurh. 



188 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Rare and 
valuable MSS. 



to implicate their Eulers most thoroughly." " No papers have 
yet been discovered which prove that the King or his family were 
engaged in a treasonable correspondence with other foreign States, 
or with the Leaders of the Mutiny in our Army at a time ante- 
cedent to the Meerut outbreak" 

I had asked him also about rare and valuable manuscripts. 
He savs ^eat numbers hav( ^ ]^^n \yaT1^^"V Hoflf.rny^H h ypur ow n 
uncontrollable soldiery.: but he is endeavouring now to save such 



Professor 
Ram Chuiider. 



Lucknow. 



Sir John 
Lawrence 
administers 
Delhi. 

Employment 
of military 
civilians in 
Delhi Division. 



Brigadier 
Showers' 
Column. 

Rao Toola 
Ram. 

Sir T.Metcalfe, 
C.S. 

WoUee Dad 
Khan. 



Six or seven 
guns taken. 



as are yet available, and have them arranged and catalogued. 
Eam Chunder, the Christian Professor of Mathematics there, is 
assisting the Prize Agents in this task. 

Captain Bruce's letter about the urgency of reinforcements 
for Lucknow will be at once communicated to Delhi, both by 
Dak and by Cossid. After all, the effect of leaving a garrison in 
Lucknow thus strengthened in position will be infinitely less 
imfavourable to our prestige in public opinion throughout India, 
than a clean withdi-awal would have been. 

I have another letter from Delhi, dated the 5th inst. Sir J. 
Lawrence is arranging the disposition of the officers there. 
Saunders enquires whether the Chief Commissioner has any objec- 
tion to the employment of military officei's in the charge of Districts 
in that Division. It will be as well for the Government of India 
to express an opinion on this point. I suppose, in the absence 
of a sufficient number of civilians, no objection would be raised. 

He gives the following additional particulars regarding Briga- 
dier Showers' Colimm. It was at Goorgaon on tlie 5th, and is 
on its way to Kewaree " to coerce Eao Toola Eam, and to disperse 
a small force of Eamgurh Irregular Cavalry and others whom he 
had collected in that neighbourhood." Metcalfe is out with it. 

A Bareilly letter,^ dated last Wednesday, states that Wullee 
Dad Khan * had arrived there two days before — ie., on the 5th 
— with about 1500 troops and 2 gims; it adds: "Nana Sahib's 
troops, said to be about 4000, are reported to have left Budaon 
yesterday for Lucknow." 

All the ^indona almost arft h<j>1iftvftd h^ hp. well dispose d to 
us in that direction. I had been keeping this oi)en for more 
news about our fight ; but the Column has evidently pursued on to 
the Kharee, and will no doubt cut up all they meet. The enemy 
had made one or two stands at villages, which were immediately 
carried and the purauit continued. It is said we have taken 7 or 
8 gims ; one messenger returned who saw three, 

^ William Lowe's writing. — W. M. 
' Mahommedan leader of Malagurh. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 189 

I hope to have full details for you to-morrow. What strange 
infatuation in these people holding back till the very hour when 
we were prepared for them ! Is there not cause to recognise the 
hand of a protecting Providence ? 

W. MuiR 
G. F. Edmonstone, Esq., 
Foreign Secretary. 

P,S. — CoL Eraser (to whom I have read the first sheets of 
this) has just come in to say that there is good reason to believe 
8 guns have been captured, one an immense brass one, about 24 
pounds, and an elephant. 

CXLVIL 

Agra, 11^^ October 1857. Sunday. 

My Dear Sherer, — Enclosed is CoL Eraser's Report of the 
brilliant affair of yesterday. My letter to Mr. Edmonstone, sent 
open through you yesterday, contained a generally correct view 
of the action, to which I can add little without descending to 
details, which I have not leisure and hardly yet materials for ; the 
only point of difficulty was the first surprise, and, considering the 
suddenness of the attack and the number of pieces brought into 
a converging position against our Camp within a few hundred 
yards, the loss is astonishingly small — only 3 or 4 killed, and 
some woimded. Their Cavalry got into the Camp and created a Description of 
momentary panic and confusion. The charge of our noble October iw. 
Lancers soon drove back the foolhardy enemy. Our guns re- 
turned the fire of the enemy after their guns had fired only a 
few rounds — the whole front of the enemy fell back, and the 
retreat soon became converted into a flight Our 20 to 24 
guns steadily pursued, flanking the Gwalior Boad on both sides, and 
pouring continuous discharges into their enemy — and the Cavalry 
cutting them up as they sought to steal along behind the high 
cropa As our advance was rapid, their cannon, drawn by 
bullocks, soon fell into our hands ; the heavier ones — inmiense 
unwieldy affairs, between 18 and 24-pounders, were seized at the 
opening struggle, and the rest one by one along the road. Some 
of them they had dragged ofiF to near the Kharee, but were 
abandoned before we reached its banks. We took all their guns. 
CoL Eraser, I see, says 13. I think the number was stated as I 
heard it in Greathed's camp at 1 1. 

CoL Eraser has desired me to ask if you can ascertain any 



190 MSS. VOL. 11. : THIRD SERIES 

infonnation reganling Major A. Robertson of Futtehgurh. He 
was there when the a£fair broke out. Fraser is interested in the 
family, as trustee or something of the sort. 

W. MuiR, 
J. W. Sherer Esq., Cawnpore. 

CXLIX. 

Agra, I2th October 1857. 

My Dear Edmonstone, — After all, as you will see from my 
Thirteen guns printeil slip of intelUgence, we took 13 guns. They are all 
drawn up in two rows in the Armoury Square, excepting the 
RinaofDhol- big brass one, which is so imwieldy that some difficulty is 
toU^^^^ experienced in bringing it up. So the Mutineers must have got 
lOiedgaiis. g guns from the Rana of Dholepore. 

Guns in Native It is worthy of serious consideration whether these petty 
sutes. States should be permitted to possess any heavy guns or even 

ordinary field-pieces. They cannot retain them in the face of an 
enemy. The only real use they make of them is to surrender 
them to the first strong enemy who comes into their neighbour- 
hood. Two or three poimder guns would be quite sufficient for 
all their administrative wants, and for salutes, etc. 
Beoccupation Regarding the question of the reoccupation of Dehli by its 

^ ** inhabitants, Saunders writes, on the 6th inst.: "The City is still all 
but deserted — the Military authorities being very avei^se to allow 
the residents to return to their homea I have been anxious ^ to 
Mr. Saunders induce them, at any rate, to pftrijpit ^ he respect Ablft JTinflno nier- 
minion to the chant families, bunyas, and trades people generally, to retu rn to 
return*to*Sieir ^^eir occupatinnR. hnfc hithftrto with but little succe sa I conceive 
homes. that there is really no good ground for excluding the above, as no 

danger need be anticipated from allowing them to re-enter the 
town and return to their avocationa The case is different with 
fl^Ypry Urprp. pr oportion of the Mahommedan population who h ave 
taken so prominent and v iolent a part against us. " 

In a later letter of the 8th inst. he says on tlie same subject : 
"With reference to the means at our command, the Military 
authorities have considered it absolutely necessary to insist upon 
the inhabitants of the city, who deserted the place from the day 
of the assault, being kept out of the place. The gi-eater nimiber 
of the gates have been closed and blockadeil up with stonea 
The Cashmere Gate is kept for ingress, and the Lahore Gate for 
egress ; all the others, with the exception of the Calcutta Gate 
leading to the bridge of boats, are scrupulously barricaded, with 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 191 

the view of reducing the number of guards required to defend 
them." 

I have already referred to the Brigade under Showers now Brigadier 
out in the direction of Goorgaon. CoL Fraser has been desirous °^®"* 
that the Column should move on to Muthra, and, in that posi- 
tion, protect the whole of the country between this and Delhi. 
Bewaree, he suggested, might be advantageously occupied for the 
present by Jyepore troops. Saunders, on the 8th (but before the 
suggestion about Jyejwre troops had been received), lias replied, 
on the part of General Penny, that the Column cannot be spared His column 
from Delhi After doing what is required at Goorgaon, the ™^ from 
Column is to return to Delhi " It is urgently required," Saunders ^^^*- 
writes, " to restore i)eace and tranquillity in the neighbourhood of 
Delhi, and to prevent the possibility of the mutinous Irregular 
Cavalry and the numerous defeated but not yet entirely dis- 
banded adherents of the King once more gaining head in this 
part of the world." I suppose we cannot help this ; but as they 
keep the Column, it is a pity they cannot allow the well-affected 
portion of the community to return to Delhi. It sounds a E xclusion of 
monstrous barbarity, unless reallv called for l)v imperative Soni Delhi. 



militArv necessity^ to exile 150,000 inhabitants indisfiriminatftlv. 
and without referen c e to their political, crimes and feelings; and 
ear we shall drive them into lawless courses. It should have 
been better to have demolished the gateways and the wall in 
their vicinity, and have withdrawn the Military posts to some 
strong position where they might have concentrated, and to have 
permitted all except the disaffected to return. 

But I am stepping out of my province. 

I give the following extracts from the Chief Commissioner 
of Lahore's memo, of intelligence, dated 4th October. "The 
plunderers who have lately infested the Mooltan Iload have 
disappeared, and are reported to have betaken themselves to 
the high grass jungles on the right of the Eavee, where, not- 
withstanding the very difficult nature of the country, they will Colonel Patten, 
speedily be coerced. Four Detachments are now employed in 8on,°MiJor 
hunting them down, under command of Lieut.-Col. Patten, Majors cS*tain^^!- 
Jackson and Chaml>erlain, and Capt. Cureton." ton. 

A letter from Sehaninpore gives the following encouraging 
account of the state of feeling there. " The popular tide is now 
running fast in favour of government ; all the large towns in this Returning 
district were illuminated in honour of the fall of Delhi." ^^arunpore. 

A letter from Secundra Eao (between Allygurh and Etah) 
says that a small portion of the retreating force went, as before 



192 MSS. VOL. II.: THIRD SERIES 

Movements of stated, direct to Bareilly, taking three guns with them ; and that 
"• the remaining 26 (the number is, I believe, magnified) went on 
towards Etah. 

We cannot learn to-day that the Indore Force has recovered 
and re-formed elsewhere. But there are rumours of the Gwalior 
Contingent having moved, some say towards Jhansi, others 
Cawnpore, others this way. On the other hand, there is toler- 
ably good evidence that up to the 7th or 8th things were there 
in statu quo. 

W. MuiR. 
G. F. Edmonstone, Esq. 



CL 

AoRA, 13^^ October 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Yours of the 7 th has been received. 
We long for more Lucknow news, but must exercise patience. 

Greatheirs Column is still here. To-morrow it crosses the 
river and encamps near the river on the Mynpoorie road. It 
will probably march towards Mynpoorie on the following 

George Camp- moming, the 15th. George Campbell goes on with the force, 

A. Coiis', c.s. b^t Cocks, who has great experience and local knowledge at 
Mynpoorie, will go as special Commissioner to adjust the diflScult 
local questions that may arise there and in the vicinity. The 

Rao Bhowani Bajah will^ I supposc. be himg. But Eao Bhowaney Singh, who 
'"^ ' so long protected Power, will afford difficulty in determining what 

course should be pursued in regard to him. He says he has got 
our treasure, near 2 J lacs, all safe and ready to deliver up to us, 
— and in that case, though, since our withdrawal, he has been 
guilty of joining the Eajah in some of his unauthorised raids, 
yet his conduct on the whole may be foimd such as can be 
pardoned. 

We cannot afford a garrison for Mynpoorie, and in that case 
the Eao might be left in charge. However, these will be all 
points for Cocks' careful judgment. After the Column passes on, 
Cocks will return to his post at Allygurh. Greathed will then 
either march on to Furruckabad or to join Havelock's Column, as 
circumstances may then show to be most expedient. You had 
better have despatches for his camp sent up the Trunk Boad 
by Cossid. 

Indore The Indore fugitives have not re-formed anywhere. The 

fuiritives 

Bhurtpore Durbar has reported that parties sought refuge in 
their territories near Bhurtpore. The Durbar troops were 




LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 193 

ordered out, the fugitives resisted the attempt to disarm them, 
and were attacked — some flying and some being killed. There 
is a party of them, consisting of several hundreds, at Eoopbar 
not yet dispersed, but they are not likely, I think, to form the 
nucleus of any new opposing body. The Dholepore people also 
tell us that they have been cutting up some of the fugitives, but 
this needs confirmation. 

At Gwalior our last news does not signify any change, Gwaiior. 
notwithstanding the rumours which I mentioned in my letter 
of yesterday to Mr. Edmonstone. 

From Delhi I have a letter dated the 9th inst. Saunders Delhi, 
says that all is quiet, and everything going on satisfactorily in 
the neighbourhood. He had heard from Metcalfe, who was with 
Showers' Column. When our troops reached Putowdee, Eao Patowdee. 
Toola Eam " sent messengers with petitions expressing his great Rao Tooia 
attachment to our Government, and the preparations which he 
had made for the reception of our troops. It would appear, 
however, that these latter had been entirely of a hostile character." 
He fled at our approach. Eewaree was found almost deserted. Rewaree. 
Eampoorah, Toola Kam's Fort, was in a complete state of defence, Toola Ram's 
— 12 loaded guns and mortars on the walls. "He had a gun 
foundry, in which two new brass guns just made and very His ordnance 
neatly turned out were found. He had several muskets in store, * ^^' 
and also a capital mistree-khana in which several were being 
made, and he had a large supply of iron bars, roimd shot, and 
other ordnance stores." It is just as well he ran away. 

The Column next proceeds to Jatoosana to disperse a body Jatoosana. 
of Irregula r Cavalrysaid to be in that vicinity. It will then 
move on Jhujjur, in which chiefship Van Cortlandt's Column Jhiyjur. 
from Hansi and the Cashmere troops imder Captain E. Lawrence Captain R. 
will also concentrate, by Sir J. Lawrence's instructions. The " ^^' 
Nawab of Jhujjur wiU then be called on to surrender himself, 
a fair trial being guaranteed. " He will also be called upon to 
give up his father-in-law, Sarmund Khan, who commanded the 
troops which he sent to Delhi." Saunders says he has ample Evidence 
evidence against him, and is confident he will not be able to JJJJwab of 
clear himself of the charge of " aiding and abetting the King in «^i»»ui"r. 
rebelling and waging war against the E. I. Company." 



W. MuiR. 
J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 



VOL. I. — 13 



194 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Telegp^ra to 

Govenior- 

General. 

Snniiuary of 
foregoiug. 



CLL 

TELEGRAPHIC MESSAGE 

W. Mum, Agra — To G. F. Edmonstone, Calcutta. 

I3th October 1867. 

Indoke Force believed to have in most part dispersed. Some 
cut up by Bhurtpore troops. 

Greathed's Column will cross Jumna to-morrow, and on 15th 
probably march towards Mynixx)rie. Toola Kam fled from 
Rewaree ; his evacuated fort found to have been strongly armed 
for defence. Military stores seized. 

There will shortly be a concentration of Showers* Brigade, 
Van Cortlandt's force, and the Cashmere troops — on Jhujjur. 
The Nawab will he called on to surrender himself and father-in- 
law for trial. ^^,_ ^^^^ 



Colonel Great- 
bed's force 
starta for 
Cawnpore. 



Gwalior Con- 
tingent 8tiU lit 
Morar. 



CLII. 

Agra, Uth October 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Thanks for yours of the 9tli. I agree 
with you that the effect of the continuance of the whole force 
at Lucknow will be good, so far as regards the impression on the 
native mind and the native States. I wish, however, it had been 
the resiUt of choice and not of such unhappy necessity. 

Colonel Greathed has seen all the urgent summonses, and as 
we a.YG now happily relieved from the immediate apprehension 
of danger, he has got orders which I have just put into shape 
to start at once for Cawnpore, and not to diverge towards 
Furruckabad \mless directly menaced or attacked from that 
(quarter. 

As good as one march has already l)een made this morning 
in the crossing of the river, which, with so large a force through 
narrow streets and over the ix)ntoon bridge, is a matter of some 
little time, for the breaking do^vn of a single cart stops for the 
time all behind. 

You must duly appreciate our magnanimity in so soon 
^mrting with our reinforcements. For the Gwalior Contingent 
still hangs in suspense within 80 miles. 

But trulv there is a concentration of forces in your direction, 
or that of Lucknow, which demands that every effort l.>e made 
for re-enforcing tlie army which will Imve to face it. 

The main l)ody of the Delhi fugitives with their guns seems 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 195 

to have passed Bhougaon about the 7 th iust. A iiian who Delhi 
passed Chebramhow four or five days ago says, on the 9th or """**"• 
10th he saw them at Chebramhow. They then declared they 
were bound for Lucknow. 

The force of Indore Mutineers which we dispersed on the indore 
10th has not gathered again anywhere. A body of some 500 scattewT 
horse and 500 foot has been traced in its flight via Furrah 
across the Jumna, half-way to Hathrass. It too may be destined 
for Oudh or for Fiu-ruckabad. It is said the Dholepore Eana Services of 
has slain seven of the fugitive Cavalry. The services of the rJ^^" 
Bhurtpore Duibar, stimulated by Captain Nixon's advice, were of Bhurtpore 
mentioned yesterday; 35 that were caught and resisted being 
disarmed, nine were killed by the four guns turned on them, and 
the remainder were pursued. 

Another party of twelve are said to have been taken up in 
the villages and sent on to Bhurtpore. We have not heard yet 
what has become of the large section, 600 or 700 they say, which 
fled to Eoopbar. 

Another considerable body attacked Muthra, but the citizens Mutim 
and the Delhi people resisted and drove them out. This is a ****^ 
good symptom, when our own people begin actively to oppose 
the fugitives. The force may be held, I hope, to have been 
irretrievably broken. . 

Macpherson has a letter from the M. Bajah saying that he Scindiaandthe 
does not expect to be able to hold back the Contingent after the ^ "^" ' 
1 5th (to-morrow) : that they will then probably march via 
Jhansi towards Cawnpore. Thus the wave is passing downwards]^ 
and I fear will be heavily felt in Uudh and the Lower Doab. 
If the Contingent takes the course it ouropses. then the whol^ 
U pper Do a^i and thft ^^pp^r portion of the provinces generallv. 
with exception of Rohilkhnnd. will be quite free from anv local 
enemy in force. 

No doubt we shall have abundance of stray marauding 
parties, and we have little to meet them with. 

Our Jat horse at Allygurh will, I hope, turn out a really Captain Mur- 
valuable assistance. They are under a capital oflicer, Captain ™gj2?horee. 
Murray. We are detaching 150 Europeans of our little garrison 
to hold Allygurh, and Greathed leaves 50 Sikh horse there, as Allygurh. 
well as 200 here. That is all we take from him. Bramley Bramiey, C.8. 
goes as Magistrate to Allygurh ; Cocks, as before, is Special Cocks, c.a 
Commissioner with full Revenue and Judicial powers. But 
Cocks will have to accompany Greathed first to Mynpoorie, as ^^^ Bhowani 
some delicate questions may arise there as to the Rao Bhowany singb. 



196 MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 

Singh, who says he is keeping the treasure, above 2 lacs, there 
safely for us. The Eajah, if caught, will probably be hung. 
But the Chowhan influential men will require careful treatment. 
Cocks has excellent judgment and good local knowledge, and 
will do this well. 

I have a Delhi letter dated the 10th inst. He says he has 

" no news of any description to communicate." What a change 

from this time last month ! 

Trial of King A Military Commission is to try the King, " in order to place 

MiSSuyCom- ^^ record the e\'idence against him." This is being prepared by 

mission. Saunders, and he hopes to be ready to open the proceedings 

to-day or to-morrow. The Commission will be empowered to 

find the King guilty ; but as his life was guaranteed to him by 

Hodson, " imder General Wilson's sanction," no sentence will be 

passed. 

Amnffements Saunders is very anxious " to introduce a Military Police on 

the model of that in force in the Punjaub " ; and wishes Capt. 

Stewart of the 9th to be appointed Commandant. Is anything 

being settled about these Battalions in Calcutta ? I briefly 

expressed in a letter to Beadon, I think, my own opinion on the 

subject. Instnictions on the matter are much wanted. 

King's sons The old Gwalior news-writer at Delhi says that the King's 

two sons, who were under trial, have been shot, and their 

bodies hung up at the Kotwalie, and that the third is under 

trial. 

The following extract from Greathed's report of our affair on 

the 10 th shows the wonderful exertions of the troops before they 

reached their camp. 

Extraordinary " The Cavalry and Artillery marched over at least 6^ miles, 

Oreathed's and the Infantry 64 miles of road, in less than 36 hours. Capt. 

Cd^mnto Bourchier*s 9 -pounder Battery had marched in during the night 

from Hathrass, 30 miles without a halt." And all that chase 

down to the Kharee and back, a couple of hours after they 

reached the camp, i,e, some 18 miles more, fighting all the way. 

What noble fellows these Europeans and Sikhs are, truly ! 

W. MuiR. 
J. W. Sherer, Esq. 

Governor- P,S. — The Governor-Generars admirable order on the fall of 

on the fall of Delhi was received with your last letter. It is being republished 

^^' in the Gazettey and the original I will forward to Sir J. Lawrence. 

Sir John The tribute to his exertions is well merited, and expresses the 

Lawrence. ^^^^ ^f ^jj j^^^j^^ 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 197 

Col. Greathed Las just seen your letter of the 8th, and begs 
me to say that " nothing shall be wanting on his part to make 
the best of his way down the river." 

CLIV. 

Agra, I6th Oct, 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Thanks for yours of the 10 th. Haring- h. Hanng- 
ton has determined to leave with the Column. But he has ***"' ^'^' 
wisely resolved to leave Mi-a H. here. I feel his departure much. 
I know no man on whose judgment and discrimination I place so 
great reliance ; and we have long been on terms of intimate 
friendship. May God go with him, and carry him safely 
to yoiL 

The Colimm marched in to-day to Etmadpora Col. Greathed Greathed's 
is fully alive to the necessity of the speediest movement towards ^^2d. 
Cawnpore. It is a noble Column, and described as moveable in 
the best sense of the word, viz., handy and easily and promptly 
worked. We had, indeed, the fiUlest evidence of that on the 
10th inst. 

Some 2000 or 3000 camels are going out at once from our Proviaion for 
Contingent for carriage eastwards ; and more camels and as many ^"^***^ 
carts as can be got together by the time will be sent five days 
hence with an escort to catch up the Colimin. Tell this to the 
authorities at Allahabad and Benares. 

The Cavalry and H.A. will be invaluable to Havelock. It 
is a splendid sight to see the guns galloping along, turning 
corners, and making all sorts of evolutions, as if they were 
carriage& 

Letters to-day have been received from Delhi of the 11th ReguUr post 
and 12 th, the latter by Dak, the former by Cossid, so that the opened.* 
Cossid is now westward entirely out of date. 

Saimders again says : " I have positively no news of any kind 
to comnmnicate." 

Colonel Bum, Governor of the city, says that " Delhi is still C olonel Bum, 
under the influence of the plundereij y TTp ^as no police, and jy^i^^^ ^ 
is only allowed 50 Europeans and 50 sowars for \^*} Tfh^^^ i^^> ^>n« 

duties of the Diane." vl^nder^. 

Our troops are recovering their health. " Our sick list was Sick lut on 
a fearful one. The day we attacked we had about 3000 sick, *^^ "**" 
and the assault added at least 1000 woimded to the number." 

Nawab Hamid Ali Khan (you may remember him as an ^f.^ Hamid 
aspirant to be on the College Committee) is mentioned as the arrested. 



198 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Break-up of 
force of Indore 
Mutineers. 



Retoming 
loyalty of the 
people. 



Owalior Cou- 
tingent about 
to move. 



only man of rank and influence who has, besides the Royal Family, 
been apprehended. 

We continue to receive accounts of the Indore Force breaking 
up. It has chiefly gone towards Bhurtpore westward and north- 
ward. The body repulsed from Muthra passed farther up the 
right bank, and will probably cross over towards Eohilkhund. 
Large parties of 400 and 500 have crossed opposite Furi-ah, and, 
avoiding our posts at Hathrass, etc., crossed by Sassnee to Secundi-a 
liao, on the Grand Trimk Road : may either go to Fun*ackabad 
or Rohilkhund. They are all broken and only partially armed. 
Great numbers of the force will no doubt go oft' to their homes. 

As showing t.h^ r<>t.nmin(r Invftlty of the people, I may men- 



^i^n tt ]j^t the Z emindars, on receiving encouragement from_ M r. 
Cocks to do so. rose on the Fun^ckabad Nawab's Tuhseeldar and 
Thannahdar at Khassgunge (between AUygurh and Furrackaba d), 
RTif] TTiftfl fi them flv for their Uvea 

A considerable i)arty of the Indore Mutineers were also pur- 
sued by the Tuhseeldar of Hathrass, but got oft'. 

At Hathrass they received intelligence from Khassgunge " that 
2000 Cavalry, Muthra men, have gone into Eohilkhund, and the 
Infantry into Futtehgurh." The cii'cumstantial account I gave 
yesterday of the progress of the main body jmst Chebramhow 
appears more likely. However, a ^xirtion may not improbably 
have turned off to Furrackabad. 

Nothing further from Gwalior. Macplierson thinks it likely 
the Contingent may be moving now for Jhansi and Cawnpore, 
but also adds wisely, that " no one can possibly be responsible for 
their holding to that or to any other plan." 

The number of momentous and stirring events in these parts 
is fortimately diminishing daily, and I tnist I may soon find the 
office of chronicler a sinecure ; but, in proportion, the plot thickens 
and becomes of inteuser interest below. 

If you can give us a daily letter, if even to say that there is 
no news, and to enclose duplicates of the previous day's despatcli, 
it is satisfactory to Her Majesty's lieges in these parts. 

W. MuiK. 

J. W. Sheuer, Esq. 



Note. — I think there is hardly matter for a telegraph mes- 
sage. Yes ; say Greathed's Coluimi marched this day to Etmad- 
pore, which is five regular marches from Myn}X)ree. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 199 



CLV. 

Agra, I6th OcL 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — First for your own matter. The Gwalior Move of 
Contingent, we have good reason for believing, has started, c^ungent. 
Several days ago it left the Morar Cantonments and moved 
into camp. On the 13 th its advance guard was sent to Sonee 
Puchoulee, on the S.R Road, and on the night of the 14th the 
main body was to follow. 

The road, Macpherson tells me, leads either towards Jhansi 
or towards Calpee, so that we cannot yet say whether their course 
will be duect or not. The road, I believe, goes by the Antree 
Pass. They will have two rivers to cross, the Sind and the 
Jumna ; the former, I believe, presents no great obstacles. 

Greathed marched 13 miles to-day, so he will be close at Progress of 
hand, at any rate, with his noble Column before you can be sub- colunm. ^ 
jected to much inconvenience. I hope it may have it in store to 
beat off from Cawnpore the Gwalior Contingent in the same bril- 
liant manner in which it destroyed the Indore army. " Destroyed," 
I may say in the fullest sense, for it has been so broken in pieces 
and scattered as to be now contemptible. There is a wonderful 
change in the feelings of the people since that victory. They Returning 
refuse supplies, and even oppose the defeated Imnds as they j^opie^ ° ^ 
pass by. To-day*s reports add new instances of this to the 
ones I gave yesterday. Some of our Zemindars in the Muthra 
district were wounded in an encounter with a party of the 
horse, who were injuring their fields by the wayside. They 
would not have dared to do this a month ago, perhaps not ten 
days ago. 

Of other news there is little to give. 

Saunders, writing on the 12th, says that the two princes, MirzaBukh- 
Mirzas Bukhtawar Shah and Mehndoo, whom I before reported mi^^ Mehn*-'**^ 
as imder trial by a Military Commission, have been sentenced to ^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^ 
\)C shot, and the execution was to be carried out on the 13tli. 

The trial of the King would not take place until some day 
after the 19th. They are waiting for the arrival of Major Har- 
riott, Deputy Judge Advocate General, who will conduct the 
prosecution. 

He adds " that some of the chief rebels amongst the Mahom- Rebels among 
medan gentry of Delhi are being jp-adually arrested (this does jj|^ gentiy of 
not exactly agree with what I quoted yesterday from Colonel i^^^*- 
Bum, that Hamid Ali Khan was the only one yet apprehended), 
and will be brought to trial when sufficient evidence to convict 



200 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



W. Ford, C.S. 
Sir J. Metcalfe, 
C.8. 



D. M'Leod, 
C.S., gives 
opinion of Sir 
John Law- 
rence on the 
disarming 
question. 



Position 
of affairs in 
Punjab. 



Insurrection 
between 
Lahore and 
Multan. 



Sir John Law- 
rence's action 
eulogised. 



them has been collected. In the present deserted state of the 
town it is, however, difficult to produce any but documentary 
proof against offendera We have recovered an immense nimiber 
of papers which will afford c opvincmg Droof of the complicity jn 
the present insurrection of many who have been hitherto con - 
sidered well-wishers of the British Government." 

On Ford's joining the Column at Eewaree, Sir T. Metcalfe 
would return to Delhi, where Saunders much desired his presence. 
His local knowledge must be very useful 

I have a letter from M*Leod at Lahore. He writes for Sir J. 
Lawrence, whom the sudden opening of the Daks, after being for 
some time closed (probably by the Mozuffurnugger disturbances) 
had overwhelmed with work. He gives Sir John's opinion on 
the disarming question, on which I had solicited his views, as 
follows : " Sir John begs me to say that he considers our safetv 
i n a great measure depends on the population being^ disarmed 
But for this it would assuredly have bftpn iij^p naaihlft tn prftpfirvft 
the peace in the Punjaub thus far ; and he is most decidedly of 
opinion that it should be carried out with you likewise so soon 
as you have the power.^ Our frontier districts have not been 
disarmed in the north-west and west, but then the countries 
beyond us in that quarter are turbulent to a degree unknown 
in your confines ; and along the Jummoo, Bhawulpoor, and other 
more peaceable frontiers, the work of disarming has been fully 
carried out here, in like manner as in the interior. He thinks 
you will find but little or no difficulty in doing so likewise, and 
that no evil or danger will result ; at all events, he thinks the 
rule for disarming should be relaxed only in very exceptive casea" 

I mentioned the subject in a letter to Beadon some time ago. 
It would be very desirable to have an expression of the opinion 
of the Supreme Government upon it — if favourable, the measure 
could be introduced as we found ourselves strong enough to do 
so. M*Leod adds, " the atmosphere is at length, thanks be to 
God, clearing on almost every side in a very decided manner, 
now that He has allowed us to regain complete possession of 
Delhi." Further on, " the rising between this and Multan has 
not yet been put down thoroughly ; but I earnestly hope it is 
now drawing to a close. It has shown us clearly that had the 
fall of Delhi been lonyer delayed, the whole country would ha ve 
been in a flame." Thus, in labouring for others so nol)ly, Sir 
John was really ^oing the best that could have l)een done for the 
Punjaub itself. 

1 Oldfield's handwriting.— W. M. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 201 

Macpherson hears that the Gwalior troops will march in two 
divisions, but the details we do not know, — the road via Kunch 
and Oral is good and may probably tempt them. Men of the 
fourth Cavalry and some of the Contingent Horse were found on 
the battlefield on the 10th. 

Scindia had received the news of our victory of the 10th, 

and Macpherson's correspondent says '' that Scindia's happiness ScindU's 

was wholly beyond expression." He is going to send his Vakeel ^^y^^^- 

to Macpherson as soon as possible, and thus openly renew the 

political Unk which has been so long ostensibly broken, though 

privately maintained intact ^„ ^, 

^ -^ W. MuiR. 

A message accompanies. 

P.S, — ^Amanut Ally, Soobahdar Major of the 1st Grdrs. 
(said to have been Commander-in-Chief of the Contingent), and 
Muhadeo Singh, Adjutant-General, had gone over to the Maha- 
raja. It is not mentioned whether they brought over any men 
with them, or anything about the Magazina Our infoiiiiers say 
they had 1000 bullocks and 1000 carts to carry it. 



CLVII. 

Agra, 11 th Oct. 1867. 

My Dear Sherkk, — Thanks for yours of the 10th. Yom- 
receipt of the 11th also received. 

We are delighted at the mention you make of two or three 
bodies of troops marching up between Allahabad and Cawnpora 
You do not state their numbers, — remember our avidity for 
details. 

Our Column will give you abundance of Cavalry ; so, with 
the blessing of God, you will, I trust, be quite independent and 
able to crush the Contingent. We have more correct intelligence Move of 
to-day of the movements of the Contingent. It marched by conti^^nt. 
Bejoulee, which on a good map you will find due east of 
Gwalior. 

The first division, consisting of three Segiment-s (1st, 2nd, 
and 5th) with tliree Batteries (1st, 2nd, and 4th Co.'s Artillery), 
marche<l on the night of the 14th or morning of the 15 th inst 
The remainder would follow the next day. The Cossid who 
brought the despatch saw two regiments and two batteries 
marching as he left. 

They have carried with them as much of their Magazine as 
they could get conveyance for. I presume they have taken their 



202 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



They burn 
lines and 
hangalowa. 



The Nana's 
movementH. 



Returning 
loyalty of the 
people. 



Horse Dak 
open to 
Meenit. 

General 
Hope Grant. 



Arre«t of 
Mutineers by 
police and 
people: 



by Bhurtpore 
Durbar. 



Captain Nixon 
returning to 
Bhurtpore. 



siege train with them. If so, it will prevent them from marching 
very rapidly. 

After the 1st Division started, the remaining one began to 
bum down the lines and all the bungalows they could lay hands 
upon. Everything that had been left was destroyed. 

The road tlirough Bijoulee leads direct to Jaloun and Calpee — 
but what their destination is it would be hazardous decisively to say. 

Your letter of to-day announces the attempt of the Nana to 
cross the Ganges en route to Gwalior. I conclude that he was 
aware of the mtendeil movement of the Contingent, and that his 
object is to join it on its march, not to go to Gwalior where he 
would have met with cold reception. 

The Contingent may now be regarded as retained by the 
Nana. At the liead of this force he may attack Cawnpore, or 
he may return to Bithoor, or he might try to recross the Gangea 
It is of vital importance that the Contingent should not cross the 
Ganges, for they are richly stored with all sorts of ammunition, 
while the Dellii fugitives at least are very badly off for ammuni- 
tion. To intercept tlie Contingent, seize their gims, and capture 
their Magazine, is tlierefore an olyect of paramount weight. 
Brigadier Grant quite underatands thia 

The 5th Eegiment, it is beUeved, adheres to Scintlia : and 
tlie two remaining Companies of the 6th with the two Mehidpore 
guns. In place of the old 5th and 6th, two new corps of these 
numbers have been organised by the Mutineers. 

Every day gives fresh proofs of the returning loyalty of th e 
people, and the quietness of the country the moment military 
j>arties are out of tlie way. With only a handful of soldiers at 
Allygurh, and tlie same at Boolirndshuhm-, the Horse Dak runs 
now all the way from Meenit to thia Brigadier (irrant left 
Meerut at 5 last evening, and reached this (above 130 miles) by 
10 this forenoon. With Eohilkhuud yet imreclaimed, it is 
astonishing to find the Upper Doab so rapidly settling down. 

At Areeng (?), in the Muthra District, nine or ten Sepoys 
have been captured by the poUce, aided by the villagers. They 
have several thousand rupees worth of gold and gold mohurs 
upon them. The money has been relinquished to tlie captors as 
an inducement to make similar captures. 

This morning some 15 of the fugitive Indore Force, attacked 
and captured by the Bhurti)ore Durbar, have been broicght in, 
and are now under trial by a military ccjurt. The escort of 
Bhurtpore sowars which brought them in takes })ack Captain 
Nixon to liis i>ost of Political Agent at Bhurtpore, A satis- 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 203 

factory mark of the returning confidence of the country in 
us — the Durbar applied for him. 

The Dholepore Durl)ar are also said to have captui^ed some 
Mutineers for us. 

By the way, when I wrote yesterday I believed Gwalior to 
be nearer Cawupore than I find it actually is — it is between 
150 and 160 miles, so tliat, after all. Grant's Column, if not 
delayed at Mynix)orie, or by the Furrackabad troops, will 
anticipate its approach. 

Williams, Commissioner of Meerut, writing on the 14th, says Land Revenue 
that the collections are coming in wonderfully — already IJ l^cs in*Meerut 
from Boolimdshuhur. He expects to have cleared off the whole Division. 
bcUances of May and Jime for the Division (excepting AUygurh, 
of course, where Cocks is going on well also) before the first 
instahuent for the autumn crops is due. 

Williams mentions the surprising number of gims that are Recovery of 
being recovered throughout the several districts ; altogether, in ff^ru? 
the Division, there must, he says, have Ijeen 50 pieces of various ^^^"^°°* 
sizes. 

He adds : " The country is settling down. Our Kevenue and Civil govem- 
Police officers are reinstated ftverywherCy and the Doab to the S,hedr^ 
Allygurh District is all right." 

Williams hears that Nynee Tal has again been threatened by Naiui Tal 
Khan Bahadoor, wlio has sent 5000 men and some guns. They * ^^^^ ' 
have taken possession of Haldwanee and Bhimowree. 

Itamsay intends to leave them alone below, and only hopes 
that they will venture a little up the liills, as lie would then lie 
able to inflict a signal chastisement. 

I have been talking ^ with Hope Grant about the exile of all Question of 
the inhabitants from Delhi. I liave not quite made out what is Jf^ifffby the 
the state of the argument against the return of the well-disposed. i"habitanta. 
Besides the difficulty of guarding the City, he 8i)eaks of the 
impossibility of distinguishing the guilty from the innocent, 
reqiuring that all should be involved in punishment until they 
have proved (as 1 understand) thek active loyalty in our l^half 
throughout the struggle. And again he says that the inhabitants 
have yet to pay the ransom of the City, and seemed to imply that 
if this were arraueed for^ permission to reoccupy miglit be ob- 

tainecl 

I am not satisfied that against the unofiendintf portion of the 
comniunityy especi^\)lv thp middl^ p.lasaes of the Hindoos, a harsK 
if not unjust procedure is not l>eing a(loptecj_; but I have not 

^ W. Lowe's hand. 



204 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



time to follow out the subject. I can understand the argument 
of the military necessity, and I fancy that that is the true reason. 

W. MuiR. 
J. W. Sheker, Esq., Cawnpore. 



To Oovernor- 
General. 



CLVIII. 

SERVICE MESSAGK 

From Agiia — W. Muir, 

To Calcutta — G. F. Edmonstone. 

Intelligence confirmed of departure of Contingent from 
Gwalior on night of 14th or morning of loth. First march, 
Bejowlee on Calpee Road. 

Greathed's Column at Shekhobad to-day. 

Brigadier Grant arrived here to-day, and goes on to take 
command of Column. Has been urged to proceed with speed. 

W. Muir. 



Owtlior 
Contingent 



Position in 
Pai]jab. 



Showers. 



Nawab of 
Jhujjor. 



CLX. 

Agra, I9th Oct, 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Yesterday news came in from Gwalior 
dated 16th. Above half the Contingent force moved on the 
15th. The second half was delayed by the desei-tion of 130 
pairs of bullocks pro\dded for them, and could not march as 
intended on the 16 th. Scindia, however, is anxious to be rid of 
them, and the carriage will not be long wanting. 

CoL Eraser still thinks it possible that when tliey hear of 
Grant's Column having left, and that it will anticijmte them in 
the advance on Cawnpore, they are not unlikely to return upon 
us here. I am incUned to regard that as highly improbable. 
They have apparently cast in their lot with the Nana, and the 
Nana's antecedents will rather keep him in your direction. 

We have letters from Lahore dated 10 th Oct. Sir J. 
Lawrence, on that date, says : " We are all well in the Punjaub, 
thank God ; but Dellii did not fall a day too soon." I conclude 
from this that th e Googairajrising is now jmssin^ ofY.^ 

rom Delhi I have a letter from Saunders dated Oct. 13th. 
All quiet tliere. Brigadier Showers* force was at Jatoosana. 
Several of the Jhujjur sowars whom they came across delivered 
up their arms without resistance. "We are gradually appre- 
hending some of the chief offendera Tlie Nawab of Jhu^jjur and 
others being anxious now to testify their loyalty and affection 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 205 

for the British Government by apprehending for ns some of their 
not less guilty but not so powerful co-partners in rebellion." 

The two princes had been shot that morning by the banks Princes shot, 
of the Jumna. 

Here we are all free ; the only remnant of our enemy is a Remnant of 
body of some 400 or 500 Sowars and a couple of hundred Sepoys, ° o'*«*'^P«- 
who have taken refuge at Futtehpore Sikri. They are described 
as not knowing whither to turn, having been repulsed from 
Bhurtpore, and they say they are resolved to die where they are. 
A force will go out to attack them, and Bhurtpore will be 
invited to assist, if not to anticipate our attack by themselves, 
dislodging the refugees. Futtehpore Sikri, you know, is only 
12 miles or so from Bhurtpore. 

Nine of the Mutineers whom I mentioned in my letter of the Police capture 
17 th £is having been captured at Areeng with quantities of gold 
on their persons, were brought in by the Police to Muthra, and 
are now in the Cotwalee there. Is not Muthra a marvellous Muthra's 
instance of loyalty to us? Not a soldier of ours has it seen ^^ ^* 
since the Mutiny broke out, excepting the 2 Cos. of the 
44th and 67th, which mutinied and went off to Delhi; yet, 
whenever the actual pressure of Mutineer forces has passed 
away, immediately oui* Cotwalee h£is been reoccupied and our 
Deputy Magistrate and Deputy Collector, Imdad Ally, again imdad Ally, 
recognised as the ruler of the submissive city. Much is, of 
course, due to tlie good feeling of the Seth ; but even with all The Seth. 
this, the absence of lawlessness and opposition to the authorities 
appointed by our Government is very remarkable, when there 
were such opportunities for their display. 

The country north of Muthra, on the confines of the Jats and 
Goorgaon District, i s yet disturbed by the imruly Jats and ^\^^rb the 
Mewatties, who need chastisement, but we have not the means ^^"^T °°^^ 

. of Muthra. 

of chastising them. 

Mrs. Druinmond has gone with Grant's Column, much Mrs. Drum- 
against the advice of all here. Druinmond speaks well of the h°^^^ 
crops. (See quotation in the printed slip.) promising. 

Our latest regarding Nynee Tal is in a letter from H. S. H. s. Reid. 
Eeid, from whicli I quote the following ; it is dated Mussooree, 
October 14th: — 

" I have just heard from Maxwell ; thiey are besieged at 
Nynee Tal by 5000 Pathans, but are all jolly. Eamsay has Nairn Tal 
more men than arms ; a supply went off from this some days *®*'^**^' 
back. A note in from Beckett, dated 9 th (he ordinarily lives at Beckett. 



206 MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 

Ramsay. Peoree). He writes that Banisay has written to say that they are 

besieged by 5000 men, and will go at them on a favourable 
opportunity ; there is no alarm on their account." I do not think 
there is umch cause of anxiety about Nynee Tal. 

MiyorEld. Major Eld, who is commanding at Allygurh, has caught a 

man of his old regiment, the 9 th, who was left behind sick by 
the Delhi fugitives. He is getting much information out of him 
as to the manner in which the regiment went ; whether anything 
more general as to the causes of the Mutiny is doubtful. A 

Men on leave remarkable fact is that the men on leave generally joined their 

rSjdmente at "^ regiments at Delhi, which were all greatly stronger than we 

^^** calculated. Eld says : " Eampershaud, the man who commenced 

our mutiny and seized my horse on parade, I am happy to say 
was shot in the leg by our grape-shot, and liad his foot and 
ankle carried away by another, but was accompanying the 
Mutineera on a tattoo." Eld wishes to spare the man. The 
regiment killed none of its officers. 

Gwaiior troops. Since commencing this letter, communications from Gwalior 
to the 17th have been received. The 2nd Division on that day 
marched from Gwalior. They have taken with them the whole 
of the Magazine and guns, excepting the Station gun. " Their 
declared intention is still to go by the Indoorkee Boad to 
Calpee. They may make, say the Durbar, a few halts in Zillah 
Kuchwahagurh, one of Scindiah's assigned districts." Grant will, 
I hope, get hold of all their magazine. 

CkMsids kiUed. I fear the 2 Cossids despatched from this on the 9th have 

l^een killed on the road; one of our return men says he saw 
their heads lying in the road, and the waxcloth covering of the 
despatch they were carrying. I think a duplicate of my letter 
went on the 10th, but not copies of my letters to Colonel 
Greathed urging his speedy march this way, which I should 
have liked the Governor-General to have seen. It cannot be 
helped now. I think I have now given you all the news. 

W. MuiK. 
J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 

P.S. — I have just read a letter from Saunders, dated 14th. 
He says the Sappers and Miners were to start the next day via 
Ghaziuddeen-nugger for Agi-a. This is the first we have heard of it. 

He says they had not heard that day from Showers' Camp, 
but that there was a Native report that he " liad taken a couple 
of guns belonging to the Doojana Nawab at Nahur without 
resistance." 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 207 

CLXII. 

AoBA, 20lh October 1857. 

My Dear Siierer, — There is little of news to-day. Every- 
thing here is quiet. Urgent orders are being issued to Grant to General Grant 
hurry on towards you. 2600 camels accompany his force forSui^yon.^ 
use below. In another week we shall have collected 2000 more, 
and say 500 carts. If you can send an escort, say to Mynpoorie 
or Etawah, we could undertake to convoy them so far to 
meet you- 

I have news from Delhi to the 15th. In sending on 
Greathed's Column we at the same time wrote to Delhi that, 
as we were still threatened by the Contingent, it was necessary 
that we should be re-enforced here. General Penny on this 
parted with his Muzbee Sikhs, 500 strong, under the command CapUin Aieo 
of that admirable officer. Captain Taylor, to whom so much inbrinraSOO ' 
the later operations against Delhi is due. They marched on the ?J"f ®*^" 
16 th by way of Ghaziuddeen-nuggur, and should be here in 
some 5 days. We shall then be able to reoccupy Muthra and 
Etawa. We have asked for some field Artillery, if they can 
spare it, from Meerut, and if we get that we shall then be 
completely set up, so far as we can be without Cavalry. 
Saunders says that Showers* Column was to be at Dadree on the Showers. 
16th, where they were to be re-enforced by a portion of VanVanCort- 
Cortlandt*s force, and R. Lawrence's Cashmere Auxiliaries. cJ^ptain R. 
" From Dadree they march on Jhujjur, and will then call on pJJ^*^' 
the Nawab to surrender himself a prisoner to the British Govern- Jhujjur. 
ment, and our troops will then take charge of his fort and 
guna Capt. Lawrence is to remain in charge of the Jhujjur Captain Law- 
territory, which will be occupied by the Cashmere force, to of"jhiS^r."'" 
enable Showers' force to march back towards Delhi." 

" Our force in the City is inadequate to hold the defences of 
the place when occupied once more by its inhabitants, unless 
supported by a small force like Showers' Column marching 
within call." 

The movement against Jhujjur and Dadree was directed by Jhujjur and 
Sir J. Lawrence's orders, and was no doubt imperatively called loyuif* ** 
for, " t o prevent these 2 independent States, which have during 
t he campaign taken a prominent part against the Britisn 
(foveriimenty becoming Alsatias for our disbanded mutinous 
troops." 

Everything was quiet at Delhi and elsewhere to the N.W. 

W. Mum. 



208 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



P,S. — A letter from Mussooree, dated 16th (our post, you 
see, has reached nearly its normal rapidity again), states that 
the force which had attacked Huldwanee and Njmee Tal had 
retreated. 



Policy reganl- 
ing reoccnpa* 
Uon of Delhi 
by inbabitantB. 



Sikh soldiers 
laden with 
plunder. 



The danger 
of this. 



Sikh element 
in the army. 



Their great 
services. 



CLXIV. 

AOBA, 21«e October 1857. 

My Dear Beadox, — Many thanks for your letter of the 5th. 
I shall be glad to get your promised communication giving the 
views entertained by the Supreme Government on some of the 
more pressing topics advanced in my former letters. Some of 
them press very urgently. 

I take the liberty of enclosing a letter which I wrote 
yesterday to Mr. Saunders, the Agent Lieut. -Governor at Delhi, 
regarding the policy maintained towards the City. It is right 
that the Governor-General should be at once in possession of this 
— although you will see that several of the points alluded to are 
not established facts, but rest merely on the tenor of the conver- 
sation of the officers of the Column as they passed through Agra. 
The language held was however general, and was used by high 
officers as well as low. The subject of the reoccupation of the 
City has been repeatedly touched on in my letters to Sherer, and 
once, more at lengtli, in my letter to Edmonstone, dated the 1 2th 
inst. I will not fail promptly to communicate the reply I may 
receive from Saundere. 

A lready the Sikh s ol diers are laden with plunder , and some 
sensible men who have been long in the Punjaub express some 
apprehension lest when they return to their homes their friends 
among the mountain tribes may have their cupidity excited by 
the sight of so much silver and gold, and long for the opportunity 
of acquiring for themselves, by means less friendly to us, a similar 
booty in this land of gold and silver. 

The apprehension may l)e futile, but having been expressed, 
as I say, by some persons of judgment, I have thought it not 
improper to allude to it. 

Col. Fi-aser, you will see from his remarks in a memorandum 
by your friend Brown on Bundelkhund, is afraid lest we should 
introduce too large a Sikh element into our soldiery in these 
provinces. But so long as we judiciously mingle other troo^is 
with them, I believe that there is at present no practical cause 
for alarm in this respect. They are now doing us most admirable 
service. In fact, our forward and advancing position could never 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 209 

have been so soon gained and so triumphantly maintained with- 
out them. 

Now that Delhi is down and the Mutineers fled, the fft^^j ng^FAftiing of 
of the country is decidedly favourahle to us : and supposing that favouiibkf 
no ground is lost in our progressive reconquest of Gudh and 
Eohilkhund, we may now rely on the Hindoo population gener- 
ally, and on all that portion of the Mahomedan population 
which has not compromised itself. What the effect would be of 
any serious check or reverse in these quarters one cannot say. 
The population is so timid, and stands in such awe of the possible 
return of the Mutineers, that any even momentary advantage 
gained by them would probably unsettle our hold on the people 
again. The rebels lie so outrageously and in so specious a manner, Misrepresentap 
that the simple people are quite carried away by them. ion y re 

In Eohilkhund, e.g., even although multitudes of retreating 
troops have passed, the fall of Delhi is, it is said, not yet 
believed in some quarters. 

But, Deo juvantCy we will not anticipate the possibility of a 
reverse. Grant's Column is pushing rapidly on — flushed with 
victory — and will cany all before it. 

I enclose a copy of Brown's memo, alluded to above. Fraser 
has sent it with his opinion, leaning to Europeans over Sikhs for 
the duty. No doubt Europeans will be needed, but I see no 
reason why large bodies of Sikhs should not also be employed, sikhs should 
It is the best place to send them to — a wild hilly country, half- ^hiSrtHmd. 
savage like their own, and with less temptation to pillage than 
11^ ^^fi nV.hftr pr^^ vinces \ besides, it appeara to me a good policy 
to scatter the Sikhs. 

We are getting up Jat and other horse here, and if things go Jat Horse 
on smoothly below I tliink we may now calculate on their loyal ™^ 
services. 

I am more glad than I can tell you that Lucknow was not Lucknow. 
evacuated — the Mahomedans would have felt that they had still 
a head and rallying-poiut if that Capital had been abandoned to 
them. As it now stands we have (excepting Bareilly) the main 
towns. It is only the Mo/ussily and not the Suddur (as they 
will think), that we have to contend against. The effect of 
abandonment, as regards Native States, would, I think, have been 
bad. 

I have been talking with Macpherson about the return to 
the proprietary status as it existed anterior to the EebeUion. Proprietary 
He says he has discussed the subject often with Dinkur Eao, and 
is ver y much opposed to our system of Civil Decree sales^ which 
VOL. I. — 14 



210 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Sale of land by 
CivUCJourt. 



Dinkur Rao*9 
system. 



Plan of tempor- 
ary transfer 
by Civil Court 
proposed. 



£aropean 
barracks: 
Sir Herbert 
Ed warden' 
opinion. 



Rao of Myu- 
poorie. 



he believftfl ^inHii^|;^ to the state of society and violently disliked 
by the people. At last he admitted that we had so compromised 
the Government to what had been done that all transfers enforced 
prior to the Mutiny must be upheld. But he strongly urges 
that for the future the sale process sliould not issue as against 
land for simple debts. He says Dinkur's system works admirably. 
It admits, as I understand, suits to enforce sales or transfers 
by private act, or the sale of land if pledged for repayment of a 
debt; but for simple debt, transfer for a limited period only i s 
allowedj and that, I Ijelieve, to some party already connected 
with the village. The subject attracted my attention last year, 
and in submitting (while alone in the E. Board) the Eohilkhund 
report to Government I ventured to suggest the plan of temporary 
transfer for realisation of decrees. Mr. Colvin referred the pro- 
posal to the court : they did not entertain it favourably, and it 
was shelved. I have thought it worth while to get the entry in 
our abstract of the passage referred to, and enclose a copy. It is 
in an abridged form ; the original has been lost with our records. 

The subject may be worth discussing now, as we have a carte 
blancfie for future action. It is worth while considering whether 
the absolute sale of real property might not be restricted to cases 
in which it was hypothecated for the debt, and temporary 
transfers allowed for simple debts. 

Edwardes at Peshawur is greatly in favour of the square 
block of building for European Barracks, and our Doctors here 
seem to be in favour also of a plan of that description with 
double storeys, the upper tier being more healthy than the 
ground storey. 

Pucca quarters on this plan would certainly have aftbrded 
greater security during the late outbreak than our thatched lines. 
The ventilation, one would think, would he impeded by the 
(quadrangular form, but it cei1;ainly has many advantages. 

NicoUs here of the Engineers has written a good paper on 
our Fort. To be at all defensible against any scientific or regular 
attack, it will require very material alterations and additions. 
While we are all cooped up here, some of our engineers would be 
well employed, if they had a commission to do so, in reporting on 
the subject. 

The ordinary news I will give in my letter to Sherer. I trust 
that the Eao at Mynpoorie, who has given up the 2h lacs of 
treasure he had in his keeping, may be found by Cocks suffi- 
ciently free of guilt to be left in charge of the Station. In that 
case our horse dak may continue to rim between that and this. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 211 

All to the N.W. quiet, and rapidly settling. Mutineers Mutineers 
being brought in both by Native States and our Police. Eevenue inby SSife^ 
coming in and all looking cheerful There is a serious concen- 1^*~ *"*^ 
tration of forces in the Cawnpore direction now that the Concentration 
Contingent is marching there; but our reinforcements arecaJjSpor^ 
concentrating there also. 

We look anxiously for news of Lucknow. Grant's Column 
will, no doubt, anticipate the Contingent. Tlie wave has fairly 
left us behind. 



W. MuiR. 



C. Beadon, Esq. 

CLXV. 



AoRA, 20th October 1857. 



My Dear Sherer, — Grant's Column will reach you, I hope, sir Hope 
as soon almost as this letter. I need not therefore give you column, 
what will not be news to you regarding its movements. Grant 
pushed on the troops 23 or 24 miles on the 19th: the Eajah 
Tej Singh fled. Eao Bhowany Singh came out to meet the 
Column, and Mynpoorie was taken quiet possession of. We got Mvnpoorfe 
back, what we had long looked on as lost, the 2,30,000 Rs. left *^ 
there by Power in June ; took one 6 -pounder, and two or three 
small guns, and 80 to 100 maunds of powder. 

All this you probably will have heard of l)efore this reaches 
you, and also that the body of troops which had taken up a 
position at Bewar on the part of the Nawab Baees with guns, 
had retreated — at least the report in camp was such. One camp 
letter says they expect to be in Cawnpore by the 27th, which I 
hope will prove true. 

Cocks, we hope, will be back to-day or to-morrow. I trust 
he may 1)0 able to leave Rao Bhowany Singh in charge of the 
Station, and that our mail carts may continue to nm to that as a 
terminus, imtil our entire line to you is re-established. 

All is well here and to the N.W. 

A body of some 500 Cavalry and Foot was reported to be at 
Tuppuhl, some 20 or 30 miles from Allygurh. It is probably 
exaggerated in numbers, and an offshoot of the Indore fugitive Indore fugitive 
Cavalry, which were wonderfully numerous. cavalry. 

There is a small body of the same Force at Futtehpore Sicri, 
l)robably under 200 ; and another said to be at Behra beyond 
Furrah. A Force from here is going in a day or two, to make a 
circuit in that direction, onwards to Muthra, and thence perhaps 
to Allygurh. 



212 MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 

Captain A letter has been received from Capt. Gowan from his hiding- 

^^**^' place, Khera Bughaim, beyond Shajehanpore. He says there are 

many other refugees in his vicinity — ladies and children — and 
thinks that if a reward were offered to the Hindoos they would 
bring them in safely. 
Reward Eeplies have gone promising a reward of 10,000 Eupees if 

reftigees. ^^ a Hindoo escort shall bring them safely to this bank of the 
Ganges. You should also make this known. So long as Fur- 
ruckabad remains in the Mutineers' hands their position is 
precarious. This is an additional reason for early operations 
against Furruckabad, so soon as they can be undertaken with 
reference to the more imperious calls upon the troops farther 
to the East. The following is Bramley's account of his examina- 
tion of Gowan's Cossid yesterday : — " Talking to the Cossid, I find 
Seven penons there are in all 7 persons in Khem Bughaim. Besides Gowan, 
iteghem^ Oil® man. one boy, three girls, and one woman. He names 14 
SSwainew- P^rso^^s more in villages, 8 to 10 coss some N.E. some W. of 
' Khera." 

The Thakoors will hardly venture to escort to the Ganges 
more than Gowan's party — at least, so I gather from the Cossid. 
Kuchla Ghat, you may know; it is on the direct road 
between Khasgunj and Budaon — the direct Agi^a and Bareilly 
road was to cross there. 

This Ghat, they say, is about 30 coss from Khera, which 
again is 7 or 8 coss W. of Tilhun on the Eamgunga. 

If Futtehgurh could be quickly relieved, the Thakoors would 
then find little difficulty in conveying the Europeans there. The 
Kimhal have been licking the Jelalabad Sowars, the Cossid says. 
There is no difficulty that I know of between this and Kuchla 
— the Sikh Infantry and Gobind*s Sowars would be sufficient 
escort from Kuchla. 

Captain Munbee writes very cheerfully from Bhurtpore ; he 

Captam accompanied Nixon. He says : " Our arrival here has been 

to Bhurtpore. hailed with satisfaction by all parties, and is calculated to do 

much good." He speaks well of the behaviour of the Durbar 

authorities. He says their troops, being now better paid, look 

more respectable than before, and that all the vacancies have 

been filled up l)y other than Poorbeeas. The cultivation is 

" splendid," and every prospect, he says, of an excellent harvest. 

The salt is all stored, waiting for the quieting down of the 

"Catching" of country eastward, and the opening of our line. "The catching 

Rju) Raiah of ^^ mutineers," says Munbee, " is the chief ' shikar,' and the Ka- 

Kamowlee. mowlee Eao Rajah has taken up the gama They will soon be 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 213 

extirpated from Eajpootana, I hope." There is a letter from 
Alexander, Nynee Tal via Mussorie, dated Oct. 6 th. He says 
the Bijnore Nawab had written to him, saying that the charge of Nawab of 
the district had given him much trouble, but still he hoped to ^^^^^ 
be able to " make over the district in peace, and with satisfaction 
to the Government. This is one effect," says A., " of our arms 
at DelhL" H^. thiy^V s the Nawab of Eampore to be om* " con- Nawab of 
fliqteijit and staunch friend " but he distrusts his troops, and fears £^2?**'* 
that Moradabad will not be reoccupied by us, in consequence of 
the strongholds of Mahomedans at Sumbul, Amroha, and Mora- 
dabad itself, without i^esistanca 

George Campbell, whom I asked for a statement of the con- 
dition of the crops from Sel^anmpore downwards, believes that, Condition of 
excepting in a few localities especially exposed to the influence ^^^ 
of enemies, the croi>s are well spread over the land Perhaps 
a tenth below the average. The Khureef happens, from the 
favourable rains, to be an abundant one, and the preparations for 
the Bubbee are promising. 

You will be probably hearing more of the movements of the 

Gwalior troops shortly than wa We have news from Scindia up 

to the 19 th. The Contingent was proceeding onwards. His 

Vakeel started for Agra on the 18tL ^„ ,^ 

^ W. MuiR, 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 

CLXVI. 

Agra, 22 Oct. 1867. 

My Dear Sherer, — Thanks for yours of the 16 th. Yes, it 
is hardly fair in the Military Authorities at Cawnpore touching 
my messages; they should have been all forwarded intact to 
Calcutta, unless obviously out of date, and containing no new 
information. They have been in effect messages from me on the 
part of the Government N.W.P. to the Foreign Secretary on the 
j)art of the Gov.-Gen. I trust that the grand emergency in this 
l)art of the country has passed over, and that our TeL Messages 
will in future be of only secondary interest, or I should have 
been incUned to make a fuss about it. As it is, I enclose a note 
f(^r Captain Bruce, which please to give to him. 

Central India begins to look a little uneasy just at present, Uneasiness in 
but I do trust it wiU blow over. One can hardly thmk that ^^^ ^°*^ 
now any serious opposition will be offered to us from that quarter, 
when for many months they had us greatly in their power, and every 
day is at present rendering us stronger and more independent of 



214 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Murder of 
Major Barton 
at Kotah. 



Uueasiness at 
Jyepore. 



Loyalty of 
Rsgah of Jye- 
pore. 



Bhortpore. 



Turbulent 
Mewattifl. 



Joudhpore 
Mutineers. 



the course taken by native States. But these are the natural 
heavings of the surface following the hurricane in the N.W. First, 
I have to report the murder of Major Burton, P.A., at Kotah. 
Captain Macdonald, "on special duty at Deoli," reports in a 
letter without date, but marked " Express " and received yester- 
day, that " two Rajpultans, calling themselves Narain and Bho- 
v>aney, went with guns against the bungalow of the political agent. 
They surprised and murdered both him and his two sons (the rest 
of the family is beUeved to be at Neemuch), also Mr. Solder, a 
subordinate officer of the Medical Department, and a native doctor. 
This happened in the forenoon of the 15th inst. And the 
remains of Major Burton and his sons were lying on the floor 
of the house till 6 a.m. of the following day." Major Burton, 
with his sons, it seems, had arrived at Kotah on the 13th, and 
"had the usual visits with the Eajah on the 14th." The intelli- 
gence was conveyed to Captain Macdonald by a Bengalee Baboo ; 
and he adds that it cannot be doubted. 

Nothing is said of the feeling of the Durbar itself, or whether 
the troops are in rebellion against it. We must patiently wait 
for further information. 

In a letter from Bhurtpore of the 20 th, Capt. Nixon gives 
a somewhat less encouraging account of affairs than I quoted 
yesterday from Capt. Munbee. He says, " I am afraid the 
poUtical horizon is going to be overcast. Jjepore is not pjetting 
on so well as it ought to do, and the pfreat Feudatory of th e 
State, the Eawul, has very unfortunately allied himself with the 
Mahommedans, and is inchned to kick up a row. The Rajah is 
a first-rate fellow and our friend." There was a rumour received 
from Khoorja and Meerut to-day that some mischief was brewing 
at Jyej)ore ; but Eden, I hope, will be able to keep all straight. 

" Bhurtpore," Nixon adds, " is not so happy as it might be, 
but with temper and discretion I hope to be able to drive the 
coach, please God. It is, however, not to be wondered at that 
men's minds are unsettled when the whole world has been turned 
upside down." He anticipates some trouble in putting down the 
Mewattees of the District, who have been the cause of much 
mischief. 

In another letter Nixon says that the Joudpore Mutineera 
have left Awah and gone to Mertu, a town to the west of the 
Sambhur Lake. He thinks from this that they intend " to cross 
the Jumna somewhere between Agra and Delhi." 

In our own jurisdiction matters continue to look well. 

Williams, the Comr., writing from Meerut on the 20th, says. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 215 

" The Doab is quite quiet hereabouts, and we are all watching the Doab quiet. 
Ganges. I have a little army on the other side — Bijnore Chow- 
dries, Groojurs, Juts, etc. — about to attack Mahmood Khan (the 
Nawab) at Bijnore on their own account." 

Williams has been very anxious to move on Eohilkhund, but Rohiikhund. 
this has been discouraged, as we have enough, and far more than 
enough, on our hands already, and it can wait. But there are 
many favourable elements there. When we can afford to move 
into the Division, " thousands and thousands of Hindoos would 
join any advancing column. The whole Hindoo population are Loyalty of 
praymg for our advance." ^^^^^• 

From Boolundshuhur Sapte writes cheerfully. He is busy Booiimdsim- 
seeing all the boats on this side the Ganges. He crossed at "* 
Anoopshuhm', and walked a little way on the Eohilkhund bank. 
They talk of an invasion of the Doab, but it seems unlikely. 
Walidad of Malaguih has been appointed Chuckladar of Islam- Wuiiee Dwi 
nuggur in the Budaon District ; and it would not be surprising if, 
to prop up his ruined fortunes, he were to league himself with 
the Joudpore Mutineers ; and it is possible that he may have had 
a hand in the unsettlement I have already alluded to in Eajpoo- 
tana. So the sooner you can send up troops to overawe om- 
neighbours, both East and West, the better. Simultaneously with, 
or very shortly succeeding, your offensive and expanding measures 
in Oudh, it would l^e of great importance also to threaten Eohil- 
khimd, whither some of the Lucknow fugitives will probably 
retreat. There will also be a rush eastward, or rather there has 
(as I gather from F. Gubbin's letter to you) already been such a 
rush. But very shortly our welcome and ample succour from 
England should enable the Commr. -in-Chief to provide for both 
objects. 

We have Gwalior letters up to the 20th. The Contingent, Gwaiior 
with its 40 guns, liad reached Gohesur on the 19th. By this ^''''*'°«*''^- 
time it will have crossed the Sind and be about Indoorkee. 

I have lettei*s from Delhi up to the 15 th, with reports of Brigadier 
Brigadier Showera' proceedings before Dadree and Jhujjur. Dadree and 

On approaching Dadree the Nawab came out to meet the ^^^V*^' * 
Brigadier, and received the Column " with the utmost respect." Dadree. 
He expressed his readiness to submit to any inquiry the Govern- 
ment might institute into his conduct, and promised to " afford his 
assistance in arresting any Mutineers and insurgents who might 
take refuge within his jurisdiction." 

Two brass guns, two iron ones, and two Amaselles were Ordnance 
taken ; the four latter were destroyed. 



216 MSS. VOL. II.: THIRD SERIES 

On the 17th the Column proceeded to Chuchukwas, the 
Shikargah or sporting residence of the Nawab of Jhujjur. It lies 

Nawftbof midway between Dadree and Jhujjur. The Nawab of Jhujjur 

«n«ijjur. came out to this spot to meet Brigadier Showers. He sent for- 

ward a deputation to say that he was there, and awaited instruc- 
tions to come into the camp. When he arrived, Showers 
communicated to him the instructions of the Government, and 
after the delivery of the Perwaneh from the Commr. he was 

Arrested. arrested. He has since been imder the charge of Capt. R 
Lawrence, who, with his Cashmere troops, joined the Colunm on 
the 16 th, and will occupy Jhujjur. 

" The Nawab," Showers writes, " was frank in his communica- 
tions regarding the state of his troops, and of the objection he 

Abdooi Sum- suspected his father-in-law, Abdool Summud Khan, would make to 

nmd Khan. ^j^^ himself up." Preparations were accordingly made for oppo- 
sition ; but during the night the whole troops at Jhujjur, both 

Jhujjur troops Cavalry and Infantry, fled, and the Cantonment was found deserted, 
all that remained being the Nawab's own horses in the Cavalry 
stables. The few men who remained gave up their arms without 
opposition. The Fort was afterwards taken possession of, with 

Ordnance and about 2 1 guns and extcnsive munitions of war, including a large 

^iSL? seized quantity of powder. 

at Jliiujur. ^ detachment of the Guide Cavalry and Pimjaub mounted 

Police had been posted at Nahar to cut off the Nawab's 
retreat, in case he should attempt (to escape ?), to cut up all the 
troops of the chiefship whom they could overtake. 

It was believed that the fugitive soldiery were making for 
the Fort of Kunound. A mounted Detachment was accordingly 
despatched, which expected to reach Kunound on the 19 th, and 
anticipate any hostile occupation of the Fort. The main column 
was to reach it on the 20th. Treasure was understood to be 
collected in the Fort. 

It was likely that the Column would visit the chiefships of 
Bahadurgurh and Furrookhnuggur before returning to Delhi. 
The southerp pnrtinp nf Goor^^u is again in flames^ fiom these 

Turbulence of wild Mewattees. Twenty thousand were reported to Mr. Saun- 
ders to have gathered there, and attacked and plundered Sohna, 
and killed some 50 men. The disturbance will no doubt be 
quelled by Mr. Ford, or by a movement from Delhi. I trust it 
is not connected with matters at Jyepore. 
All is quiet at Muthra. 

Four of the Mutineers, caught at Areeng, were yesterday blown 
away from guns. 




LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 217 

Sapte has seized two Havildars and 5 Sepoys of the 23rd 
(our friends of the 10th inst.), a Duifadar, and two troopers of 
the 14th, and some other trooper. He has taken in all 47 guns, Large quantity 
some of them of large calibre. He is very anxious for the issue of JLsmiI at booI- 

News has just come in that the Mutineei's who had estab- indore 
lished themselves at Futtehpore Sicri have gone off towards ""^*®"' 
Biana, and those at Behri seem inclined to take the same course. 
There is some mischief brewing in that quarter, I fear. 

W. MuiR, 



CLXVIIL 

AoRA, 23 Oct. 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — I have very little to report to-day. 
The Mutineers are still at Futtehpore Sicri, and the party that 
was at Behree is joining them. Those that had left for Biana are 
said on hearing this to have come back to Futtehpore Sicri. I 
hope our troops will soon move out to dislodge them. CoL 
Fraser is waiting for the Muzbees, who I trust will be in 
to-morrow. But Capt. Inglis speaks of them as raw, ill-drilled 
recruita Still we hope to find them sufficiently organised to 
fight; and in that case our expedition will start probably 
to-morrow or the next day. 

I have a reliable native letter from Bareilly ; it gives the 
following information: — 

Wallee Dad, with 500 followers, reached Bareilly on the WuUee Dad. 
5th, and waited on Khan Bahadoor; the latter gave him 4 
pultuns, 1100 Cavalry (the numbers you know in these 
accounts are not worth much), and two guns, for the reconquest 
of Malagurh. The trooi)S refuse to go without pay ; and the 
Nawab himself displays no great anxiety to expose his person 
to danger, but he was arranging for a nephew to go in command, 
and the troops were expected to start on the 16th. Whether 
they will get the reach of the Ganges is doubtful ; but my 
letter of yesterday will have shown that both the Meerut and 
Boolundshuhur authorities are on the alert. 

Tlie Malagurh man's " Naib " spoke of going to Furrahabad 
to get more troops there. 

Wallee Dad remains at Bareilly. 

Bukht Khan, with the Nana's brother (who is followed by a Bukht Khan, 
personal guard of 400 persons), has gone via Budaon to 
Furrahabad. Khan Buhadoor is trying to collect one and 



218 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Hindoos loyal. 



Attack on 
Naini Tal. 



Khan Buha- 
door at 
Bareilly. 



Governor- 
Qenerars 
onlers as to 
walls and gates 
of Delhi. 



King's life 
gnaranteed by 
General 
Wilson. 



Trial of the 
King deemed 
desirable. 



a half anna of the Bevenue balance, but he meets with an 
absolute resistance from the Hindoos, The Thakoors of a 
village in Shahjehanpore (I rather think it is J. Barnes' famous 
Khundur) attacked and killed above 100 of his troops when they 
demanded payment, and the Aheers of Gonour in Budaon 
showed so detennined a front that the Bareilly Sepoys slunk 
away without attempting to enforce their demands. 

The force sent against Nynee Tal had been defeated with 
los& On its return to Bareilly the Khan was much displeased, 
and ordered them at once back again. They clamoured for their 
pay, but did not get it. A large force, however, has set out 
with four guns for Nynee Tal. There is not much danger of 
our friends there. The news of Nepal troops being expected at 
Nynee Tal had reached Bareilly. Intelligence of the occupation 
of Lucknow by Havelock was also known there. Both Hindoos 
and Mahomedans are deserting Bareilly by thousands and living 
in the villages. 

Khan Buhadoor retains 1 pultans, some cavalry, and two 
guns at Bareilly. He has in all 30 pultans (you may calculate 
as you please) and 2 1 guns. But his troops are ill-armed : some 
have muskets, some swords, some clubs ; many cannot use a gun. 
The Artillerymen are also imskilful. So much for the native 
account contained in the letter. 

The up-country dak has just come in ; it brings a letter from 
Saunders, dated the 2l8t. He sends a copy of the message of 
the Governor-General, dated the 10 th, regarding the City and 
King of Delhi. I rejoice to see the Gov. -General's order to 
destroy the fortifications and defensive portions of the walls 
and gates of the City. In regard to the King, Mr. Saunders 
says that as his Ufe " was guaranteed by Hodson, under the 
authority of General Wilson, it will, of course, be necessary to 
send him down to Allahabad when the country is suflBciently 
tranquillised to admit of his travelling down country. His 
eventual destination ought certainly to be kept secret, to prevent 
a chance of a rescue being attempted on his way down country." 

Saunders adds : " I regret that he is not to be tried, with a 
view, not to his being sentenced, but to the evidence being recorded 
against him, and his guilt or innocence asserted. The docu- 
mentary evidence forthcoming against him is of a character the 
most convincing, and there certainly ought to be some means of 
making it public for the information of Europe and in justification 
of our conduct." 

A trial, however, may not be necessary for the arrangement 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 219 

and elucidation of the evidence against the King. It can all 
be placed on record and published by the Government in a 
form suitable for transmission to Europe. The evidence is all 
documentary. The printed Gazettes of the Palace are sufficient strong evi- 
slone to prove the open part taken by ^hp. TCinpr wi't.h \ ^q rebel^ ; h?"*^® against 
and there will be other documentary evidence of his secret^ 
machinations. 

The Nawab of Jhujjur was safely conducted into Delhi on Nawab of 
the 20th. He is now in the Palace under a European guard, prisoner.** 
and in the custody of Lieut. Ommaney. He will be brought 
to trial in a few days under instructions from Sir J. Lawrence. 
No news had been received of the operations at Kanound. 

The post brings a letter of yesterday's date from Williams, 
at Meerut, and of the 14th inst. from Eamsay, at Nynee TaL 
The latter says that the second body that attacked them con- Attack on 
sisted of 5000 and 500 good horse. Col. Story was against any "° 
attack, but Eamsay, with difficulty, got 300 men and went Defeated by 
down. He had a trap to catch the Cavahy, by decoying them ^^^^ ^' 
across the Gola Canal, and then taking possession of the bridga 
" But they escai)ed by galloping up when I expected," says 
Eamsay, "they would have walked. We killed a hoi-se and 
wounded four men ; but they thought we might do them more 
injury, and they ]>olted that night." 

The Kemaonees, the people of the district, have behaved Kumaouis 
admirably. When Eamsay sent for men to defend the passes, ^^^ ' 
" they came in thousands without any pay and without a 
grumble." Williams thinks Eamsay's chief difficulty will be 
money, and he has sent him up, via Mussoree, 2000 gold Mohuiu 
At Meerut they have a])ove 6 lacs in the Treasury ; here we 
have little more tJian four, and Eeade is very irate at Grant for 
carrying off the 2 J lacs from Mjiiporie, which he had set his 
heart upon getting ! You must send us up treasure witli the 
first detachment that moves this way. 

W. Muii{. 



CLXIX. 

AoRA, 2Ath Oct. 1857. 

My Deak Shekek, — The Delhi post has just brought this 
letter, with a message for Capt. Bruce to forward to Calcutta, 
from General Penny. Please make it over to Capt. Bruce. 

In forwarding the above, Saunders gives the following ex- ^^^^'TJ^^^ 
planation regarding the guarantee for the King's life : — " It was King's life. 



220 MSS. VOL. II.: THIRD SERIES 

King of Delhi, certainly guaranteed to him by Capt. Hodson, by permission 
of the General commanding. I was absent at poor Greathed's 
funeral on the 20th Sept., when Hodson went to the General 
and asked his permission to endeavour to secure the King's 
person through Mirza Elahie Buksh, one of the family who had 
come to Hodson and promised to induce him to come in, if 
his personal seciu"ity was promised to him. At that time it was 
not known where the King and his family were; and I very 
much doubt whether we should have succeeded in obtaining his 
person, had it not been, for the authority granted to Hodson to 
treat with Mirza Elahie Buksh for the sun-ender of the King 
upon the guarantee of his life being secured to him. 

" Hodson, after having got the permission, rode off to the 
Cantonment, and met me leaving the funeral-gi'ound, where we 
had just interred poor Greathed. He called out to me as he 
passed, that Gen. Wilson had given him authority to promise the 
King his life. I was not surprised at the General having done 
so, as poor Greathed told me a few hours before his death that 
Mr. Colvin had authorised him to treat with the King, on the 
understanding that his life might, or rather would, be granted to 
him. I had not been able to look at a single document at that 
time, having only just assumed charge a few hours previously, 
during which we had all the excitement of attacking and taking 
possession of the palace and remainder of the City; and I, 
moreover, had been engaged in attending to the funeral arrange- 
ments, etc., of my predecessor. Mr. Greathed had never shown 
me the instructions which he had from time to time received 
from either Agra, Lahore, or Calcutta ; and I was perfectly 
ignorant of the views of Cirovernment, with the exception of 
having heard Greathed once before say that he had been 
empowered to offer the King's Ufe." I have copied this out 
in extensOy as it is important that it should be known to the 
Gov. -Gen. 

Walla of Delhi. I trust that, as proposed by Sir J. Lawi^ence, so much of the 
City wall will be spared as will serve for a protection against the 
marauding attacks of the plundering population of the vicinity, 
without being allowed to retain any military aspect or character. 
Even the very summary line of walls and gates which have been 
run up hei'e at Agra have given confidence, and would, I believe, 
serve as protection against predatory attacks. I believe that this, 
in respect to Delhi, is perfectly compatible with both the words 
and spirit of the Govemor-Generars order, as I conclude that 
in desiring the walls to be so far destroyed as to make them 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 221 

" useless for defences," military defences were intended. But I 
am travelling a little out of my line. 

Saunders reports that Showers had taken possession of the Showers seizes 
Fort of Kanound, and that our troops had cut up about 400 of ^*°SS;^' *"^ 
the Nawab's people. With the Fort, we seciu^ed 5 lacs of rupees, f m?!,^^^"** 

From Brigadier Lawrence's oflBcial report of the tragedy at 
Kotah, it is satisfactory to learn that he believes the Maharajah iWahofKotali 
to have been unconcerned in it, and " greatly gi'ieved " by it. MiyoTfiarton. 
Dreading that the imruly troops would proceed to plunder the 
city, he had closed the gates, and called to his aid the Thakoors 
with their Eajpoot followers. 

Greathed's news you will have from himself. I hope you 
will be able to maintain a runner dak to Mynpoorie. If the Rao 
is able to hold his position there, we shall keep up the mail carts 
so far. 

The Gwalior Contingent was supposed to be yesterday at Gwaiior 
Ameen, 36 miles on the Jalown and Calpee road. The 2 ^*^°^*°8ent. 
Divisions of the force were expected to unite there. They seem 
to be taking their time. 

You will see from the printed slip that I have ventured upon 
native report to announce a victory gained Ijy your troops, as I 
suppose, over the Nana's followers on the 18th or 19th. We 
have not a syllable from you later than the 16 th, excepting a 
receipt. Your letter lias probably been intercepted. 

Cocks believes the Eao Bhowaney Singh of Mynpoorie to be Rao Bhowani 
innocent of rebellion against the Government, and to be " deserving ^^e.°^ ^^" 
of the kindest consideration from Government." I am glad he 
has found sufficient evidence for coming to so satisfactorily a 
conclusion. It admitted of the only arrangement wliich for a 
short time to come it seemed feasible to make, viz. to leave the 
Eao as Nazim in charge of the Station and District. 

As soon as troops can ]>e spared. General Outram will, I 
doubt not, send an expedition against Furrackabad, and then we 
shall have the Doab clear ; but some troops will need to be left 
there, and a l:)ody of considera])le strength should be posted some- 
where between that and Meerut, so long as Eohilkhimd maintains 
its present hostile attitude. 

Allygurh is probably the proper post. Our communications 
with the up-country depend upon its being free. -.^^ , , 

J. W. Sheuer, Esq. 

Scindia's Vakeel, as stated in my message, arrived here 
yesterday, and is very friendly. 



222 MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 

CLXXI. 

Agra, 26th Oct. 1867. 

My Dear Sherer, — I have not much to tell you to- 
Muzbees under day. No local news except that the Muzbees, under Capt. 
TayiOT^RR, Taylor, have arrived, and that our expedition against the small 
arrive at Agra, body of Mutineers, who still hold on at Futtehpore Sicri, starts on 

Tuesday the 27 th. 
General Yours of the 20 th, with message to hasten Grant's 

Coiuinn"^^' Column, just received. The Governor-Generars wish has been 
hastened. anticipated, and I congratulate myself on having been one of the 
strong advocates of the policy which hurried the Column towards 
Cawnpore. I doubt not Lucknow will very soon be free, 
and the enemy flying in all directions. In your letter of the 
20 th you do not allude to the progress of events broached in 
your "confidential" note of the 18th. With the Column, how- 
ever, Havelock ought to be independent of Man Singh. 
Aiiygurh and Eeiterated reports are received at Allygurh and upwards, of 

hurthreatened. *^ immense gathering in the direction of Budaon, whence an 
armed force with guns is said to threaten Allygurh ; and 
Boolimdshuhur is also similarly menaced. It would be very sad, 
not only for the people who would be again abandoned to the 
Mahomedan tyrants if this occurred, but also for our com- 
munications, which, now re-established on their old footing, 
would in that case be again closed. 
Troops re- The Telegraph, too, which is advancing towards Allygurh and 

ipper Doab. "^^ ^^ Steadily pushed forward, would also be again destroyed. 
Wherefore I cease not to urge the claims of the Upper Doab so 
soon as the first necessities of Lucknow have been met. 

Nothing fresh from Eajpootana. What we have is good. 
Jyeporeand Nixon at Bhurtporc "hears that several fugitives have been 
seiM^^tives. Seized by the Jyepore authorities at Hardoun." Dliolepore is also 

sending in some. 
Gwaiior Nothing new of the Contingent. By the last report, half 

Contingent. ^^^^ ^^ Amaen and half at Munowur. 

Your letter of the 18th, enclosing Beadon's of 13th, did not 
reach till this morning, the Cossid havmg taken it out to Nixon 
at Bhurtpore. 
MiyorWiiiiams Major Williams has come down from Meerut, and is appointed 
Superintend- Superintendent of PoUce BattaUons in the N.-W. Provinces, an 
StteHons*^^ appointment I hope the Gov.-Gen. will approve. He is just the 
N.w.p. ' man for the post. Col. Steel has also come. 

W. MuiR. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 223 

CLXXIIL 

Agra, 2Qth October 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Grant's Column is, I trust, this morning 
entering Cawnpore, and Lucknow ought speedily to be relieved. 

Will you oblige us all by a numerical statement of the 
troops in Cawnpore, distinguishing those left by Havelock when 
he last advanced on Lucknow, and each subsequent re-enforce- 
ment, stating the strength of each ; also enumerating the troops 
stationed and in transit in the country below you, and not for- 
getting Artillery ? We all greatly desiderate such a statement, 
and Col. Cotton has asked me to obtain detailed information on 
the subject. 

Urgent requisitions for the presence of more troops in Eaj- Requisitions 
pootanah are being received from General Lawrence, Capt. Eden, ^^ *'"°<*P"- 
etc. General Lawrence has applied for Punjaub Irregular 
Cavalry and European Artillery. I fear it may not be possible 
to meet the requisition. They are much in need of troops. 
I trust the re-enforcements from England will soon be making 
their appearance on the Bombay and Kurachee side. 

" The condition of the Meywar," Eden writes, " requires Meywar. 
prompt and active measures. Jodhpore is in trouble, and the Joudhpore. 
' Legion ' moving about with impunity." 

As regards Jyepore itself, Eden says, " We are quiet and Jyepore. 
well-behaved here, but one or two * pultans ' in the district are 
mutinous, and in one instance set free some 30 or 40 of 
oiu" Mutineers whom the Civil Authorities had contrived to 
disarm and capture. Lastly, this ruthless murder of Major 
Burton, his two sons, and others, has made us all not a little 



anxious." 



Eden has written to General Penny for help, and thinks 
Showers' Brigade might assist him. Poor Penny must be per- 
plexed by all these calls ! for we have been impressing on him 
the necessity of watching our Ganges frontier and the gatherings 
beyond it. 

You see thus that whenever the successful progress of events 
towards Lucknow or the arrival of re-enforcements from below 
admits of it, European troops should be, without the loss of a day, 
pressed upwards. 

The orders to the Commissariat for the procuring of Estab- Calls for 
lishment, carriage, etc., were duly received with your letter Qf carnage, etc 
the 20th, and I have made them over to Capt. Chalmers for 
transmission to the proper authorities at Meerut and DelhL 



{ 



224 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Rao of Myn- 
poorie. 

Rigfth Tej 
Singh. 



Allygarh. 



Sir J. Law- 
rence depre- 
cates Upper 
Doab being 
left without 
troops. 



Man Singh. 



Dispersion of 
Jhi^jur force. 



Kunoand 
taken. 



By the way, you will of course send all our despatches via 
Mynpoorie. Clark will arrange for their being then taken up by 
the mail cart, which I hope we shall be able to keep running, 
notwithstanding the withdrawal of all our own officials from 
Mynpoorie. It is hoped that the Eao will be able to hold his 
position there, unless directly attacked by the Rajah Tej Singh, 
who may possibly appeal to the Nawab Raes, or some other of 
the floating Mutineer forces for aid. 

The telegraph line is completed to within two miles of 
Allygurh. To-morrow it will be run on to our camp. It has 
been resolved to occupy the old Fort at Allygurh. It is, as you 
know, very strong, and constructed on the European principles 
of fortification. 

Letters from Delhi of the 23rd have just come in. I quote 
the following extract of a letter from Sir J. Lawrence to Saunders : 
— " I see by a message from Norman that the moveable Column 
was at Shekoabad on the 17 th. / Jwpe it will not go below 
Futtehgurh. If we leave the Upper Doab without troops, we 
may have another insurrection, and the Gwalior troops may 
cross the Chumbul and move on Agra." No doubt Sir John, had 
he fully known the straits of Lucknow, would have approved the 
forced march of the Column on Cawnpore. Still his views as to 
the necessity of having more troops in the Upper Doab are 
valuable, as confirming all I have ventured to write on the 
subject. Will you kindly communicate what has been said 
about it to General Outram ? 

I see by a private letter to Mr. Parsons that Man Singh 
being in Treaty with us was known beyond official circles. I 
have therefore given a notice of it in the extra. 

A despatch from Brigadier Showers is enclosed by Saunders, 
dated Kunound, 20 th October. The Cavalry Force which, when 
advancing from Dadree on Jhujjiu:, he sent forward to cut off 
fugitives from Jhujjur towards Kunoimd, was eminently successfuL 
From 300 to 400 were destroyed, and the Jhujjur forces are 
believed to have been irretrievably dispersed. 

In continuation of this movement, Showers sent on another 
Cavalry Detachment, consisting of a wing of the 6 th Dragoon 
Guards and Hodson's Horae, to proceed by forced marclies to 
Kunoimd, under command of Colonel Custance of the 6th 
Dragoons. The movement was executed with ability and 
marked success. 

The Cavalry Detachment reached Kunound on the morning 
of the 19 th. Colonel Custance finding the gates closed, called 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 225 

upon the place to surrender, on which the gates were opened, 
and the Fort taken possession of, with 18 guns, 8 of which were 
mounted on the bastions, a quantity of military stores, and 
nearly 5 lakhs of treasure. Only about 60 men were found in Withtreianre. 
the Fort, who laid down their arms. About 500, said to be 
Poorbeeas, had fled during the night and morning. Some of 
them were cut up by Hodson. None of the fugitives from Hodson. 
Jhujjur had succeeded in reaching Kunound. 

Showers with the rest of the Column reached on the 20 th. 
He proposed to remain at Kunound for two days to rest the 
Artillery horses, and then to return to Jhujjur by Dadree. 

I fear my bulletin will not be ready ; but it doesn't much 
signify, as I think I have given all the news above. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq. 

My love to Harington. Mrs. Harington and her party all 
well 

An expedition to Futtehpore Sicri starts to-morrow. 

CLXXIV. 

Agra, 21ih October 1857. 

My Dear Beadon, — Thanks for yours of the 13th. It is 
(juite delightful again to get into such rapid correspondence with Communica. 
the rest of the world ! The dismal feelings occasioned by being *°™ ^^^ °^' 
cut off from all communication for so long with any other 
station were at one period very oppressive. But things are 
fast brightening now ; and if success attends our arms at Luck- 
now, and a force can soon be spared for Furrackabad and the 
Upper Doab, the Mail-Cart and the Telegraph will soon again 
connect Calcutta with Peshawar. There is a little uneasy 
feeling in Bajpootanah ; and the hordes over the Ganges menace Riypatana. 
our now peaceful districts on the Upper Doab. But I trust 
things will keep quiet till Cawnpore can afford a portion of 
its daily increasing forces. We need them much to overawe 
Eajpootanah on the one hand, and Bohilkhund on the other — Robiikhnnd. 
not to say that we cannot look upon ourselves as secure until 
Rohilkhund be reconquered. That, however, will not be a 
diflBcult or tedious operation the moment a respectable body of 
troops is available for the purpose. 

I was very glad to hear your opinion on the topics touched on 

in your letter. It is satisfactory that Agra will be retained as the Agra. 
VOL. I. — 15 



226 



MSS.-VOL, IL: THIRD SERIES 



Sanflor and 

Nerbadda 

territories. 



Snggestions as 
torearrange- 
ment of ad- 
ministration, 
including the 
inclnsion of 
Oudh in 
N.W.P. 



Lieutenant- 
Governorship, 
N.W.P. 



Professor 
Ramchunder. 

Chinunun 
Lall. 



Pension for 
Chimmun 
Lall*s widow. 



seat of Government, but we ought to have a Military Post on 
the Chumbul in Dholepore to guard the approach to Agra. We 
are very bare and vulnerable on that side. 

By the way, would it not be a good aiTangement to transfer 
permanently the Saugor and Nerbudda Province to the Chief 
Commissioner of Nagpoor ? It is very inconveniently situated 
for supervision from Agra. In the rains the Daks in ordinary 
times are 1 or 15 days ; for the Betwa and a difficult and 
wild country intervene. Jalaon, and Jhansie to the Betwa, 
would of coui-se remain with us. Bhuttianah and Hissar might 
similarly be transferred to the Punjaub, and half of Paneeput. 
Thus lightened, Oudh might be annexed to the Govt, of the 
N.W.P. Sui-ely it must eventually come to this ; and now, when 
a new series of administration is to be commenced, would it not 
be well that the whole should be consolidated together I 

As a further compensation, it would be not amiss if Bengal 
took a slice of Benares. Permanently assessed districts do not 
unite kindly with temporarily assessed ones. 

Is there any chance of such a scheme being carried out, or is 
Oudh always to remain a severed preserve in the midst of these 
provinces? Anyhow, T trust the Lieut. -Governorship will be 
maintained on its former footing. The labour of Government 
must be facilitated by the superior authority and influence it 
confers. Appointments and important administrative orders all 
emanating from the Supreme Government must diminish the in- 
fluence of a Chief Commissioner ; such at least is the impression I 
formed from Temple's statements regarding the Punjaub. 

With reference to what I before wrote about Delhi, I think 
it worth while to enclose a letter I have just received from 
Eamchunder, who was Pix>fes8or of Mathematics in the College 
at Delhi. You may remember him and the Sub- Assist. Surgeon, 
Chimmun Lall, being baptized some 5 or 6 years ago at Delhi. 
Both have maintained a very high character both as Christians 
and as officers of the Government. Eamchunder wrote a work 
on some absti'use problems which was commended by some of om- 
best mathematicians at home. Chimmun Lall had a considerable 
native practice, and the old King whenever he felt liimself un- 
usually ill constantly sent for him. 

You will see what Eamchunder says of Chimmun Lall's 
widow. I trust the Government will assign her a liberal 
pension ; considering her husband's salary and private practice, 
50 rupees a month would certainly not be too much. 

The simple tale of Eamchunder's well illustrates the miseries 



a 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 227 

which innocent people, delicate females, and tender children 
must have sufltered in their temporary exile. 

You do not touch on two of our most pressing subjects — 
Police Battalions, and disarming the people. So soon as any 
determination is come to regarding the former, let us know. 
We are aware that it hinges greatly on the course which may 
be decided upon as to the reorganisation of the Native Army. 
But something needs to be done at once in the way of rebuilding ReorganUa- 
t he Pohce, which has crumbled away everywhere , and it would *^°" ^ ^ *^' 
})e well to l>egin (m the footing which is intended to be pursued. 
Oiu' difficulty is as to the relative position of the Commandant 
of the Battalion and the District Officer. Baikes says he found 
his inability to interfere as Commr., affected the usefulness of the 
MiUtary Police. But I apprehend that if the Battalions are to 
perform the duties generally which were required of the Sepoys, 
so far as regards internal administration, they must have a 
certain considerable degree of military form and character — and 
in that case the discipline must be, I should think, exclusively in 
the hands of the Military Conmiandant. The Detective Police . 
would of course be exclusively under the Magistrate. 

There is one portion of your letter which I don't think correct. 
You say we must depend entirelv upon the inferior Castes. I Caste in the 
believe at the time our armv went, that the feeling; was so ""^* 
strong that we had clean fallen, that any body of Natives, high 
caste or low caste^ were ready to leave us. Now that the tide 
has turned, all, both high and low, Hindoo and Mohammedan 
(the latter, though, only so far as they have not already com- 
promised themselves by taking up the cause of their religion), 
are beginning to be trustworthy ; and will remain so unless we 
meet again with any serious check. 

It would be a grave misfortime if we were compelled to 
exclude any class from any employment in our administratitm ; 
and I believe that (if things continue to go on well) it will not be 
necessary to do so. We must judiciously intermix all classes in 
our Native Armv . The Sikh mania may go a little too far. As The Sikh 
one of the elements for our future army, they are admirable. Jegimenta" 
They ought to have had their own officers when introduced into 
the Sepoy Eegiments. Corps of mixed Castes are what we need^ 
both for military and police purposes. 

Sanger seems to be closely threatened by the Banpore Rajah. Saugor. 
I have suggested to Macpherson whether he could not create a 
diversion through Scindia, by a movement on the Banpore man. 
It would reUeve Saugor at once. 



228 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Scindia. 



Scindia's difficulty is the 5th Contingent. But Dinkur Eao 
is a great Statesman, and I hope we shall soon see that he 
has resources equal to the occasion. 

The Contingent are now fairly over the Sindh, which is a 
great relief to Scindia. 

W. MuiR. 

C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 



RohilkhuiKU 



Sir J.^ Law- P.S' — In a letter of the 7th October, just received from Sir 

on^disa^^^ J- Lawrence, he says : " Ijcertainlv think that it " (ie. disarmi ng 



Sy*^'p*^°° t he popu^fi tj ^n) "shouldHbe a penen ^i YnPAan rfi in ^;he JJo rth- 
Westem Provinces." 



CLXXV. 

Agra, 27/A October 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Captain Bruce's of the 22nd has just 
been received. His enclosure from Mr. Edmonstone for Sir John 
Lawrence will be forwarded at once. 

The reports from Eohilkhund are perhaps less threatening 
to-day. The Eohilkhimd troops have, they say, constructed an 
entrenchment opposite Kassgunge ; which looks as if they were 
going to settle for a short time at least where they are. You 
will, however, readily imderstand that such neighlx)urs, and the 
possibility of a visit from them, keep up the irritation on this 
side — give the disaffftnted Mnasulmans a fulcrum for their 
machinations, and make the Hindoos in a ferment of trepidation, 
fearing that their enemies may return and redouble their per- 
secutions from their ready submission to us. 

News has just come in that Mynpoorie is threatened by an 
attack from the Bajah on the 26 th ; also, the Dy. -Postmaster at 
Mynpoorie (a Baboo), writes that no Dak has come in from 
Bhowgaon, but that the Dy. -Postmaster there (also a native) 
has addressed an Urzie to the Eao, " intimating that two Eegi- 
ments of Sepoys and a few Sowars from Futtehgurh have arrived 
at Muddumpoor, 6 miles beyond Bewur, and that they intend to 
plunder the mail and kill the Hm-carras." There is evidently 
no reliance to be placed upon our hold of Mynpoorie until either 
Furrackabad is in our hands or we can occupy the place in force. 

From Gwalior the news continues good. The Contingent, 
finding the water of the Sind deeper at Indoorki than they 
expected, have crossed somewhat higher up at Seonda. Letters 
dated yesterday from Gwalior report that a large portion of the 
force had actually crossed. Now that they are clear out of the 



Mynpoorie. 



Owalior 
Contingent 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 229 

Gwalior country, and on their road towards Calpee, Scindia is still ScindU's 
more relieved, and will, I hope, take steps against the 5 th now °^^^' 
with him. He has given orders for salutes being fired at every 
Fort in his territory at our successea The Bundelkhund Wakeels 
presented Khurreetahs, and the Maharajah vouchsafed replies to 
those only who have remained faithful to us. 

Nothing fresh from Eajpootana. Our expedition started this Expedition to 
morning for Futtehpore Sicri. Sikri. ^™ 

W. MuiR. 

W. Sherer, Esq. 

It will be as well to send duplicates of your letters via 
Etawah, if the Mynpoorie Eoad continues dangerous. 



CLXXVI. 

Aqra, 28^ Oct, 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Brigadier-General Lawrence has written 
very urgently to Brigadier Showers, requesting him, if he possibly 
can, as " the aspect of affairs in Raipootana is so threatening , to Unrest in 
march his Column through Sheikhawattee towards Jyepore with ^^P'**'*^ 
all possible expedition." It is necessary, he says, to " show the 
people that we have troops at command. You will hardly deem 
it credible," he continues, " yet many in this quarter do not 
believe in the fall of Delhi; and, on this disbelief, on the 15 th Fall of DeUii 
inst. two regiments of Hindoostanees, belonging to the Raj troops of ^°* c'®^^* 
Kotah, mutinied, seized 8 guns, attacked the Agency, and murdered 
the Political Agent, Major Burton, his two sons, a Sub-Assistant Murder of 
Surgeon and native Doctor. After this they gave out that they at Kotah!'^***" 
intend taking Ajmere, and then marching to the King at Delhi. 
The Political Agent, at my desire, will already have informed you 
of the mutinous state of th^ Jyepore troops at Hindown, and of Some Jye- 
their having insisted on the release of several (35) of our fugitive matinou»r 
Mutineers from Delhi. Tank, too, is supposed to be filled with 
them. The Marwar and Meywar chiefs are all more or Iftsa ^^g- DUaffection in 
affected. Of the former the Ahwas chief and others opposed mSw.*"*^ 
the British troops at Awah on the 18th ulto., and we were not 
in sufficient strength to punish them. Ee-enforcements are 
exi)ected from Deesa, but they will be small, and much mischief 
may in the meantime ensue." 

The whole force available for Eajpootana is stated as follows: — Available 
500 European Infantry, of whom 100 sick. ^'*'"'*- 

70, a weak troop, European Hoi-se Artillery; 20 sick. 



230 



MSS. VOL. II.: THIRD SERIES 



ReqnUitioiis 
for troops 
cannot be 
met. 



Rising of 
Mewattis. 

Showers' 
Column. 



Am 
Column. 



Ist Bombay light Cavalry Lancers. 
Two Squadrons of the second ditto ditto. 
12th Eegiment B.N., about 300 strong; also Bheel corps 
at Khairwara and Mhairwara Battalion at Beawui', 
which has to protect the whole surrounding country, 
including Ajmere, Neeinuch, and Nusseerabad. 

You see from the urgency of Lawrence's call that there is 
really cause for anxiety in Eajpootana. Not a day should be lost 
in pressing forw^ard European troops in this direction the moment 
you have any to spare. I enclose for Mr. Grant a letter from 
Sir J. Lawrence. He enclosed it as a copy to be sent on to him, 
the original being sent to Williams at Meerut, and he left it 
ojien for me to read. It was in heavy paper and bulky, so I 
had it copied small. 

I have just received a letter from Saunders dated the 26th, 
Delhi, stating on the part of Gen. Penny, in reply to an applica- 
tion from us, that no troops are available at Meerut for location 
in the direction of Allygurh. He says that General Penny has 
had applications for Showers' Column, and for re-enforcements 
generally, from "Agra, Boolundshuhur, Meerut, Jyepore, and 
Ajmere. It is impossible that they can all be compUed with." 
But General Penny has so far responded to the wants of the 
Doab, as to promise that if the insmgent population of Eohil- 
khund should cross into the Doab, the Column will be directed, 
on the requisition of the authorities, " at once to cross the Jumna 
and clear it." General Penny admits that " Brigadier Grant's 
Column having gone down all the way to Cawnpore, has, there is 
no doubt, left the middle of the Gangetic Valley very much 
exposed to attack, and afforded the rebels a great temptation to 
commit excesses in the Doab." 

Everything is quiet about Delhi. 

Showers' Colimm left Kunound on the evening of the 22nd 
for the Mewattee country, via Eewaree, Taoroo, and Sona. The 
rising of the Mewattees thei'e has begun to assume a ij^irftatftnin p 
aspecJL and it was necessary to put them clown promptly. 

The Column was expected to be at Sona on the 26 th. This 
will rapidly open out the communications between Delhi and 
Muthra, which have been closed on account of the turbulence of 
these Mewattees. 

Our Column will probably move from Futtehpore Sicri, round 
by Muthra, and the demonstration by both forces ought not only 
to have a good local effect, but also an effect on the adjacent 
parts of Bajpootana. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 231 

Mr. Ford, writing from Kimound, says they have secured 7 w. Ford, c.s. 
lacs and 2563 rupees which they were sending in to Delhi. Kanound. 
This is good, and with the 2| lacs at Mynpoorie is a little set- 
off to our former treasury losses. 

Williams is sending lis down 150 momited police from 
Meerut. 

J. C. Wilson has made a " dour " down upon Allygurh, and j. Crmcroft 
has some mysterious plans in connection with some information ^*^'*» ^•^• 
he has of refugees over the Gangea He is in communication 
with Capt. Gowan. It is most earnestly to be hoped that he will 
be successful 

He has got the depositions of a sowar of the 8th Irregular 
to the effect that he went by Wilson's orders as a spy to Fur- 
rackabad, and in disguise got admittance into the female storieB of 
apartments of the Nawab, where he saw a young English girl m^confinement 
of 11 or 12 years. She said privately to him that there were **^"^*^^" 
other European ladies in confinement at Furrackabad. Wilson 
seems to believe the statement fully ; it appears to me to be 
doubtful. 

Wilson had at fii*st heard that Miss Emily Groldie was alive Miu Emily 
at Furrackabad, but he afterwards ascertained that she had been 
killed by a grape-shot opjwsite Singrampoor. By the way, Eden, 
writing from Jyepore, says that the attack on Nimbhera " was 
a mistake altogether, and I am much surprised Tank has not got Tank, 
on its hind-legs in consequence. The Nawab is quite ready ; he 
wrote to me for advice. I told him if he moved a man out of 
his territory I would set the Nagas at him. Jyepore is quite 
ready to try its luck on Tank itself. He is wonderfully quiet 
now ! " 

The Eeraolee Ilajah, aided by our old friend SaifooUah (you Ri^jah of^ 
remember his Keraolee levies who did us good service prior to loyS^aer^ce. 
the 5th July), has intercepted a band of some 50 or 60 fugitives 
of the Indore Force who were endeavouring to cross the Chumbul 
into hifl territory. They were caught in the midst of a hilly 
tract; some were cut up, others fled, but were afterwards 
apprehended wandering about the devious paths; some tried 
to cross the Chumbul and were drowned, their horses being 
caught. Seven, I believe, are to be sent in for trial here. 

Tlie Gwalior troops have, we hear, passed Indoorkee, and still 
talk of attacking Cawnpore. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq. 



232 MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 

CLXXVIL 

Agra, 29^^ October 1857. 

My Dear Bakkk, — I was very sorry to learn that you 
contemplate an early departure from the country. Every 
Department will, after this imiversal bouleversement, require to 
some extent reorganisation and reconsideration, and the D.P. 
Works among the rest. In this work your experience will l)e 
much missed. 

I intended, before these disturbances broke out, to have sent 
Encloses Note you a copy of tlie enclosed note on the East Jumna Canal. I 
onEaat Jumna j^^pp^j^^ in my tour last year, as Member of the Eevenue 

Board, to march along the whole length of this canal, and 
prepared this memo, for Mr. Colvin. Mr. Colvin, you will see, 
was prepared to have the question discussed as to the best 
mode of adjusting the cost and repairs of Bajbuhas, but the 
rebellion intervened. 
AascBsment of I am very anxious that the mode of assessing Bajbuha 

^^^* charges should have a fair reconsideration. The abuses and 

the dissatisfaction on the East Jumna Canal are, as I have 
shown, and as I believe is generallv admitted, great.. There is 
no check either on the laying out the Bajbuha lines, or the 
realisation of the disbursements for their construction and rei>air. 
The arrears of collection for the large sums advanced by 
Government on this account are asseaaed arbitrarily . Tlie 
people were much dissatisfied. 
System on On the Ganges Canal the system is, I know, free from some 

anges an . ^j these faults. The lines of Bajbuhas are laid out systematically, 
and after careful survey. But the mode of charging the 
zamindars with the cost of construction and repair appears to 
me equally open, as on the E. J. Canal, to objection. The 
account of each Bajbuha is to be kept separate, and the 
expenditure charged as the zamindars take the water. But 
the immediate realisation has been postponed, and some years 
hence we shall be having similar discontent on the arrear 
being claimed, as we find on the E. J. Canal. Besides, the rate 
falls, or appeara to fall, arbitrarily. We fix a water-rate with 
reference to the value of the water to the zamindar. The 
Government lays out the Canal and the liajbuha on the 
calculation that at such reasonable rate it will repay the cost 
with interest. Why complicate the assessment and account by 
making a separate Bajbuha charge ? You do not charge a higher 
rate at the tail of a canal Ijecause it has cost more to bring the 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 233 

water there than you charge at the canal-head, if the water be 
at both places equally valuable to the cultivator. Similarly, 
why should you be obliged to charge higher on one Kajbuha 
which happens to require expensive works than on another which 
can be cheaply constructed ? It would seem to be a far simpler 
course to charge one consolidated water-rate, so adjusted as to in- 
clude a fair return for all original expenditure, both on the Main 
Canal, and its Bajbulias, and for the repairs on both accounts. 

Excepting the tremendous authority of Baird Smith, who Baird Smith's 
clings to the existing system, I have not found any single Canal ^*^^** 
Officer who did not decidedly prefer the consolidated rate as 
above. I trust that you will see cause to concur, and lay the 
subject before the Govr.-Genl. 

I enclose copy of a note I prepared for Col. Fraser, on a Raising Police 
proposal for the misiug of Police Battalions. If the subject is 
imder discussion, it may be of advantage to see what is said 
regarding it up here. 

I also enclose a copy of an admirable letter of Sir J. 
Lawrence to Mr. Grant, on Punjabee and other levies. There is Castes and 
no doubt that the principle of separate corps only for aboriginal Stents, 
races, and mixed corps for all others, is the riyht. nnft. In some 
other letters Sir John expresses his astonishment at the Punjabees One cjause of 
standing as they did. One gi^eat reason, however, was that thev puiy aL° 
lad European regiments in the Pimjab : the Punjabees saw thm^ ,^ 
lere we had T^ractically none. The Sikhs who came down this 
way askeil in a half -surprised mood, " where the Goras were ? " 
And it was no douljt the universal knowledge of the absence of 
all European forces of any aim, excepting here and there, at 
widely scattered intervals, hundreds of miles ai)art — and even 
there, generally, in very small numbers — which shook the 
national confidence in our ])ower of recoverv. and led to the 
univei-sal defection. The presence of a large European force 
throughout the Punjab forced on the Punjabees a more 
adequate conception of our independent power, and (though there 
were no doubt other important causes) aided in holding the 
Sikhs and Punjabees to their allegiance. 

Excepting the rising in Googaira^ which does not seem yet 
U) be extinguished, all is quiet S.W. of the Ganges, to om* North- 
West. Kajputana is a little uneasy. The presence of a few Rajputana 
thousand Euroi)ean troops would at once restore confidence to"°*"^* 
our friends, and crush the disaffected. The Contingent seems to Movements of 
be moving heavily with its siege train. It will, I hope, not come ^ ^°^" 
near enough to trouble Cawnpore till Cawnpore is strong enough 



234 



MSS. VOL. jr.: THIRD SERIES 



to discomfit it easily. Grant's Column ought,, by this time, to be 
at Lucknow. 



W. MuiR. 



Col. W. E Baker, 

Secy, to Govt, of India. 



F.S, — Some important papers on the W. J. Canal have, I 
fear, been lost in the late disturbances. There was a very able 
w. J. Shercr's and comprehensive report on the Canal, as affecting the resources 
wSt Jumna* of the neighbouring estates, by Mr. W. J. Sherer, who visited the 
country along its whole line; a paper by Baird Smith, and 
memoranda both by Beade and myself. I am not sure whether 
these had reached the Government or not when our troubles 
broke out. The subject would have specially interested you. 



Canal. 



Enro 
reliefs. 



CLXXVIII. 

Agra, 29/;^ October 1867. 

My Dear Sherer, — Yours of the 23rd, with the Govemor- 
General's message to Colonel Fraser, a message for Macpherson, 
and sundry commissariat commimications, was received this 
morning. All the enclosures will be duly attended to. 

I am glad to hear what you say about Euroi)ean troops. 
You will evidently soon have a supply more than sufficient for 
your local wants, and be able to push some upwards. I conclude 
that both Eohilkhund and Bundelkhund will be attacked as soon 
as two strong brigades are availabla I suppose Eohilkhund will 
be the first object, — so that all north of the Jumna may be secure. 

I am sending on the requisition for all spare Artillery and 
Cavalry Hoi'ses, but they will need some sort of escort, for it 
would not do to let the Furruckabad Eebel on the one hand, 
or the Contingent on the other, catch them. The same difficulty 
attends compliance with the very urgent requisition of the 
Commissariat Officer at Allahabad. We can get carriage to 
some extent, but we have not the means of securely forwarding 
it. A considerable aid must have been experienced from the 
2600 camels which Captain Chalmers, our excellent Commissariat 
Officer here, forwarded with the Column. We have some 600 
liackeries and a considerable nimiber of camels ready for 
despatch now. Calculating on the sluggish movements of the 
Contingent, we are going to try to send 500 camels piyr 
aKpoa^ 0€ country to Kavmr^p, irpo^a^L fit Oe PaCKonai, Xive. 
Jotaepenhad, Joteepershaud himself will supply his own escort of sowars, 
charging an additional rate of 2 B& a head, which is reasonable 



Supply of 
carnage. 



contractor. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 235 

enough. The proper way to secure carriage would be for you 
to send out as far as Mynpoorie for it, and we could convey 
it with our own troops from here that distance. 

You will see from my printed bulletin the success of our Success of 
expedition at Futtehpore Sicri yesterday, so I need not iJ^Sitteh^Sre 
recapitulate details here. It is to-day at Achneyra, half-way ^^^^ 
to Furrah, and will probably go on to Muttra. 

The reports from Bohilkhund are less threatening as respects Kohiikhand: 
the chances of an irruption of the insurgents into the Doab. Hindo<».^ 
Large forces had come in the direction of the Ganges, but were 
fully occupied for the present in making the refractory Hindoo 
zemindars pay revenua They are generally resisted by them, 
and large gatherings are again spoken of against Khan Bahadoor ; 
but they will not accomplish anything till we can take the lead. 

We have a report from the Dy.-P. Master at Mynpoorie, 
dated yesterday. He had received no Dak from your direction 
for two days, and fears something has gone wrong from the 
interference of the Furrackabad people. You had better there- 
fore not trust exclusively to that line, but send duplicates via 
Etawah. The accounts of Furrackabad itself were, however, less 
threatening as regarded Mynpoorie. Some troops which the Kaees 
had advanced were withdrawn, — through fear, it was thought, 
of an attack from Hurdeo Bux. The latter Talookdar had also, Hnrdeo Bnz, 
it was reported, cut up some of the Furrackabad troops who had T*i°<>^^"- 
lied towards Bareilly on fear of Grant's Column. He has been 
exhorted from here to do all he can to harass the Nawab and 
disperse his troopa 

The Bajah of Mynpoorie has deposited his family in a place Riyah of 
of security, and gone, people think, to join common cause with ^^^^ ** 
the Baeea 

From a message of the 22nd instant, sent by Sir J. Lawrence 
to Peshawur — copy of which was sent here for information — it 
would seem that the Googaira rising had not yet been Go^^ira 
extinguished. Sir John writes to say that he had detained the ™*"^* 
21st P. Infantry, which was on its route to Huzara, and sent it 
to Googaira, " where the insurrection is becoming somewhat 
serious." Colonel Edwardes replies: "Pray keep the 21st. 
Huzara is quiet, and we can manage for the present very well ; " 
he adds, however, that Lieutenant Home, encamped on the border of Lieutenant 
Yoosufzaie with insufficient escort, was surprised last night (21st) ^^Ywiutalle** 
by a party of Punjtar men, and only escaped with his life." border. 

W. MuiiL 

J. W. Sherer, Esq. 



236 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



CLXXIX. 
SERVICE MESSAGK 



Affair at 

Fnttehpore 

Sikri. 



Lieutenant 
Glabb. 

Showers' 
Colamn 
punishes 
Hewattis. 



From Agra, W. Mum — To Calcutta, G. F. Edmonstone. 

AORA, 29tk October 1857. 

Our expedition successful at Futtehpore Sicri. Most of the 
rebels fled ; but some occupied the buildings on the height and 
fought desperately. Some 17 killed; a few wounded on our 
side, including Lieutenant Glubb, wounded through both lega 

Showers' Column, after punishing Mewattees at Sonah, will 
proceed towards BidlubgurL 

All quiet towards the North-West, excepting at the Googaira 
district, where the rising seems not yet quelled. 

W. MuiR. 



Despatch of 
500 camels 
Arom Agra. 



CLXXX. 

Agra, 30^^ October 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Thanks for yours dated one o'clock 
morning of 25th ; we are all very happy to hear that Grant had 
by that time got almost within sight of Cawnpore. 

Of our friends of the Contingent you will be now getting far 
earlier news than any we can give you. We are despatching to 
you cinq cents chameaux vid erava and probably the Xtve o^ 
RaiX, They will Xeaue, I hope, on the 1st, and will make 
KauvTTiop in crtf Sat?. You will hear further on the subject. If 
the vicinity of Cawnpore be at all unsafe at that time, you would 
do well to send out a small escort 2 or 3 stages to meet them. 

With your letter was one from Beadon dated 19 th, for which, 
if you are writing, pray thank him. 

Nothing locally new here ; all the news is in my bulletin, but 
in case it be not ready in time for the post I give a brief outline. 

More execution was done at Futtehpoor Sicri than at first 
Sikri affair. reported. Forty of the enemy were killed, among whom two 
recognised as Sepoys ; rest supposed to be Ghazies. The woundeil 
on our side nearly 20 ; but most of them slight. 

All the strong buildings at Futtehpoor Sicri will probably be 

blown up when we can spare men to send out for that duty. They 

are capable of a strong resistance by a small body of occupants, as 

you may remember. But the Durgah will be spared. 

Affair at There has been a sharp affair at Jeerun, 10 miles from 

Jeemn 

Neemuch. The Mundessore rebels having had the insolence to 



Casualties in 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 237 

advance thus far, a reconnoitring party under Captain Tucker, CapUin 
2nd B. Cavalry, was sent out on the 23rd. He was fired on, ^ ^ 
and imprudently followed the enemy to within a short distance 
of Jeerun, yrhere he was killed by a shot from a matchlock ; a 
trooper also was killed, and others wounded. The party retired. 

Meanwhile a detachment of 50 Europeans, 100 Bombay 
Infantry, and 200 Bombay Cavalry, with 2 9-pounders and a 
mortar, had been sent out early on the 23rd from Neemuch. It 
met the reconnoitring party half-way, and all marched on to 
Jeerun. The gims and mortar were put in position and opened 
fire on the village, outside which the Mutineers were drawn up 
under 6 or 7 standards. They were subsequently ascertained to 
comprise ail the real fighting men of the Mundessore insurgent& 
Our little force of horse and foot attacked them, but were driven 
back after being close in the town. The Cavalry retired so fast 
that the mortar was left in the enemy's hands. Our guns only 
limbered as the banner of the enemy was seen over the crest of 
the eminence on which they were planted ! The Cavalry were, 
however, soon rallied on a height a little way off and rushed into 
the intervening valley. The enemy fled, our Infantry advanced, 
and retook the mortar, which had, however, in the meantime, 
been rendered useless for the day. The insurgents took refuge 
from our fire in the Fort, and we remained in possession of the 
field and the eminences close by the town, where they ate their 
dinner. The place was too strong to be stormed by our Uttle 
party ; and there being also a report current that Neemuch was 
threatened, the detachment returned to Neemuch, which it reached 
by sunset. Captain Tucker's body was recovered. Another 
officer, Captain Head, H.M. 83rd, was killed, and 5 wounded: 10 Captain Read 
men (including 2 Europeans) were wounded. 

The effect was admirable. The enemy evacuated the place 
next day : and it was occupied by the Civil authority. Dissen- 
sions are said to prevail at Mundessore, where this virtual repulse 
will be felt. 

We still get no post from the Camp or Cawnpore via Myn- 
poorie. An officer, Mousum Ally, with 500 men, is said to have Mousum Ally, 
been posted at Chibramow to stop our communications with 
Cawnpore. But the travellers from Furrackabad gfve a miser- 
able account of the Nawab. He has fallen sick out of teiTor at Nawab of 
our troops and the fate awaiting him. He has told his follower 
that they can be of no eventual avail to him, and that he will 
take poison, and advised his people to fly, which they are doing. 

The Baja of Mynpoorie had repaired to him, and he had said Myupoorie. 



238 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



the same to him. Such is the tale told by the passers-by at 
Mynpoorie. 

No news yet from the N.W. to-day. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. SiiERER, Esq. 



Cracroft 
WilBoii, O.S. 



A. Cocks, C.S. 

Changing 
attitude of 
people. 



Jats coming 
forward to 
enlist. 

Gwalior 
Contingent. 



Rig'ahof 
Mynpoorie. 



F.S. — Tlie up-country dak has just come in. No news. 
Things look (juieter over the Ganges, i,e. so far as an attack this 
way is concerned. Tlie Hindoos are sending over letters full of 
anxiety for our approach on account of the oppressions of the 
" Affghans." Wilson has passed Eastwards towards Kassgunge. 
I do not know what his exact plan is, but hope he will be able 
to rescue somebody. He is just the man for a roving Ufe of the 
kind, and the commission of hunting down Mutineei-s will be 
admirably performed by him. I hope the appointment will be 
approved l)y the Governor-General. 

Cocks writes on his return to Allygurh : " There is a great 
change in the manners of the Zemindars and others since I was 
last here, and I am getting several letters daily from the Thakoors 
and others over the Ganges." 

" The Jats are now coming in with a will," i.e. to l)e enlisted. 

We hear that the advanced guard of the Contingent reached 
Cali)ee on the 27th, but the main body was, we understand, still 
about Indoorke on the 27th. They may have sent then* advanced 
guard to Calpee to secure the bridge, etc. 

The Mynpoorie Eaja is prowling about in the Etawah district 
with 500 men. 

CLXXXII. 

Agra, 3l8t October 1857. 

My Dear Shereu, — Yesterday the Cossid brought no 
letter from you, but one to Mra Haiington giving a satisfactory 
account of your welfare. We cannot make out from yours of 
the 25 th whether the Column would go direct to Lucknow or 
make any stay in the Doab ; we always understood it was to 
hasten to Lucknow, but the tenor of one of your lettera rather 
threw doubt on this. 

Colonel Eraser makes a good suggestion that the equipage, 
etc., of Grant's Column might be with great advantage cui'tailed, 
and the carriage so saved used for the troops on their upward 
march. The Column would thus be lightened and enabled to 
march long stages with less diflBculty. Its tail would be less 
obnoxious to attack, and require fewer guards to attend to it. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 239 

Greathed, I think, or Grant, described the Column when on 
march as 10 miles in length ! 

We have letters from Sir John Lawrence up to 27th inst. 
He writes very cheerfully, and as he does not allude at all to 
(Jroogaira, we may conclude that things are settling there, or at 
least are not of serious moment 

Of the Delhi Division he writes : " The main point was to sir John Law- 
get off the moveable Columns, the one down coimtry, and the ^"he'DSH 
small one to clear the di\ision of Moofsida. These two things iwvwion. 
accomplished, all has gone well, as I anticipated. The coimtr}' 
has settled down. Guns tumbled in; 'Khair Khwahs' have 
started up ; ' Moofsids ' have obsquatulated, as the Yankees call 
it ; and, but for those who are dead and gone, and a little loss of 
property, public and private, all would seem like a dream." 

My letter to Saunders of the 20 th would seem to have 
miscarried : the one about the treatment of Delhi For Saunders 
has not alluded to it, and Sir John, who was to have had a copy 
of it from Saimders, says he has heard nothing of it. But Sir 
John's views seem to have much coincided with those urged in HU Yiews on 
my letter. He says : " As regards the city and fort of Delhi, I ofU^i"*"^ 
wrote imtil I was tired ; and, as in such cases, both parties prob- 
ably adhered to their own views. I would have taken all the 
guns from the ramparts of the town ; mounted as many as I 
could on the Palace, so as to command the town, and let Imck all 
the peaceable folks. I should be happy, in case of necessity, to 
do all that was necessary with 1000 men at my back at Dellii.** 

The following extract gives the impressions of a young 
intelligent Assistant-Surgeon who has gone up to Delhi from 
here, in a letter to another doctor here. " Delhi is still standing 
in all its magnificence. There is scarcely a trace of shot and 
shell from one end to the other, but the houses are desolate and 
laundered. The ^vTetc hed inhabitants have been driven nnt to w rpt..ii«..i 
starve ; and I cannot help thinking they have been rather cruellv ^^^^ ^pie. 
treated. You useil to blame me for my sentiments of deatli 
without mercy t^j every Sepoy : but T th^nk this Government is 
behaving too sternly to the poor Bunniahs and Kaveths. The, 
plunder daiJy being found in the citv is more than enormous : it A lmost 
i s almost incredible. I fancy eveVy officer present at the sieye ^^ \:!T.\L * 
might beable to retire at once."^ 



All this is very illustrative of what I before wrote. I am 

^ This is given as it stands. No doubt the plunder in a rich and deserted 
capital must have been vast ; but the statement about Officers is absurd, — a 
mere figment of imagination. — W. M. 



240 MSS. VOL. 11. : THIRD SERIES 

sending a duplicate of my letter to Saunders in case the first may 
have miscarried. I do think the views in it were sound. 
Details of The following statement of the Artillery believed to be with 

OwSo7 ^*^^ *^® Contingent may be of use. It is by Meade, the late Major 
Contingent. of Brigade at Gwalior : — 

" 6 18 -pounders, of which 4 were equipped for service, 

3 heavy howitzers, 

4 or 5 mortars, with full supply of ammunition, 
20 9 -pounders, 

4 24-pounder howitzers ; 
with five companies of golundazes, fully equipped, with the 
exception of the draught bullocks, which averaged about 20 short 
in each battery. 

" There were about 500 barrels of powder in store : and close 
on 4 lacs of musket ammimition, besides the regidation proportion 
with the regiments. There were also 1000 stand of muskets 
complete, spare in the magazine, together with a large number of 
swords, pistols, etc. Two of the 18 -pounders were equipped for 
elephant draught for field service — 4 elephants having been 
trained for this purpose." 

Machell, our Commissary of Ordnance, gives the following 
approximate statement of the ammunition with the heavy Artillery, 
viz. : — 

" 4 18 -pounders, 
4 8 -inch howitzers, 
4 8 -inch mortars, 
4 5 J -inch mortars, 

shells spL filled 8 -inch howitzers . . 374 

5844 
5 J common. .... 476 

shot case, fixed bottom, 8 -inch howitzers 

„ round, 18-pounder8 . 
shells spl. IS-poundera . 
shot case, 18-pounders . 
pounder ordnance Iba . 

and other material in proportion. 



„ common 



» 



429 

12,850 

552 

274 

273,000 



Light pieces. . .20 9 -pounders, brass guns. 

4 24-pounder8, howitzers. 

24" 

A goodly aiTay, certainly. If possible, I trust they will be 
caught in the field and not allowed to entrench themselves. CoL 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 241 

Fraser says : " Tell Sherer that bis only chance with the Gwalior 
fellows is, if possible, to attack them in the field ; for, as they 
have heavy guns and mortars, they would prove very troublesome 
if they attacked any entrenchments of ours," 

W. MuiR. 
J. W. Sherer, Esq. 

P,S. — Captain Bruce's of the 26 th to Colonel Fraser just 
received. The Grovemor-Generars message will go on to Delhi 
But I doubt their being able to spare a Carabineer. In reply to 
an urgent application for some to reinforce Allygurh and the 
Middle Doab, General Penny, on the 26th, wrote: "At Meerut Details of 
there are not more than 180 Carabineers moimted — and certainly ^^^ 
with the rebels in force in Bohilkhund it would be madness to 
part with them. There is 2 years' supply of tea, rum, etc., for 
Europeans at Meerut, besides estimated property of Government 
amoimting to 33 lacs of rupees; and if this went, double that 
sum would not supply the loss. The few remaining men of the 
Carabineers moimted are recruits, and probably do not exceed 60 
men." 

Apart altogether from the stores, the Military position 
could not of course be left without a sufficient force. Any 
reverse in the Upper Doab would throw us all into a flame 
again. 

The sending of the remount horses, etc., will be again urged 
on the Meerut and Delhi authorities. But the country between 
this and you is — what with the Nawab Baees on the one hand 
and the Contingent on the other, for the present insecure ; and insecurity of 
unless you sent up a Detachment more than half-way. Colonel betw^m Agra 
Fraser could not guarantee the safety of the horses. I am glad *"^ Cawnpow. 
to see that Captain Bruce is aware of the Furruckabad parties at 
Bewar and Goorsuhaegunge. 

W. MuiR. 



CLXXXIV. 

Agra, 2nd November 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Youi-s of the 28th received. We 
momn over the detention of the Column at Cawnpore. But by 
this time I trust it is at Lucknow. Had we been able to keep 
the Column back 2 or 3 days here, instead of at Cawnpore, we 
should have given you a large additional amount of camels, and 
hackeries also. 

VOL. I. — 1 6 



242 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Owalior 
Contingent. 



Mnthra loyal. 



Captain 
Oowan, Ser- 

Sint-Miyor 
Ichamand 
family broaght 
in by Cracroft 
Wilson. 



Allygorh. 

T&lookdars 
loyal. 

HiiiTay*8 Jat 
Horse. 



Khan 
Bubadoor. 



Gkgaira 
rising. 



The Contingent must have already shown you what its 
plans are. They were no doubt terribly burdened with their 
Magazine, etc. ; we hear contemplated leaving it at Jalaun or 
Calpee, and then going on to fight. The news from Gwalior of 
the 31st was that the Contingent has moved on fiom Indoorkee 
to Jalaun. If the Column had been active they might have 
relieved Lucknow and been back in time probably to l)eat tlie 
Contingent. 

Our local news will be sufficiently in detail in my printed 
bulletin, which I hope will be in time to send to you as an 
enclosure. 

Some describe the reception of the Column (Cotton's) at 
Muttra as gi*atifying. It has certainly been a very loyal city 
throughout. 

A message has just come in from Allygurh to say that Mr. 
Wilson had returned, bringing with him Cap. and Adjt. Gowau, 
18th N.I. ; also Sergt.-Major Belcham of the same corps, Mrs. 
Belcham and 4 children. Particulars will follow by letter. 
Wilson has evidently done good service. 

TeU Mr. Tucker, please, that his letter of the 4th October 
has just come to hand. When he has anything important to 
write he should ask you to send it by Cossid. We none of us 
know who the " Mundi Eaja " is, but I will ask Sir John 
Lawrence. Thank Tucker, but ask him to write oftener. 

Cocks writes very cheerfully about the aspect of things at 
Allygurh. All the Talookdars coming in to pay thek respects. 
They are all delighted with Murray's Jat horse. They performed 
their part in the surprise of Adhoura (in bulletin) in a manner 
that satisfied everybody. 

Wilson reports that Khan Buhadoor is not prosi^ering. His 
grandson and nephew ai'e said to have been shot in a village in 
the Bareilly district, where they were committing acts of 
oppression. 

At the Kuchla Ghat, where I fancy Gowan crossed, 
and where Wilson went to meet him (it is, you know, north 
of Eta), Wilson secured on our side all the boats in the 
vicinity. 

In a letter dated 29th October, Sir J. Lawrence says that 
he had prepared for us a Sikh Cavalry regiment, but had been 
obliged to retain it in consequence of the insurrection in 
Googaira. He adds: "I anticipate being able to send them 
off in another week," whence I conclude the Googaira business 
is going down. 



LETTERS DOWK COUNTRY 243 

Sir John writes to me in considerable anxiety as to the 
disastrous results that would ensue if the Contingent were 
allowed to attack and ravage these. parts in their unprotected 
state. " You would have," he says, " another insurrection." He 
had not known fully at the time that the Contingent had gone 
your way. It is still, however, a possibility that, avoiding 
Cawnpore, they may cross higher up — at the Sher^urh Ghat, 
for instance — though even then their probable course would lie 
towards Oudh, the Eldorado, as you well know, of the rebels now. 
There is a report to-day that they have sold their Magazine and 
si^e train, which would be not unlikely if they had that 
design. 

W. MuiR. 
J. W. Shebeb, Cawnpore. 

P.S. — The up-co\mtry Dak has just come in bringing letters 
from Delhi of yesterday's date. Showers' Column is still engaged Mewattu. 
with the Mewattees in the Goorgaon district. A portion of the 
Force attacked a bodv of the insurgents who had taken up a 
rition on t ^}]^^ hill. They were dislodged and driven away; 60 
to 100, including .several Sepoys, being killed. The only 
casualty was a very lamentable one, poor Wigram Clifford — the Wimm ciif- 
same whose sister was one of the first victims in the surprise of 
DelhL He was killed by a shot from a Mutineer Sepoy; he 
died almost immediately on being wounded, as the ball passed 
through his head. He had apparently ridden in advance of the . 
party. 

Brigadier Showers has written to Delhi to say that heshowen 
considers it necessary that the Column should march in force puniah Se 
against the Mewattees, " They are," he says, " in numbers on Mewattis. 
the hills and in the villages near Sonah. Some Pandies and 
horsemen are associated with them, and if I were to leave this 
part of the country without going in among them they would 
come forward again and give a great deal of trouble. I have 
therefore decided on going to Sonah via Kasun and Taoroo." 
Saunders does not say where he writes from. It may be from 
Goorgaon. Yes, it must have been. For in a letter of the Slst, 
Saunders says that Brigadier Showers rode into Delhi on the 
30th from Goorgaon, and rejoined his Column there in the 
morning. He reported that his men " were greatly knocked up, HU Column 
and many completely ineffective from sickness and fatigue, and '^""^ 
required rest." The horses of Scott's Battery hardly able to drag 



244 



MSS. VOL. ir. : THIRD SERIES 



Kamaonies. 



Jondhpore 
"Legion." 



the giinB. The Infantry portion musters not more than between 
500 and 600. "One regiment, the Kemaonies, have only 90 
effective men out in camp." "It wiU be necessary," Saimders 
adds, " for the whole Colimm to march into Delhi to refit, or to 
have other regiments substituted for those that are unable to 
march." This was apparently determined on Showers' visit to 
Delhi. But on his return to Goorgaon he found that the 
Mewattees were too strongly posted without having a regular 
expedition in force against them. A considerable reorganisation 
of the Column was evidently intended, for Saunders adds in a 
P,S. to his letter of the 31st, "the moveable Column wiU be 
sent across into the Doab I believe in a very few days, when 
the force has been reconstituted." 

He also states that " the Joudpoor Legion is beUeved to have 
crossed the Jumna." But this is not confirmed by any in- 
formation we have. 



W. MuiB 



To Oovernor» 
Ckneral. 



Candahar 
MiasioD. 



CLXXXV. 

SERVICE MESSAGE. 

From Agra — W. Muir, 

To Calcutta — G. F. Edmonstone. 

Aqra, 2nd November 1857. 

In a message to Mr. Saunders, dated Lahore, 31st October, 
Sir John Lawi-ence requests that the following message may be 
telegraphed to the Supreme Government, viz. : — 

May I recall the Mission from Candahar ? Major Lumsden 
desires it, and seems to think that Sirdar Hyder Khan desires it. 
Lumsden says that if he delays much longer the snow will 
prevent his returning imtil spring. AU well in the Punjaub. 
Two squadrons of Sikh Horse march for Delhi on the 3rd. The 
rest will foUow quickly. Sir John's message ends. The 
Mewattees are still in force south of Goorgaon. In an afifau* 
on the Slst a detachment from the Colimm cut up 60 to 
100, including some Sepoys. Young CUfiford killed in this 
affair. The only casualty. The Column is to go in force, 
via Kasun and Taoroo, to Sonah, effectually to put down these 
insurgents. 

All quiet here and to N.W. 

W. Muir. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 245 

CLXXXVI. 

AoRAy 3rd November 1857. 

• ••••••• 

F.S. — Macpberson hears that the Maharajah is breaking up 
the 5th Contingent. Some agree to lay down their arms ; others 
who refuse to do so will be sent to Morar. We shall see how 
he will manage his difficult business. 



CLxxxvn. 

AoRA, 4th November 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — 
• ••••••• 

On the other hand, we have evident proofs of the alarm of The Nawab 
the Nawab Saees, in a letter forwarded by him to the Govern- 
ment in an exculpatory strain. Of course, no notice will be 
taken of it. It is in a lady's hand. But we know that there 
were one or more females of English extraction in his house- 
hold. 

In a letter from Eden, dated Jyepoor, 1st instant, reporting 
aU well there, he says : '' I am glad to hear that the Mhow 
Column is acting at last most successfully to the westward; 
they attacked Dhar, and cut up a lot of Wilayaties ; the report 
I got says 700. Angherra will be the next ; and the force 
moves up via Button and Jowreh (?) towards Mundessore." The 
rebels are said to be in confusion already in this latter place. 

A letter has come in of the 26th ultimo from Major Bamsay, 
Nynee Tal. He writes very cheerfully, and says the Eohilkhund 
force is a perfect rabble without any discipline whatever. He 
begins to think of reclaiming the Bhabur with his Goorkhas. 

We are all delighted to hear that the Column marched in 
such strength on the 30 th for Lucknow. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq. 

P,S, — A letter just received by Macpberson from Gwalior, 
dated the 3rd, says that on the 2nd the Contingent were moving 
towards Jalaon, from which they were still 8 coss off at 
Gopalpoora. His information has hitherto been accurate as 
to their movements 



246 MS& VOL- II.: THIRD SERIES 

CLXXXVIIL 

Agra, 6th November 1857. 

My Dear Harington, — I was much gratified by the receipt 
of your long and interesting letter from Cawnpoor. 

I look to you to carry out your promise of writing, not only 

by giving us the news in the lower sense of the word, but also 

by letting me know (confidentially where necessary) the future 

plans and schemes of the Government, and any legislative 

movements in prospect. 

• •••.••• 

Proposal for In some districts it may be expedient to appoint a separate 

Sri^vraue*'^ Commissioner for the work, including the reconstitution of the 

Settlements. Settlement record. Ordinarily, where we have a good man at 

the head of the district, it may be the more advisable coui-se to 

place the work in his hands, or at least under him. I think 

Question of Mr. Colvin carried somewhat too far the commitment of Settle- 

Officers per- ment duty to the hands of the district officer. It has answered 

^'"°^^®**^*" well in some places, as in Sehanmpoor, where an able man, 

Spankie, had an unlimited staff. But in some other districts, 

as Jalaon, and some quarters in the Saugor and Nerbudda 

Territories, the effect was utterly to swamp the district officer. 

Freeling, a capital officer, was so overpowered that he declared 

he could not have held on upon the same footing for 5000 

Rupees a month. The proposed operations will be to some 

extent analogous with resettlement proceedings. 

A few days ago I sent to Colonel Baker a paper on the 
establishment of Police Battalions. I should like you to see it. 
Bnperintend- I am going to send to Beadon a detailed memorandum by tlie 
of Police Supd^-General of Police Battalions (an appointment I earnestly 
Battalions. irws\, the Supreme Government will confirm) on the subject 
MMorO. w. Major G. W. Williams is, as you know, admirably fitted by 
experience and other qualifications for it, and the system, if 
approved, will be excellently consolidated and set in operation by 
him. The appointment should be united to that of Supd*^ of 
Cantt. and Grand Trunk Road Police. At present the Supd*^ is 
expected to control aU Police Establishments from Peshawur to 
Dinapoor. No one man can efficiently superintend establish- 
ments scattered over so vast an extent of country. One Supd** 
can take up the duty for the N.W.P., including Oudh. Saugor 
should be attached to Nagpoor, excepting Jalaon, Jhansie, and 
perhaps Chundeyree. 

Has the question of a fine upon the country, in compensation. 



LETTERS DOWN QOUNTJIY 247 

for losses inflicted on property in the late disturbances, been Question of 
entertained at all in Calcutta ? It is favourably spoken of here ; fiJS?to ^^ 
the only plan that I can see at all feasible would be by a general v^^^»^ ^owg"* 
assessment all over the country, partly on hous^ . A dis- 
criminatory assessment, according to local guilt, could haixUy, I 
think, be carried out. Of course, all would be excepted, as 
Gobind Sing and Teekum Sing, who had shown themselves 
actually in our favour. 

Has anything been said as to the plan that was being intro- Laige Centnl 
duced in these Provinces of large central Jails ? The opportunity 
would be a good one of getting rid of our monster Jail here. 
Would the Ilailway Engineers like it for a terminus ? Longden 
suggests that a portion might be made over for his Press, which 
must in future be a Government one, as all seem agreed. The 
proper place for our Jail, as he suggests, would be opposite the 
Taj and Fort ; it would be under the guns of the latter. 

Tell Beadon that a Conmiittee of Engineers has been ap- imjpTovement 
pointed to consider the best mode of improving our Fort with Ag» Fort ^ 
reference to a paper on the subject by NichoU which I mentioned 
in a former letter. I don't see well how our Public offices could 
be removed with advantage, though they might have a defensible 
entrenchment run round them, and have a Guard from the Police 
Battalions over them. But portions of the proposed outworks 
of the Fort would be available as receptacles for the security of 
the more valuable records and docimients. 

I see something is doing already below for providing accom- 
modation for the lai^ increase of European troops against next 
)iot weather. It is time the matter were being taken up here. 

Major Pole writes from Meerut on 31st ultimo: " Ought Shelter for 
we not to be doing something in the way of providing shelter Euopean^ 
for the additional European troops that may be expected to^'*^!*' 
remain in these parts during the next hot season ? At Meerut 
I could easily carry out what the Commander-in-Chief recom- 
mended to Government in Deer, last, viz., to bmld additional 
accommodation for the Artillery, and so allow of the European 
Infantry Barracks being occupied by ttao Eegiments. They were 
originally intended for that nimiber, and it would be much better 
for the Artillery to be away altogether by themselvea I have 
lots of bricks at Meerut, but not a stick of wood. The latter 
will take some time to procure." Here we have few bricks and 
no wood. But the old and new barracks coidd be speedily 
re-thatched. 

We have moved out again into a bungalow; this time I 



248 



MSS. VOL. II.: THIRD SERIES 



trust permanently. I am going to have my double-storeyed house 
re*thatched. Mrs. Harmgton and the Phillipses looking well. 

W. MuiR. 
H. B. Harington, Esq. 



CLXXXIX. 

Agra, 5th November 1857. 

My Dear Suerer, — There is not much to write about to- 

CoUon's party, day. Cotton's party is still out towards Cosee ; but it has been 

written for to come rapidly back in order to cross over to Ally- 

gurh. There is, Cocks says, certain information of a large 

OatheriM at gathering at Kuchla Ghat. The Infantry and ^avalrv are few 

^^ ** in numbers, but the Ghazies form a large multitude. Thev have 

a few yuna. It is probable that the main object of the party is 

to collect the Budaon Bevenue, and that the detachment at the 

Ghat is intended to guard against surprise, but at the same time 

they give out that Allygurh is their object. They have hardly 

any boats, however. A demonstration in that direction will l>e 

of great service. 

In a day or two we shall be again looking out earnestly for 
Lucknow intelligence. We look to you to give us early in- 
formation as to the course to be probably taken with Fumickabad. 
So soon as an effective and conclusive blow is struck at Lucknow, 
we conclude that a rapid movement will be made on the craven 
traitor there. 

A letter from Deolee dated 31st instant. All right there 
just now. "Ba jpootana continues/' the writer savs. "wonde r- 
fully quiet: the secret ia^ the p ft^plfi ^ti^ Thftlf-nnra ]\^Yfi "^ 
dfisire to come again under Mahomedan powers and to send their 
daughters to the Zenanehs of Delhi." 

I enclose a letter from Harington, and leave it open for you 
to read. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq. 



Feeling in 
Riypntana. 



Gkgaira 
rifling. 



I have just received a letter from Umballa, dated 2nd 
October, from Browne of Jalaon ; he says : " The road from Agra 
is so clear and safe that a lady might travel alone. The 
Googaira affair is still going on ; and as the rebels have taken to 
the thick jungle, there is no prospect, I hear, of the disturbance 
being put down until they bum them out next month." But 
excepting the local unsettlement and insecurity (travelling by 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 249 

the river is no longer safe) the affair is, I conclude, not of serious 
moment. 

F,S, — ^A letter just received from Alexander, dated Nynee 
Tal, 28th ultimo, states that "they are fully aware at Bareilly BareiUy. 
that the game is up. Mahomed Shufee and Wuleedad are there, 
but inactiva Bukht Khan has been written for from Furruck- 
abad. Waleedad's nephew with a force was last heard of at Aoulah, 
en rmUe for the Gangea" This is the party that has appeared 
at the Kuchla Ghat. The Nawab of Bampoor continues to behave Loyalty of 
well He is a trump. lu^pore. 

" Noubut Eam of Bareilly," Alexander says, " has sent me Noubut Ram. 
i*eplies from most of the Thakoors, saying they will rise the moment 
a force enters Bohilkhund. The Powain man, who has the most Powain. 
money and the largest following, is, however, playing a doubtful 
game, — while he responds verbally to my call, he sends a large Khan Buha- 
sum of money to Khan Buhadoor Khan." ^"^^ ^^"*- 



CXC. 

AoRA, Qih November 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — There is nothing of special importance 
going on. 

The Kuchla Ghat and the tract on this side is still threatened Rohiikhund 
by a large body of Eohilkhund insurgents, who have raised up °*^'^®°**- 
some of the boats which Mr. Wilson sunk when there. Mr. 
Churcher is now firmly established as Joint-Magistrate of Etah ; 
so that good information of any approach from that direction 
will be obtained. I think the people over the river will hardly 
be bold enough to come anywhere near AUygurh. 

Macpherson's account of the Contingent is that by the latest Owaiior 
intelligence received at Gwalior up to the 3rd, it was still at ^^'^^^"K®"*' 
Jaloun. Of the 5 th Contingent, which you know stayed with 
Scindia, 150 Sepoys with the two Mehidpoor guns have gone off 
from Gwalior with the view of joining the rebels at Jaloun. 

The report at Gwalior was that Durand's Column, besides Ck)ionei 
cutting up many insurgents at Dhar, had taken three gun& We, gu(^ at 
it is said, were shelling the Fort into which the rebels had ^^•^• 
retired. The Eajah of Dhar is reported to be co-operating with Dhar Rigah 

reported loyal. 
US. 

Colonel Macpherson from Lahore has telegraphed to Mr. CaDtoin Oreen, 
Saunders to have it communicated to Captain Green, command- infantry.* 
ing 2nd Punjaub Infantry, " that it is proposed to make over all 



250 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Alexander, 

Naini Tal. 

Loyalty of 
Nawab of 
Rampore. 



Feeling of 
the country 
changing. 



Owalior, &th 
Contingent 
breaks awa^ 
fromScindia. 



Nana Sahib. 
Baiid Smith. 



Roorkee. 



the reciiiits with his dep6t here to the 4th Regiment and to recruit 
afresh for him." Will you kindly commimicate this message ? 

I have a letter from Alexander, dated Nynee Tal, the 2nd 
instant ; the dak direct is now re-established. All is welL The 
Nawab of Rampoor behaving to the satisfaction of alL Alex- 
ander has entertained a small body of sowars at the foot of the 
Hills to protect Huldwanee, the elephants, etc. They were 
raised about Moradabad. This shows the change in the feeling 
of the country even over there : for two months ago the thing 
would have been impossible. The only untoward event reported 
is that Bamsay had met with an accident, his rifle accidentally 
going off, and the ball passing through his left hand. Only one 
bone is broken, and the woimd is doing welL 

Since writing the first part of this letter Macpherson has 
further news from Gwalior to the 4th instant. The whole 5th 
Contingent appears to have gone to Jaloun. 

It is also reported that of the Mutineers' Corps at Jaloun 
one Regiment and a Batteiy have gone on the summons of the 
Nana Sahib to Calpee. 

Baird Smith, who went up to Mussoorie, laid up with all 
manner of ailments, and a bad ankle from a bit of a shell, writes 
now in capital spirits, and seems to be all right and up to any 
kind of work. At Roorkee, he says, " we go on with our work 
very much as usual. You would see no sign of revolt except 
the business-looking muzzles of a few big guns that look daggers 
down each main road," etc. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq. 



Outbreak of 
9th Irregular 
Cavalry. 



P,S. — Dunlop, writing from Meerut on the 5 th, says that 
Hoahiarpoor. news had been received from Hoshiarpoor (though, as he hoped it 
might turn out to be imtrue, it cannot be regarded as unquestion- 
able) " that the remainder of the 9th Irr. Cavalry had mutinied, 
and murdered poor Campbell of the 52nd." No further particu- 
lars given. 

He says there is still an unpleasant feeling abroad that we 
are giving out that reinforcements are coming while none are 
actually on the way; and he suggests that it would be an 
expedient mode of destroying the idea to send up 100 or so of 
the Sikhs who had seen our new Europeana When escorts, etc, 
are being sent up this can be kept in mind. 

His revenue is coming in well The Khurreef collections 
banning. 



Revenue paid 
at Meerut. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 251 

CXCI. 

AoRA, 1th November 1857. 

My Dear Shekek, — ^No special local new& We begin to 
get anxious for Lucknow new& The last from you and from 
Captain Bruce is the 31st 

There are still gatherings on the left bank of the Ganges, and Gatherings in 
rumours of invasions from Boorkee and Etah. But the insurgents 
have not, I apprehend, the stuff in them for that Baird Smith 
writes cheerfully from Mussorie on the 4th, and laughs at the 
alarmist views of the officer commanding at Seharunpoor. Our 
nearer neighbours over the river are not, I susi)ect, really more 
likely to carry their threats into execution. Indeed, one spy 
declares that they were busy sinking the boats on their side, in 
an alarm lest we should cros& 

We have letters from Jyepoor of the 5th ; Eden writes in 
good spirits. He has 1 J lac of tribute money ready to send, 
which greatly rejoices Eeade's heart (by the way, I enclose in 
this letter an abstract from Beade of his Financial Memorandum 
for last month). Eden takes advantage of the passing of the 
Nusserabad officers, expected to reach Jyepoor about the middle 
of the month, to send the treasure, and also some rebels caught Arrest of 
by the Durbar. By the way, Bhurtpoor sent us in seven-and- NativeSuS, 
twenty rebels a day or two ago. At Allygurh some are also ^^^ 
being caught, and Eld blew from guns two of the Mutineers 
belonging to an Irregular Cavalry raiment 

Begarding the Kotah tragedy, Eden writes that the feeling is The Kotah 
against the Bajah: ''The apathy and culpable indifTerence he apathy, 
displayed on the occasion are a common topic of conversation 
amongst the higher classes of the peopla The ruffians would 
seem to have been some four or five hours in completing their 
bloody work. The Chief was shut up in his Palace within a 
mile, and neither stirred himself nor sent a single follower to 
rescue the poor fellowa" 

If all this be correct — and Eden should know — the Kotah 
Eaj does not deserve to survive. 

The passage to which I referred yesterday in the P.S, of my 
letter regarding the impression abroad about our reinforcements 
has attiticted Colonel Eraser's attention, and he wishes it to be 
prominently noticed again : he wishes that the subject may have 
attention from the Commander-in-Chief. I had better quote 
Dunlop's remarks in full on the matter : " Lastly, there is an 
unpleasant feeling abroad, not only among the Hindoostanees but 



252 



MSS. VOL. 11. : THIRD SERIES 



Need of re- 
inforcements. 

Sikhs. 



Mnndeasore 
Bebels. 



Weak position 
of Neemnch 
garrison. 



Rigpntana. 



also among our friends the Sikhs, as to our ability to get any 
reinforcementa We have so completely stultified ourselves by 
promising arrivals which never appeared, that it is now getting 
generally believed that our chances are desperate and our rein- 
forcements a humbug. It would be well worth while to send 
down a nimiber of Sikhs from this, and get up a hundred or two, 
if no more can be spared, of the late arrivals, just to quiet the 
pubUc mind." 

We have letters from Neemuch up to the 2nd November. 
They ai*e uneasy about the movements of the Mundessore rebels, 
who are said to be moving in that direction. They cannot hear 
any tidings of the movements of the Mhow Column ; and if it 
does not come in that direction, and if the rebels, who are very 
nimierous, do attack Neemuch, they may have to retire into their 
Fort " They have some guns," says the writer, " and are thou- 
sands in number. Our available force barely more than 400," 
and the greater part of these Nativea Their field-pieces, too, 
are not fully effective, being worked by volunteers partly, and 
not very well equipped. Tlie writer, who is an intelligent 
yoimg officer, adds : " If we could only get a troop of Dragoons 
to lead the 2nd Cavalry, one himdred more European Infantry, 
and field-guns properly manned (if only half a troop Horse 
Artillery), I think we could polish off the Mimdessore fellows 
pretty welL" 

Bajpootanah certainly deserves the very earliest consideration. 
It has stood most wonderfully ; but we cannot even now afford 
the chance of having a check, or allowing our garrison at Nee- 
much to be besieged. The effect would be very bad throughout 
Bajpootanah. 

I have not heard anything lately of the Joudpoor Mutineers. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 



Police 
Battalions. 



CXCIL 

Agra, 1th November 1857. 

My Dear Beadon, — I sent as an enclosure of a letter I was 
writing to Colonel Baker the other day, a Memorandum of mine 
about Police Battalions. In continuation of that I now enclose 
a copy of a letter from Sir J. Lawrence on the same subject, 
and a Memorandum by Major Williams, who has been appointed 
Superintendent Police Battalions pending sanction of the Governor- 
GreneraL 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 253 

You will see that Sir John does not think a Superintendent 
required, and would substitute a Military Secretary. 

When the whole thing is organised and in satisfactory play, 
the Military Secretary would probably suffice. But to set up 
the system and introduce it effectually upon a uniform system 
in these difficult times, when great care must be taken in raising 
and recruiting parties for our Corps, it seems to me that the 
Superintendent will be invaluable. Sir John Lawrence too was 
not aware that it was proposed to amalgamate the post with that 
of Superintendent of Cantonment Police and of the Grand Trunk 
Boad. It seems out of the question to expect that any effectual 
supervision can be exercised over places so far separated as 
Peshawur and Patna ; and in fact I believe much supervision and 
control was needed to make the system effective. The SupeVin- 
tendent would have the selection of the Cantonment Joint Magis- 
trates from amongst the best of the passed Battalion Officers, and 
the Preventive portion of the police both in Cantonment and on 
the Grand Trunk Eoad would be drawn from the Battaliona I 
trust, at any rate, till the machine has been put together and set 
in motion, that the General Superintendentship will be allowed. 
• .•••*•• 

We are again on the strain looking out for news from 
Lucknow. When things are a little easier there we greatly 
need a portion of the European force, now rapidly gathering at 
Cawnpoor, for the North-West. Eajpootanah holds on, but the 
Mundessore insurrection needs to be crushed with a high hand. 
It would be a sad calamity if those rebels gained any advantage 
from our Neemuch Garrison, which hardly numbers 400 of all 
arms, and §rds of these nativea 

W. MuiR. 

C. Beadon, Esq. 

CXCIIL 

Agra, Sth November, Sunday. 

My Dear Sherek, — The aspect of affairs maintains still 
pretty much the same complexion as it has been doing for some 
daya All quiet on this side the Ganges, but rumours of gather- 
ings beyond it. 

The Bareilly troops had a fight with the Budaon Aheers on Affair with 
Sth, and discomfited them. Sapte says the cannonade wasAheen! 
distinctly audible from his camp at the Bamghat below Anoop- 
shuhur on the Ganges. Some firing was also heard on the 



254 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Gwalior 
Contingent 



Murder of 
Lieutenant 
Tomldnson. 



morning of the 6tb. The battle was fought at Tiktu Ghat, 
between Islamnuggur and Suheswan. The Hindoos fled almost 
as soon as the fight began, so it is supposed there was not much 
loss of lifa " At Islamnuggar/' Sapte writes, " there ai-e said to 
be 6000 rebels with 5 guns, and they are reported to be about 
to move to Gimour, 4 coss only on the other side. Another body 
are said to be at Gambhul." 

The Mussalmans, inflated by their triumph over the Hindoos, 
may be unwise enough to venture over the river. This is not 
likely ; but the state of things on the left bank is certainly a 
strong argument for no longer delay than is absolutely indis- 
pensable being allowed in the pushing up of troops from Cawn- 
poor. 

I gave you yesterday a strong appeal on behalf of Sajpootana 
tending to the same conclusion. 

Yours of the 3rd came in yesterday. We begin again to 

thirst for Lucknow newa -rrr ir 

W. MuiR. 

F.S, — The news just received from Gwalior is that the 
Contingent have at last moved forward from Jaloun towards 
Calpea You will no doubt have later intelligence. 

Macpherson hears that a L^ Tomkinson of the 53^ Beg^, who 
bi'ought treasure from Orai to Gwalior, remained concealed at 
Amaen till the Contingent marched that way, when a Poorbea 
there betrayed him for 50 E". He was arrested in his hiding- 
place a few miles off, and killed. Macpherson feai*s the news is 

too certain. „^ ,, 

W. M. 



Movement 
against Etah. 



CXCIV. 

Agra, 9th November 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Thanks for yours of the 4th received 
yesterday. The defeat of the insurgents at Khujwa will have an 
important moral effect over and above the actual loss to the 
enemy. 

On the 7th they had a report all over Mynpoorie that the 
rebels had been dispersed at Lucknow and were flying in all 
directions I do trust it may turn out to be founded on fact. 

We have a telegraphic message this morning from Allygurh, 
intimating that 1200 Infantry and 600 Cavalry are said to 
have marched from Furruckabad with two guns towards Etah, 
with the intention of dislodging Mr. Churcher and our post there. 
Their men were reported to have already reached within 20 or 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 255 

30 miles of Etah, but I question whether they will dare advance 
farther. 

There are the usual vapouring reports from Bohilkhund, but 
a station occupied on the Trimk Boad — as at Etah — by rel>el 
troops would be the likeliest thing to embolden them to crosa 

One hundred and fifty Sikh Cavalry have just arrived from sikh Cavalry. 
Meenit at AUygurh for use in these parta Commissariat stores 
from Meerut on 140 carts are at Khoorja to-day, on their way 
down. Mr. Sapte with the Belochees is there also. 

Saunders has just sent us a copy of a message by him to Sir 
J. Lawrence (but without date), from which it would seem that 
the Joudhpoor Legion is somewhere south of the Jhujjur Terri- The Joudh- 
tory, and is supposed to be moving up the western border of ^^ ^^^^^ 
Sheikhawattee, " with the intention of going into Hurriana 
through a portion of Bikaneer." General Lawrence had heard 
that they were in the neighbourhood of Khetree, some 30 miles 
S.R of Kunound. All are on the alert, and Showers' Column Showers' 
had been ordered to Rewaree, This takes it a bit farther to the ^^^' 
west, and so much farther from the Doab. 

You will not fail to notice all these things to the Commander- 
in-Chief through the proper channel, in order that His Excellency 
may be aware of the need of succour as soon as it can be sent up 
the Doab. 

Colonel Fraser is to-day sending an interesting paper by Colonel 
Colonel Troup to the Commander-in-Chief regartling the force p^J t^^ 
necessary to reoccupy Eohilkhund. He says 6 Kegiments and j^JiKhund*^ 
2 Batteries \vill be required with Cavalry. He wants an advance 
on Bareilly, both by Moradabad and Shahjahanpoor, to prevent 
escape. The main i)oint from which the attack should l)e made, 
Sir J. Lawrence rightly thinks to be Fiuruckabad. If a second 
Column can simultaneously move on Bareilly from the Meerut 
side, so much the better. 

Furruckabad is a great thorn in our sidea I liope it will be j^irruckabad. 
attacked at the earliest possible moment. We shall tlien have 
the Mail Cart all the way, and a letter may reach Calcutta from 
Lahore in 8 or 9 days, and a message in 2 or 3. The electric 
wire would soon follow. 

Spankie, writing from Seharunpoor on the 6th, says that he Revenue 
is beginning his Khurreef collections — the May and June instal- sehwaSpore" 
ments are nearly all in. His settlement field-measurements are •^^ Settlement 

*' operations. 

going on, and will be all concluded by the end of the year ! But 
it will be advisable to postpone the final settlement and assess- 
ment till the disturbances entirely blow over, and especially till 



256 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Bynore 
insiurgeiita. 



Gwalior 
Oontixigeiit 
attacks Ram- 
poora. 



those are known who have acted a traitorous part amo ng the 
landholdgS: 

" The Bijnour people," he says, " are afraid of our crossing, 
and we are afraid of their crossing, playing at Bo-peep along the 
Ghats. They have a rabble, and we have a few hundred good 
troops, but still I would rather they would not come, as it only 
distracts the district to have raids made upon it, or rebels pass- 
ing through." 

The Contingent have taken a new turn, as I suppose you must 
have heard. They have attacked Sampoora, the Fort of a con- 
siderable Jaloun Talookdar, some 10 or 12 miles south of the 
junction of the Sind with the Jumna. They demanded a month's 
pay, and on the Chiefs refusing opened fire on his Fort, which he 
was replying to with 14 guns. This was on the 4th. Unless it 
be a mere erratic excursion beating up for money, this looks as 
if they were likely to cross by the Sheregurh Ghat. I think it 
likelier, however, that they will keep to Bundelkhund for the 
present. 

I have a letter from Sapte of the 7th. News as before. 
" The rebels (in Eohilkhund) constantly give out that they are 
coming across the river, but I have secured all the boats to 
Ramghat." From Samghat downwards. Cocks is on the look- 
out. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 



Fort of Ram* 
poora taken 
by Gwalior 
Contingent. 



cxcv. 

AoRA, lOth November 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Intelligence has come in from Gwalior 
of date the 9th inst., to the effect that the Contingent had taken 
the Fort of Eampoora and had carried off the petty chieftain of 
the place to Jaloun. This looks as if Jaloun were considered 
and treated by them as their Headquarters, and I trust they 
will retain it as such till we are more at liberty to go after 
them. 

Prinsep has a letter from Becher, who has returned to Delhi, 
and speaks of a Column starting about the middle of the month 
far Caionpore after the return of Showers' Brigada The latter, 
however, as you will know from a previous letter, is likely to be 
delayed a little by its westward movement on Eewarrea We 
have no further mention than this yet of any Colimm intended 
for Cawnpoor. It may probably be a convoy for the horses, 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 257 

Cavalry, and Artillery, the Governor-General has ordered, if 
possible, to be sent down. 

All well at Allygurh. Mr. Churcher at Etah does not 
believe that the Furruckabad troops will come near him. But i<Mmickabad 
the latest intelligence certainly is that they have occupied JS^^v^e!^^ 
Allygunge with above 1000 foot, 500 Horse, and two Guna 
Allygunge is 20 or 30 miles from Kassgunge and Etah. The 
force is throwing out its Thannahs here and there in reoccupa- 
tion of the coimtry. It is likely enough that this is a pre- 
liminary to attempting a collection of the Khurreef instalments 
of Revenue. But its effect is of course bad on Allygurh. It 
f ans the embers of fanaticism still smouldering in the district.; 
and strikes terror into the loyal subjects who have so often 
already experienced the horrors of a revolution. Until this nest 
of insurgents — Furruckabad — be put down, there will be no 
permanent security for the middle Doab. 

The following from Allygurh is additional evidence of the 
slowness of native belief as to our reinforcementa " It is a 
great pity that carriage is so scarce, as natives never will believe 
there are any more troops in the country until they see them, 
and their l>eing at Cawnpoor is without its effect on this part of 
the country." 

Himie is keeping up the administration in Etawah through Hume's suc- 
mnuential men in a manner which, considering the dimculties and istration of 
successive bands of marauders that district has had to contend Et*'^*^* 
against, is quite surprising. A new Cotwalie is going on 
being built, crime punished, a Customs tax levied, and Abkari 
Settlement made, etc. etc. There are of course abundance of bad 
characters, Mewattees, etc., who raise their heads whenever they 
think there is nobo<ly to chastise them ; and they have gained in 
insolence since our troops, they say, passed by the Nawab of 
Furruckabad without chastising him. But with all this the 
comparative quiet and subordination which has prevailed is 
very remarkable, and decisively indicates that the country is at C k)antry not 
the least not against ua You heard. I conclude, of Juswunt Rao ^.^^^^p,^ 
having defeated Kampershaud and a party of our ill-wishers <iefeat8 Ram- 
near the Shere Ghat, killing 17 and wounding a considerable 
number. 

I enclose a note for the Commander-in-Chief from Colonel Chief Commis- 
Fraser. It is a reiteration of our call for fresh European troops Europ^n 
as soon as you can spare them. troop*. 

Colonel Fraser wishes to know who has charge of Sir Hugh Property of 

tbe n&isseB 

Wheeler's Estate — this to enable a Mr. John here, to return some Wheeler. 
VOL. I. — 17 



258 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Gwalior 
Contingent. 



jewellery lie has, that belonged to the Miss Wheelers. Better 
inquire of friends in Calcutta 

Just as I am closing my letter, a despatch is received from 
Gwalior of yesterday's date, intimating that the Contingent has 
actually moveil from Jaloun towards Calpee. 

W. Muiii. 

J. W. SiiEKEU, Esq., Cawnpoor. 



Arrest of the 
Ri»ah of 
Biulabgurh. 

Bulla1)gurh 
annexed to 
Goorgaou by 
Mr. Ford. 

Naini Tal. 



CXCVI. 

AoRA, nth November 1857. 

My Dear Siieker, — Showers in a letter of the 6th mentions 
that lie had arrested the Sajah of BuUubgurh that morning, and 
taken ix)S8e88ion of his Fort, in which he was leaving a force. 
He states that Mr. Ford had annexed the Pergunnah to Goorgaou. 



Bhurtpore. 



A letter from Nynee Tal, dated 7th November, reports all 
well there. The Nawab giving satisfaction to all at that station. 
Alexander coiresponds daily with him. But " he is as weak to 
act openly for us as ever, and tied to Maslahat or expediency in 
all his waya" But we must not judge either him or Scindia by 
too rigid a standard of morality. They have both had difficult 
parts to play. 

Nixon writes to say that he has resumed the direct manage- 
ment of affaire at Bhurtpoor to the exclusion of the Minister who 
had l>een making himself strcmg with his Goojur brethren inside 
the Fort. All was quiet ; but he was uneasy at reinforcements 
not coming up, and deprecates our little detachment here moving 
far from Agi-a. He is anxious for Colonel Fraser " to press upon 
the Supreme Cfovemment the necessity of troops Ix^ing sent uj) 
here. Agra full of troops would be a Tower of Strength to the 
officere isolated in Eaj}X)otanah ; but denuded of them it is of but 
little use, so we have pro tern, to rely on ourselvea" 

Colonel Durand, writing fi'om Mhow on the 18th October, 
tells me of his intention then of attacking Dhar. He says, " We 
have hot water all roimd." In expressing his hope that he woidd 
be able soon to strike down the Mundessore insm-rection, he adds : 
" However, there is no foreseeing what may turn up in these jmrts 
fix)m day to day. And our successes in the North, turning many 
Central India, rebels to the South, promise to give Central India a critical time 
of it before reinforcements from Bombay and Madras can come 
up to strengthen us." 

The report of our postmaster at Mynpoorie on the 9 th is. 



Riy'patana. 



Colonel 
Durand. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 259 

that Bao Bbowany Sing had gone to Pertabner to see his family Nawab of 
said to be sick ; but that his absence was attributed by the people *^'™*^^^***- 
to the fear of the Nawab Races' force, which it was said had 
crossed the Ealee Nuddee. 

The same writer adds the probable reason of the movement of Furmckabad. 
the Furmckabad troops westward, viz. that finding himself unequal 
to restrain the mutinous soldiery about him, and without money 
to bribe them to remain quiet, he encouraged them to spread 
themselves abroad for the purpose of plunder and the collection 
of outstanding revenue. But, anyhow, the effect is the same in 
keeping our adjacent stations in trepidation. It will be a cause 
of deep regret if they again ravage Mynpoorie, Etah, and Kass- 
gunge. 

A message received to-day from Allygurh reports that the Aiiygurh. 
Meerut stores (I reported before that they were coming down in 
140 hackeries) had arrived safely, and were to start for Agra 
this afternoon with above half a lac of surplus treasure for us. 
The heavy guns we sent out for the Allygurh Fort had reached 
safely. We sent them from this under the sole charge of native 
troops, without even an English officer ! so you see how the tide Change of 
of feeling is turning here. couSry? ^^^ 

The message states that a letter had been this morning re- 
ceived at Allygurh, mentioning that Colonel Gerrard had gone Colonel 
with a force to attack the Jodhpoor Legion, which had ventured j^^ ' 
into the Jhujjur Territor}'. i^on. 

Our little party at the Kuchla Ghat had caught a Duffadar Bareiiiy. 
of a Bareiiiy In'egular Cavalry Eegiment, who, not knowing of 
theii' presence, had crossed over the Ganges the night before. 
He was captured with his horse and arm& The message states 
the Futtehgurh people to be still advancing on Etah. 

We have letters from Neemuch of the 6th instant, written 
in better spirits than the last. They had heard the report of 
Dhar being taken by the Mhow column, and believed that it 
had come in their direction already 4 or 5 marchea The native 
report was that it had marched from Dhar on the 2nd. The 
Neemuch troops were accordingly hoping that they might soon 
be able to co-operate with it against the Mundessore insurgents. 
We may look for some early good tidings from that direction. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 

P.S. — A Gwalior letter, dated yesterday, reports that 2 Regts. Owaiior 
and 2 Batteries had gone forward to Calpee, and the remainder " ^^ 



260 MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 

were still at Jaloun depositing their spare ammunition in the 

Fort. 
Banda They had heard of the Banda Mutineer joining the Contingent 

Mutineers. ^^ Cali)ee, and having broken the bridge of boats on the report 

"that British force of 4000 men with 2 batteries and an 

elephant battery were posted on the other side the river 7 coss 

from Calpee ! " 

CXCVIL 

Agra, \2th November 1857. 

My Dear Shereu, — J. Power's of the 5th to Mrs. Muir came 
in yesterday. 

We cannot understand the delay in the advance on Lucknow. 
Every day's postix)nement is not only a tempting of new out- 
breaks in the upper Doab and Eajpootanah, but a throwing 
backward of the general campaign farther and farther into the 
hot weather. We have enough before us this cold weather, what 
with Rohilkhund and Bundelkhund. People here judge hardly 
of the delay. We are, however, always in danger of judging 
hastily on imperfect data. So the more you can tell us in ex- 
planation of the delay in advancing, the better. 

A. Cocks, c.s. Cocks moves out to-day in the direction of Etali, to check 

the advance of the Futtehgurh rebels in that direction. 

Tiie Agra Our column is now here. I hoj^e Colonel Fraser will send it 

^ "'""' out again sooil It wonderfully inspires our friends with confi- 

dence and our enemies with awe, to know that we can move about 
in force in this manner. It is most needed in the direction of 
Mynp^orie, to repress the Fiuruckabad invaders in that direction 
and towards Etah. 

From the Postmaster at Mynpoorie it appears that Rao 
Bhowany Sing returned early that morning with the report that 

Rajah Tej the Eajah Tej Sing intended to attack Mynpoorie that day, on 
which the Deputy Magistrate and Cotwal with their people fell 
back on Shekoabad. It may probal)ly be a groimdless alarm, 
but it keeps all that tract in a ferment. 

Since writing the above I have received a letter from 

Showers' Sauudcrs dated the 10th instant. He says that Showers' 

ret-irarto colimin returned to Delhi on the 8 th instant. It has been 

Delhi. broken up, as both men and cattle were greatly fatigued after the 

laborious campaign they have gone through. 

New Column A new column was organised, and the intention was to have 
despatched it at once down the country with the carriage and 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 261 

supplies which have been collected at Delhi and Meerut, for 
the reinforcement coming up country. 

Intelligence, however, was meanwhile received that theJoudhpore 
Jodhpoor Legion, having formed a junction with the force ot^^^^^ 
Eao Toola Eam (of Eewaree), the Jhujjur Irregular Cavalry and R^nQ.invades 
our own mutineer Eanghur horse, had actually invaded the Jhujjur Territory. 
Territory. They were encamped at Nurnoul on the 8th and 9 th, 
and were threatening the Fort of Kunound. In that Fort we 
had one of the newly raised Sikh Corps, and it is believed to be Sikh Corps in 
strong enough to hold out in security till succour arrived from Kunound 
Delhi. 

The Jodhpoor Legion are said to contemplate a junction with Joudhpore 
the AJewattees , whom Showers has been engaged in chastising. ^^5^^^^* 
He burnt 50 of their villages, and otherwise severely punished tis : their 
them. But you will find by a reference to the Goorgaon Statis- ** ^ * 
tical Eeport, what a large and influential \^v tlif^y rto r'spft page 
15); they number 110,000 in this district, and own 409 
villages with an area of 300,000 acres. 

It is to be hoped that the Jodhpoor Army, which has got 
from 9 to 1 2 guns, may be intercepted before it gets down into 
that region. 

The moveable column having this object, started from Delhi Column sta 
on the night of the 9 th under Colonel Gerrard for Goorgaon. It aSrrard for^* 
would then move on Rewaree, and there follow the rebels what- CKwrgaon. 
ever direction they may have taken. This duty performed, they 
will be at lil^erty for service in the Doab. 

Saunders had just received an express from Sapte from the 
l)anks of the Ganges in the Boolundshuhur district, " that Wullee Wullee Dad. 
Dad had made his appearance at Eam Ghat with a large force of 
rebels and 8 guns." 

General Penny has accordingly ordered as large an available 
force as can be spared, to proceed from Meerut in support of 
Sapte's party. Saunders hopes that a respectable body of troops 
may be got up at Meerut, as Hodson's Horse, a wing of Coke's 
corps, Tombs' troop, and Scott's battery, have all been sent over 
there lately to refit. 

General Penny, writing himseh', says, " My earnest wish is to 
send this column" (the one that has gone towards Eewaree) 
" to Cawnpore to escort a large convoy for the European troops 
coming up." He says that the Headquarters people are collect- 
ing at Delhi in the hope of proceeding down with this coluimi. 
He adds that Sir John Lawrence is collecting some Cavalry, 
which will also be pushed on. 



262 



MSS. VOL. 11. : THIRD SERIES 



I am writing to Saunders to suggest that measures should 
be concerted for sending down their carriage, eta, and ours, with 
one and the same convoy. Nothing has ever been replied to 
CoL Eraser's proposal that you should send out as far as Myn- 
poorie ; and that we would escort the carriage so far ? 

W. MuiR, 

J. W. Sherer, Esq. 

R& — The news about Wullee Dad in the last sheet has 
made CoL Fraser determined on stopping the Allygurh expedition 
to Etah. But our Column will move out towards Allygurh, and 
having joined Cocks' party, may then make a demonstration on 
the Etah Boad. 



Ckdonel 
Fnser's pro- 
poMlflfor 
military 
opcntioiit. 



CXCIX. 

To His Excellency Sir C. Campbell, G.C.B., 

Commander-in-Chief. 

Agra, 12 November 1857. 

Your Excellency, — In ignorance of the course you mean to 
adopt after your success at Lucknow, which may be looked upon 
as certain, I venture, though well aware that 1 may be deeme<l 
presumptuous in doing so, to bring the following scheme to your 
Excellency's notice, premising from all we know here that the 
want of carriage is likely to cramp you to such a degree that its 
supply is at present a consideration paramount to all others.^ 



H. Eraser, CoL, Chief Commr., N.W.P. 

^ Note. — The rest of the letter contains Colonel Fraser' $ 
proposals as to whai Sir C. CampbelVs operations in the Doah 
might be. 



Mvnpoorie 
affairB. 



cc. 

AOBA, 13^ November 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — ^We have nothing from you later than 
J. Power's of the 5th. Nothing further from the North-West. 

Things at Mynpoorie are, however, again falling into con- 
fusion. The Bajah of Mynpoorie has been in the Jaloun District 
with the Contingent, and has succeeded in tre^tf^g ^^^^ l^Y ^t 
followers from amongst them. Jtle has recrossed the Jumna, and 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 263 

a poi*tion of the Contingeut was said to be following him — some Movemenu of 
say 5 Companies, some one " pultun," some two. The Eajah has ^"J ot^Hyn- 
picked up guns somewhere; but as none are mentioned to beP<^"^ 
with the Contingent auxiliaries, it is probable that none of the 
reff^ilar Contingent regiments are coming with the Bajah. He 
has probably succeeded in making some of the loose hangeins-on 
about the Contingent espouse his cause ; or, not improbably, they 
may be the new levies which the Contingent, if you remember, 
formed into a new 5th, and a new 6th regiment, when they 
stayed behind them at Gwalior. 

Whatever the real succours coming with Bajah Tej Singh, 
the effect of his reappearance on the left bank of the Jumna, 
and with expected reinforcements, has completely unsettled both 
Etawah and Mynpoorie. 

In respect to Mynpoorie, it seems that the Rajah has been 
writing to all his brother Chowhans, and, being still their Bajah, Chowhans of 
the y have been unable to resist the appeal. They have forsaken ' ^^P^"** 
the Rao Bhowan y Sinp. our representative at Mvnpoorie. and 
some of them even assimied a threatening attitude towards our 
people thera This, coupled with the report that the Rajah would 
shortly attack the town, so alarmed our people that the 
Tehseeldar and Cotwal, with the Rao himself, evacuated the 
place, and have fallen back towards Agra. 

The Rajah, further, is supix)sed to be in league with the 
Nawab of Fumickabad; and as the tixx)ps of the latter are Troops of the 
extending then* ravages in this direction, having occupied Fuiracluibtd. 
Puttialee, and being said to have crossed the Kalee Nuddee, in 
the direction of Mynpoorie, it is highly probable that the Rajah R^jahof 
will shortly reoccupy his Fort, and co-operate with the ^^P^"** 
Furruckabad rebela 

Thus you see our politics are becoming complicated; and 
the good effect caused by the jyassage of Grant's Column, and 
our occupation of Mynpoorie, is likely to be entirely lost 

Unless the Rajah of Mynpoorie should threaten us at all 
fi'om the side of Etawah, which is in the last degiee improbable, 
our Column, which marches for Allygurh to-morrow morning, 
will proceed round by Secundra Rao as far as Etah. This will 
check the Furruckabad troops from any further advance. It 
will also shake the Rajah of Mynpoorie if he has ventured to 
reoccupy the town. I do not think Colonel Eraser will allow 
the Column to go beyond Etah; otherwise, if there were no 
great force with the Rajah, our Colimin might have marched 
round via Mynpoorie. 



264 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



This is a long story about our own affairs. But it shows 
how ujuch we stand in need of reinforcements; for it is vain 
to expect the country to continue quiet while threatened by the 
Furruckabad trooj>s on the one hand, and the rebel Rajah on 
the other. 

It may be advisable for you to give the Commander-in-Chief 
a copy of this, that he may be fully aware of the state of things 
here ; and make such arrangements as the progress of events in 
Oudh may admit of, for the destruction of the Nawab of 
Furruckabad and the reoccupation of Mynpoorie. 

J. W. Shkuer, Esq., Cawnpore. 

CCI. 

Agra, lith November 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Yours of the 8th an-ived last night. 



Commnnica- 
tion with 
Cawnpore 
difficult 



The R^vJah of 
Mynpoorie. 



Neemnch 
threatened. 



The Cossids seem to have encountered gi'eat difficulties on the 
road, and passed large bodies both of the Furruckabad and Nana's 
trooi)s. But this is to be expected, and, indeed, in the present 
state of Mynpoorie and Etawah, owing to the Eajah of 
MjTipoorie's return, I anticipate gi'eat risk to our messengei'S. 
It will be well if oui* communications with you are not cut off. 

The Eajah of Mynpoorie has reoccupied his Fort there with 
a small Force. He has some guns. Our officials have retired 
to Shekoabad. Our well-wishers will suffer for their ready 
subordination to us ; and anarchy will prevail till the Kajah is 
again put to flight. 

From your letter of the 8 th there apjjears no early prospect 
of any reinforcements coming this way. But when Lucknow 
falls we hope that no time will be lost in pushing them up. 

Neemuch is again in peril We have news up till the 8th. 
" The Mundessore rebels have been advancing upon us in forc« 
for the last two or three days, and a report has just come in 
that they are at Jumooneya, a village about 5 miles off." A 
reconnoitring party of the Bombay Cavalry had gone out to see. 
They have heavy guns with them, which have delayed their 
march. If they come on, as was expected, the intention seems 
to have been to remain inside the Fort, as with their very small 
force there was a risk of being cut off. 

Their hope lay in the Mhow Column. But they were very 
much in the dark as to its position, the only direct information 
being through the Bombay newspapera. "However, it is 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 265 

rumoured that it is only two days' march or so on the 
other side of Mundessore." 

" If we be not soon reinforced," says the writer, " by Europeans, 
we may form another example of the cases of Cawnpore and 
Lucknow." 

He adds : " I believe the condition of Nusseerabad itself is Condition of 

not very cheerful." Nusseerabad 

Nixon, writing from Bhurtpoor on the 13th, says that 
" information has reached him that Neemuch has been besieged and Neemuch. 
by the Mundessore i^eople." 

All this must, of coui-se. aflec1| ) t.hp f.ft TnT>er and spirit of 
Rajpootanah generally, if a commanding force does not at an Rajputana. 
€»rlv period appear either from the Bombay side or this . Our 
news regarding the Contingent is that a jwrtion of it is still Gwalior 
encamped near Calpee. A Detachment from Jalaon had been ^^ ^^^^ 
deputed to lihandere to occupy it in the name of the Nana. A The Nana, 
messenger, who has just come in, says that on the 10th the 
remainder of the Contingent moved on to Calpee, and that it 
still talks of attacking Cawnpore. ,., ^. 

J. W. SuEiJEii, Esq., Cawnpore. 

ecu. 

Agra, November I6th, Sunday. 

My Dear Sheuek, — There is not much that needs to be 
communicated to-day. 

Sir J. Lawrence, writing on the 11th from Gujranwala, 40 
miles from Lahore, tells me that the distm-lmnce in Googaira is 
coming to an end. 

Sapte is still detained with his Force at Eamghat, below Movements of 
Anoopshuhur, watching the movements of WuUee Dad, who is " ^ 
ravaging the country opposite with a large force. His threats of 
an incursion have the effect of unsettling the district and keeping 
Sapte away from portions of Boolundshuhur greatly reqiuring his Revenue being 
attention. He has got in 3 lakhs of the rubbee balances. ^^ *^ ' 

Etah is still menaced by the Fumickabad rebela But we Etah menaced. 
hojHJ the troops marching that way from AUygurh and this will 
arrive in time to prevent Mr. Churcher being dislodged. 

I am not without h()j)es that if the rebels cross the Kalee 
Nuddee, then they may l^e cut off and cut to pieces by our i)eople. 

Tlie last from you is dated 8th, i-eceived on the 13th. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. SiiERER, Esq. 



266 



MSS. VOL. 11. : THIRD SERIES 



Brigadier 
Hope Grant. 



Carriage 

oolleotodat 

DelbL 



Colonel 

Qerrard's 

Column. 



Mynpoorie. 



PriM sales at 
DelhL 



CCIIL 

Agra, 16^^ November 1857. Monday. 

My Deak SnEiiEU, — Youi-s of the 11th just received, with 
enclosure from Brigadier Grant up to 1 0th inst. We are greatly 
encouraged by the account he gives of his force, and at the 
prospect held out of the early entire discomfiture of the enemy 
at Lucknow. 

I do tnist it may l)e possible at an early date to occupy 
Mynpoorie in force. That done, the Doab would be clear, and 
carriage could move down without risk, and almost without 
guards. 

We have been for some time paying ruinous sums on account 
of carriage detained here to be sent on with the first convoy. 
There is also a good deal at Delhi. Captain Simson writes : " 1 
have got heaps of carriage and Establishments for five Begiments, 
and expect to make up a sixth before the Column is ready to 
leave this. I have got 142 Doolies with bearei*s, about 150 
tents, and all other appliances for the Europeana About 500 
Carts are collected, l^esides those you got with the stores." 

Colonel Gerrard's Column marched on the 12th from Delhi. 
"It will return," says Captain Simson, writing on the 14th inst, "in 
about four days if they catch the enemy " (at Kunound or Kewari) ; 
" if not, it will be longer. After its arrival it will be joined by 
the Headquarters Camp, and will proceed all together : — lots of 
Cavalry and Guns, so there will be no fear for our long train of 
carriaga I believe the Column will march to Allygurh, and be 
joined by my Carts, etc., at Khoorja ; and yours must catch it up 
somewhere near Mynpoorie, and then all will go to Cawnpoor." 

We must manage to an*ange this so that full advantage may 
be taken of the opportunity ; but you will see that if we were 
only able to hold Mynpoorie, all transactions in the way of 
furnishing carriage, establishments, supplies, etc., would be vastly 
facilitated. But Mynpoorie cannot be occupied until the Comdr.- 
in-Chief is able to spare some infantry for us. 

The prize sales are going on at Delhi at prices vast lv 
satisfactory to the army. " Some few jewels^ the crown jewe ls 
as they are called, are to be s^nt to Clalcntta. but they are 
nothing very grand." 

Nothing further as to Neemuch. 

I learn from a letter Lord Elphinstone desired his Private 
Secretary to write to me, that the remainder of H.M. 95th 
arrived on the 31st ultimo, and now forms part of the Bombay 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 267 

garrison. Not having been originally intended for India, it is 
weak, and numbers only 750 men. 

Bombay is to have three r^ments Cavahy, 4 of infantry 
with detachments, and a troop Horse Artillery. One Cavalry 
and one Infantry Regiment are expected " very shortly." 

The Mhow Force was to be strengthened by the Head- Garrison of 
quarters 14th Dragoons, a Native Infantry Eegiment, and 250 ^^' 
3rd Europeana These were expected to reach Mhow about the 
12th or 14th. It will be a seasonable though small i*elief. 

Henry Stewart Iteid has been to Delhi He says, " I saw 
the ex-King yesterday. He is looking very ill, and certainly not The ez-King. 
residing in that state that the newspaper writers would make 

W. MuiR 
J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 

• ••••••• 

P.S. — Capt. Bruce has been writing to Zalim Singh that Zaiim Sini^ 
troops will " soon " be sent in his direction. Z. Singh is om* 
Nazim of Etawah. " Soon " is, I suppose, very indefinite. We 
shall, of course, have early intimation from you of any move in 
that direction, as Hume must be present with any troops passing 
through Etawah. The 500 camels we were sending via Etawah 
are in great peril What with the Contingent^ Furruckabad Disturbed 
rebels, and the rebel Eajah of Mynpoorie, the whole countrv is in ^nntry. 
trouble between Etawah and Sheolie. and from Calnee to Etah. _ 
If possible, we are trying to get the camels returned here. 



CCIV. 

Aoiu, 17 November 1857. Tuesday. 

My Dear Sherer, — Yesterday's post brought us intelligence 
of Neemuch being actually besieged by the Mundessore insur- Neemnch 
genta ^**8ed. 

General Lawrence writes from Ajmere on the 11th inst, 
enclosing the copy of a letter he had received from Capt lloyd, 
dated Neemuch, the evening of the 9th inst. 

Lloyd says they had been besieged all day. The enemy had Lloyd, 
only one large gun — supposed to be a 9 -pounder — the rest small 
ones ; but others were said to be coming up. But their practice 
was bad, and there had been hardly any casualtiea The Cavalry 
was outside, hanging on the enemy ; but there is not much of it 
They were well off for musket ammunition, but wanted artillery 
ammunition, having only 120 round shots for the 9-poundera 



268 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



NainilVa. 



Khan Baha- 
door Khan. 



The rebels burned the few remainmg bungalows. Neither at 
Neemuch nor Ajmere was there any certain information as to the 
approach of the Mhow Column; but it was believed to be 
approaching. Lloyd writes in good spuits, and Lawrence ex- 
presses his belief that " the enemy will not be able to make any 
impression on the fortified square, or materially injure the 
troopa" 

A small detachment, under Baumgarten of the 83rd, was on 
its way from Nusseerabad to Neemuch escorting ammunition. 
It had been ordered to fall into the strong fortress of Chittore. 

I have a letter from Alexander from Nynee Tal, dated the 
13th inst. He says all is well there. He had been down to 
the foot of the hills to see his new leviea There were 160 horse 
— pronounced " very fair " — and more coming. He says " there 
is a good deal of intrigue going on between the bad men of 
Moradabad, Sumbhul, and Muroha, with those in Bareilly ; and 
they wish to incite Khan Buhadoor Khan to go against Eampoor 
and Moradabad, promising success through their aid and combina- 
tion. But I do trust Lucknow will fall, and the game be over 
before Khan Buhadoor Khan can act on the offensive." 

Samsay is doing welL 

Baird Smith writes from Mussoorie on the 13 th instant. 
He returns iumiediately to Boorkee, greatly reinvigorated l}y his 
stay on the Hills, and goes out into camp as soon as he can. 
Dunlop and Sapte had proposed to close the Canal in order to 
increase the water in the Ganges and diminish the faciUties for 
the enemy crossing. The Government were unwilling to take 
any step of the kind, as the inducements offered to irrigate must 
Canal adminis- have the best efiect upon the people. Baird Smith tells me 
that "the people not only continue to take water, as before, 
where they can get it, but to extend their consimiption of it ; 
and in the Northern Division there have been applications 
received for 30 additional Pymanas since the current Eubbee 
commenced. It is the same in the Jumna Canals, and there the 
cry for water is greater than I am able to meet in consequence 
of the want of officers in the Department — a want I don't see 
my way to rectify just yet. The blanks in my ranks are sicken- 
ing to think of, and I half shrink from looking the extent of 
the evil fairly in the face, though this must be done as soon as 
possible." 

Nixon reports all to be going on quietly at Bhurtpoor. He 
is in a more secure position now that he has taken the adminis- 
tration into his own hands. 



Baird Smith. 



tration. 



Bhnrtpore. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 269 

He is helping with levies of Jat horsa jat Hone. 

Cocks finds that with the menacing aspect of afiTairs in the 
direction of Fumickabad and Mynpoorie, the station of Etah chnn!her,as., 
cannot be maintained ; so he has withdrawn Mr. Churcher. He J^^ ^J^ 
is mi^lniig a demonstration up by the Euchla Ghat, which will do 
good, though Colonel Fraser thinks it is going too far away. 

W. MiiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 

We have heard nothing later of Colonel Gerrard's Brigade. 
The Postmaster at Muttra says that his runners have brought 
intelligence of its being at Hodul ; but it is not likely to have 
come down so far, excepting it be in pursuit of the Joudpoor 
Legion. 

The following force is believed to be at Meerut : — Force at 

Hodson's Hoi-se. detailed. 

Coke's Rifles. 
Stafford's — a wing. 
Carabineers, excepting one squadron. 
3 troops Horse Artillery. 
300 Eiflea 
Besides large levies of drilled Police, horse and foot. 



CCVI. 

Agra, 18 November 1857. Wednesday. 

My Dear Sherer, — I have heard from Saunders, dated 1 6th 
inst. His last from Colonel Gerrard's Camp was a letter from Gerrard's 
Mr. Ford, dated the 1 3th. The Column was then at Eewaree. ^^""''*' 
On the 14th they were to march half-way to Kunountl The 
enemy was still at Namoul, but it was feared that they were 
meditating a retreat, which will give trouble to our Column. 
They are said to have but a small body of Infantry ; their 
Cavalry is very numerous; and they are, of course, the most 
difficult to come up with. But if our Column can only manage 
to take their guns it will be so far satisfactory. 

At Kanound our Column will have been joined by Captain CapUin 
Stafford with the 23 rd Punjab Infantry, some Puttiala Infantry, ®^^'''^- 
4 Seikh guns, and the Mooltanee Horse, 300 strong, under Captain Captain Lind. 
Lind. 

Captain Pearse, with 200 horse, was out reconnoitring the Captain 
enemy. ^*"^- 



{ 



270 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



Captain 
Mabdonald. 

Ondvvporo 
District. 

Neemuch. 



Kotah. 



Etah. 



Fnttehgarh 
troops. 



Rajah of 
Mynpoorie. 

Condition of 
the country. 



We have nothing more from Ajmere about Neemuch. But 
Captain Macdonald, who is at Deolee, has sent an extract of a 
Native letter from an official in the Oudeypoor district, giving 
the purport of a communication from the Prime Minister now 
with the Eana's force near Neemuch. It consisted of 1000 
horse, and ought to give some assistance. The letter states the 
rebels at 4000 or 5000 ; and says that they had erected two 
batteries — one at General Lawrence's house, the other at a village 
called Yagana. Tlie Garrison was said to have got the enemy 
within grape distance, and to have killed two hundred of them 
from their entrenchments. 

The Bebels were said to threaten an assault; but Captain 
Macdonald, who was recently there, thinks that " there need be 
no fear for the safety of the Garrison ; the Loochas of Mundessore 
have not the means of breaching the walls, nor sufficient dash to 
escalade." He adds that in June a good supply of grain and 
firewood was laid in, and that water is abundant within the 
entrenchment. 

Everything, he says, is quiet at Kotah. The Sajah pretends 
that his troops have been brought round by an increase of 8 
annas per man. Macdonald suspects that he secretly connived 
at the tragedy ; at all events, entirely neglects any endeavour to 
protect our people. 

Coming nearer home, Mr. Churcher has been relieved at Etah, 
where his life was in danger. No further attempt will be made 
to hold that station. He gives a bad account of the Country in 
that direction : " Unless a force is sent very soon from Cawnpoor 
to Futtehgurh, this part of the Country will be overrun by 
Futtehgurh troops, with whom are collecting thousands far and 
near. Our arrival will delay their plunder for a few days, but 
for very few." There are, he says, gatherings all around. 

The Rajah of Mynpoorie is said to have gone to Furruckabad 
to seek for reinforcements from the Nawab. 

The Country generally. Colonel Eiddell (who had reached 
Secundra Rao with his Colimm) says, "is looking well, and 
cultivators apparently going on as if nothing had happened — the 
only perceptible difference being the absence of all traffic on the 
Grand Trunk Road," and that will continue, of course, till wa 
occupy Mynpoorie. ^ ^^^^ 



J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 271 

CCVII. 

AoRA, November ISthy 1857. Wednesday. 

My Dear Beadon, — On the 20th October I had the pleasure 
of sending you the copy of a letter I wrote to Mr. Saunders about 
the reoccupation of Delhi ; and I promised to let you know of his Reoccupation 
reply. I have only now i^eceived it, and lose no time in sending ^ 
you a copy. Saunders places the case in a very fair light. I 
am delighted to see the broad and sound views Sir John Law- 
rence has proposed in his despatch of the 20 th ultimo. The 
policy of the Military Authorities has, it is too evident, occasioned 
a vast amoimt of misery and distress indiscriminately among the DLstrras at 
innocent ; even among those who suffered bitterly from the 
Mutineer reign at Delhi. But that cannot be helped now, and I 
trust every day will help forward a juster and more generous 
ix)licy. But I find from applications made here for certificates, 
etc., of being well aftected, by persons who have been steady 
servants of Government throughout our troubles at Agra, and 
whose families are still in extreme misery, crowdeil in hovels in 
the villages about Delhi, without change of clothes, shelter, or 
any of the conveniences of life, that the practical working of the 
nile throwing the anus prdbandi on the person desiring to retura, 
presses very hardly. No doubt the authorities have had great 
difficulties to contend with, and much allowance is to be made 
for the circimistances detailed by Mr. Saunders. 

We are in hourly expectation of some decisive news from 
Lucknow, where our forces ought to command early and complete 
success. Locally our position is not so good as it waa M}Tipoorie Mynpoone 
and Etah have been abandoned, and the boundary of anarchy is Jbandoued. 
expanding. The Upper Doab keeps quiet. Money comes in from 
all the tracts that we have occupied, freely — including Muthra. 
The submissiveness and comparative secm*ity of the reoccupied Security of 

i'i.»i.» 1*1 'J* ii_ 11 A * the reoccupied 

districts IS wonderful, considering the smallness of our forces, districts, 
and the manner in which they are threatened on many sides. 

I trust Neemuch will soon be relieved. The effect of the 
siege will be unfavourable in Eajpootana. 

The sooner you can have Mynpoorie reoccupied, the more 

leadily and freely will you get carriage for your reinforcements. 

We have plenty both here and at Delhi, but it cannot be sent 

down without a large force. I hope that a signal success at 

Lucknow will soon enable the Commander-in-Chief to send up 

some of the new troops in this direction. „. ,, 

^ W. MuiR. 

C. Beado!^, Esq., Calcutta. 



272 



MSS. VOL. II. : THIRD SERIES 



CCVIII. 

AoRA, 19^^ November 1857. 

My Dear Sherer, — Nothing from you later than the 11th. 
The regular Cawnpore dak of the 12th to 14th came in to-day. 
You might with advantage have duplicates of your letters sent 
by the dak It is more liable to stoppage than the Cossids, but 
now and then comes in quickly. 
Nothing further from Neemuch. 

Intelligence, I am glad to say, has come in of a most complete 

Gerrard's victory gained by Gerrard's Cohimn over the Joudpoor and other 

defwS^Joudh- rebel troops near Kunound on the 15 th. The letters (Saunders 

^^ and other has not written) give the date as the 16 th, but as Sunday is 

mentioned it must have been the loth. 

I mentioned before that the Column had reached Rewaree 
on the 15th, and heard of the enemy being then still at Namoul. 
On the 14th they marched half-way to Kunound, and I suppose 
At Kunound. on the 15 th to Kunound itself. (One letter says the battle was at 
Narnoul, but I conclude the others are right in stating Kunound.) 
The rebels seem also most simultaneously to have marched on 
Kunound. 

Our Column had hardly reached its encamping-gi'ound at 11 
a.m. on Sunday morning, when the rebels came boldly out to meet 
us. The action began a little before 1 2 o'clock ; the firing on 
both sides was heavy and sharp. The cavalry made one splendid 
charge. The enemy had 5000 to our 1.300, but they had only 
5 or 6 guns, and we had a troop of H.A. and 2 18 -pounders. 
The rebels' horse fought bravely, and as the enemy was entrenched 
in a Serai the fight was a hardly contested one, and was main- 
tained for several hours. At last we completely dislodged him, 
took all his guns, and put the whole body to flight. The rout, 
however, did not commence till sunset, so that I fear darkness 
would sj)eedily cover the enemy's retreat. They fled southwards. 
The Carabineers (the Crunean squadron) and Guide horse 
made a noble charge. All the troops are said to have behaved 
well — the Fusiliers splendidly. 

Our officer, wiiting from Kunoimd, mentions the number of 
officers killed and wounded at 24, but this is generally thought 
to be a mistake. It is certain, however, tliat CoL Gerrard was 
mortally wounded, and died shortly after. The only other names 
given are the following as wounded : — Lieut. Craigie, Guides, 
badly; Lieut. Kennedy, ditto, slightly; Captain Pearse, Lieut. 
Himiphreys, Sappers ; the two last doing well. 



Caaualties at 
Kunound. 

Col. Grerrard 

mortally 

wounded. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 273 

Our force consists of Ist Fusiliei*8, sciuadron Carabineers, 
Guides, 400 Mooltan Horse, 200 Puthan Horse, and Artillery as 
before. 

Rao Toola Eani of Eewaree is supposed to have been with Rao Tooia 
the enemy. ^°*- 

I do not know when the Column is likely to proceed down- 
wards. But it will require a little time to refit. 

I have given the particulars in a bulletin, but have also 
detailed them in this letter as the extra may not be ready in 
time to send. 

Twenty-four of the Shahzadas, or rather the Sulatin, were ExecuUon of 
hanged at Delhi yesterday morning. Two were brothers-in-law, i^ihl!'* ** 
two sons-in-law of the King, the remainder nephews, etc. 

The AUygurh Force was yesterday at Kass Gunge, marching 
round by the Kutchla Ghat. Colonel Kiddell's Column still on Colonel 
the Trunk Road ; he has " upwards of 800 fighting men of sorts, column.* 
of whom 375 are Europeans." 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sheijer, Esq. 

P.S. — Two of the four Cossids despatched by you on the 
14th (Saturday) have just come in. They describe the road as in 
a most dangerous state. They with difficulty escaped the Nana's 
force on the Canal at Sheolie, and were captured somewhere 
about Tiroo by horsemen and foot. Two of the four men had Cossids 
letters which were discoveretl on them, — they were found and "* ^"^^ ' 
carried off ; two had none, and witli difficulty got off. These are 
the men who have come in, so your despatches of the 14th are 
lost. If there was anything esiKjcially important, pray repeat it. 
I anticipated that our communications would soon become difficult 
and uncertain. 

I fancy the Contingent are moving on, and find you are well 
prepared to receive them, and then to move up and clear out the 
Doab, occup}ing Mynpoorie and Furruckabad. 

Our intelligence from Mynix)orie is that the Raja has gone Ri«ah of 
to Fun*uckabad to seek assistance, and that entrenchments are y^P****"^* 
being thrown up. 

Wullee Dud is expected at Furruckabad. The Nawab Khan Wuliee Dad. 
Baliadoor is busy casting more guns. He has 150 men working Khan 

. . 1 T^ 1 Bnliadoor. 

at the Jboundry. 

W. MuiR. 



VOL. I. — 18 



INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT, AGRA. 



MSS. VOL III. 



FOURTH SERIES. 



LETTEES DOWN COUNTBY 



TO 



CAWNPOEE, CALCUTTA, ETC 



From 20th November 1867 to the end of January 1858. 



276 



INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT, AGRA. 



MSS. VOL IIL 



FOURTH SERIES. 



LETTEES DOWN COUNTEY 

TO 

CAWNPOEE, CALCUTTA, ETC. 

From 20th November 1867 to the end of January 1868. 

CCX. 

Agra, November 20t\ 1867. Friday. 

My Dear Sherer, — To-day's post has brought in Saunders' 
account, which corrects in some few points the statement I 
yesterday drew up from private letters. The action was at Action at 
Narnoul, so that the Legion must have held on to their own ^*™^^ • 
Encampment, which was reached just before the enemy advanced, 
and which was about 2 miles from NamouL The only additional 
name given is Wallace woimded (a private letter received to-day 
mentions him as killed ; but I trust this is a mistake). Captain captain 
Money had a horse killed under him. I will enclose copy of ^^°®y' 
Saimders' message to Sir John Lawrence, but it gives nothing 
new. The date is still mentioned as 16 th, so that the action must 
liave been on Monday, not, as stated in the private letters, Sunday. 

Captain Macdonald writes from Deolee that he has intelli- Captain 
gence, through Nusseerabad, of Neemuch, date not given, but ^**^^*>'^***^' 
BuppoBcd to Ije 12 th instant. The enemy had up to that time Affairs at 
produced no impression by their fire on the entrenched squara ^™"° * 
They had one siege gun in position, but ammunition supi)osed to 
be short, as its firing had almost ceased. 

Captain Wallace of the Commissariat (2 Ist Bombay Native CapuinWai- 
Infantry) was the only person injured, and he only slightly ^**^ '^^"^* 
glazed. 

Duraud's Column — of which we heard as being at Dhar on Column. 



278 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Allygurli. 



Wallee Dad. 



the 24th October — had advanced north warda He appears to 
have been at Anjera from the last intelligence, and was to march 
on Miindessore " as soon as he had settled matters " there, which 
Mr. Stedman, an Opium Agent, reported would be on the 5th. 
If Durand made haste he ought to have been at Neemuch before 
the 15th. Besides, his attack on Mundessore (28 miles distant 
from Neemuch) would probably produce a diversion, as it is the 
Head Quarters of the Insurgenta 

Captain Maalonald says that the movement on Neenmch by 
the rebels had not apparently aflfected his position at Deolee. 

The impression produced by our Columns in the Allygurh 
district is excellent. The enemy had retired from Puttialee. 

A Cossid had been traced to this bank of the Ganges in the 
vicinity of the Kutchla Ghat, sent by Wullee Dad towards Kotah 
to communicate, it was supposed, with the Joudix)or rebels at 
Narnoul. It is not unlikely that if not encountered by Gerrard's 
Column they would have gone over to Bohilkhund to join him. 

W. MuiR. 

J W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 



CCXI. 

TELEGRAPHIC MESSAGE. 

From W. Muir to G. F. Edmonstone. 

AoRA, 20th November 1857. 

Saunders' report has just come in. The action was at 
Narnoul, not Kanoimd. Wallace also mentioned as wounded. 

Neemuch said to be safe up to 1 2th. Mhow Column expected 
to leave Anjhera on 5 th for Mimdessore ; early relief of Neemuch 
by it expected. ^ ^^^^ 

P.8. — Two men have just come in who left Cawnpoor on 
Monday the 16th. They bring only one letter for Mr. Matthew 
of the Bank. They say that the two others who had letters 
from you lost them in Caionpoor, 



CCXII. 

21«( November 1857. Saturday. 
Sr/Mlhrdpore ^Y T>is,AB, Sherer, — I am sorry to have to commimicate 
Mi?°**Co intelligence of the defection of the Mehidpoor or United Malwa 
tingent Contingent. Macpherson has received, through Gwalior, news of 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 279 

its having mutinied and killed its officers. No other particulars 
are given, excepting that Major Timins, the Commandant, escaped Migor Timins 
with his wife from Mehidpoor to Oujein, and was conducted by ®^*P®*^- 
Scindia's local authorities there to Durand's Camp, then at Jeerun. 

I reported yesterday that Durand's Column was expected to 
march northwards from Anjera about the 5 th instant. This 
would take our troops through Kuchroud. That place was ful l Mewatti 
of j^fewattee rebels of the Mundessore party. Macpherson thinks ^ 
it probable that the approach of Durand caused Kuchroud to be 
evacuated by the insurgents, who then went over to Mehidpoor. 
This would have been a quite sufficient cause for the Malwa 
Contingent (which, from its proximity to the long-existing insur- 
rection in the Mundessore Province, must have had its loyalty 
shaken) to revolt. 

However this may be, it is fervently to be hoped that 
Durand's march towards Mundessore and Neemuch will not be 
delayed by this unfortunate occurrence. 

The Mehidpoor Cavalry all deserted before with the Neemuch 
Brigade. Two of the Mehidpoor gims also, which Hamilton sent 
to Augur (when Neemuch was reinforced by Gwalior troops), 
followed the Augur Mutineers to Gwalior, and are now with the 
Gwalior Contingent. It is supposed that there was also some 
Mehidpoor Artillery with the Neemuch Brigade. This I am not 
sure about. The Mehidpoor Contingent had two 24-pounder8, 
two 12 -pounders, and four 9 -pounders originally. 

The Infantry is only 640 strong. I conclude they will join 
the Mundessore rebels. 

I mentioned yesterday that a spy of WuUeedad's had been WuUee Dad 
traced on this side the Ganges, hound for Kota, You will find J^thKot^** 
Kotah to be in close proximity to Mehidpoor and Mundessore. It 
is not at all improbable that intercommu nications have been 
maintained ])v WuUeedad with the disaffected inhabitants of 
those ])arts. 

It is also to be considered what connection the Kotah Durbar 
forces may have had, or may now assume, with this spreading 
revolt. 

Of Neemuch we have nothing further to-day. 

A letter from Delhi, dated the 19th, confirms the former Narnoui 
account of the Namoul action. We took 9 guns ; three were ^^ **°* 
not mounted, but carriages were being prepared for thenL The 
enemy was reinforc^ii the day before the action by three thousand 
men. No other names of the wounded are given. The total Summimd 
loss was CO] viz. 15 killed and 45 wounded. Summund Khan, Jlnujur. 



280 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Captain 
Stafford. 



Ezecation of 
twenty-four 
memDers of 
the Royal 
Familv, 
and of 
Hakeem Ab- 
dool Huk. 



Hindoos wel- 
come British 
officers. 



Action near 
Khass Ouivj. 



Muthra pays 
in revenue. 

Baird Smith. 



Wullee Dad 
Khan. 



father-in-law of the Jhujjur Nawab (who commanded the Cavalry 
of that State in Delhi), and his son, are said to have been among 
the kiUed in the Serai. 

The enemy is reported by Captain Stafford to have fled in 
the direction of BamuL A party was out following them up ; 
and if they were found in force in that (quarter, the Column was 
to march on the 18th to Kantee. This, you will see, is due east 
of Namoul ; not south, as was firat reported. They may be 
making for Rohilkhund, or seeking for refuge among the Mewattee 
villages. 

General Penny had not received any official desimtch, and it 
was not even known who had succeeded to the command of the 
Column. 

" There is no news," says Saundere, " at this place. Twenty- 
four of the inferior members of the Royal Family of Delhi were 
yesterday executed by order of a Military Coiimiission before 
which they were tried. Hukeem Abdool Huk, who is one of the 
most influential of the rebels, and foremost in his hostility to our 
Government, was executed this morning." 

On the 18th Cocks wrote from Kasgunge : " The people who 
have not seen a white face here for six months came out of their 
villages by troops ; and here the Hindoos are really happy to 
have us even for a day. To-morrow we just look at the Ganges, 
bring over some boats and then return." 

The "look at the Ganges" ended in a distant cannonade from 
both sides. The rebels had three guns, one a 12 -pounder. No 
one on our side was touched, though the 12-poimder shot fell 
close to us. A spy, who came over after the cannonade, s«iid 
that the rebels had lost 28 (including »» Sepoys) killed; and 
some 30 wounded. They are said to have been a])out 1200 
strong, with about the same number of rabble. 200 of them 
were Irregular Cavalry, 300 Sepoya They all ran away, and 
removed their camp to a distance. 

Muttra has brought us in nearly three lacs. 

Baird Smith, writing from Roorkee, " hopes that no long time 
will pass before effective miUtary provision will be made for the 
protection of the Doab. 2SJI then its position mud he x>recarious ; 
and we can only hope that the Trans-Gangetic Mutineer will 
find other work to do than coming over to us." 

WuUeedad Khan has retu'ed from the Boolundshuhur frontier 
and gone to Suheswan in Budaon. 

W. MuiR, 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 281 

ccxv. 

Agra, 23rd Nov, 1857. Monday. 

My Dear Sherer, — Still nothing from you. Your last is 
dated the 11th inst. 

Our last news through Gwalior is that Durand had moved Durand's 
on Mehidpoor from Kuchroud. This takes him due east, and so had'moved. 
far out of his way to Neemuch. Two oflBcers of the Contingent 
are said to have been killed. 

We suppose that the Contingent must have by this time Gwalior 
marched on Cawnpoor, if it is going to do so at alL We hear ° ^" 
that it has taken all its Artillery across; but that 150 of the 
Gunners and 700 of the Infantry, residents of Gwalior, refused 
to cross, and are believed to have returned to their homea If 
this be the case it will materially weaken their Artillery. 

Some of their Ammunition, considered useless for their 
present trip, they are said to have left at Calpee. Two 
companies of new levies have been posted in Jalaon, and two at Companies 
Madhogurh. The party sent to take possession of Bhimdere is JSaon wid 
reported to have been driven out by the zemindars who were 5fi**.^°^'^' 
raised by one of Scindia's oflBcera. Bhunder. 

Cocks' force took down their guns again to the Kutchla 
Ghat. 

A letter received by Dr. Clark from Lahore, dated the 19th 
inst., states that all is quiet in the Punjaub, " but there is a 
rimiour that Dost Mahomed has been assassinated by his 
brother." 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. SiiERER, Esq., Cawnpore. 

P,S. — J. Power's of the 18th just received. We shall look 
out eagerly for news of the expected grand attack of the 17 th. 

We must have lost your account of the taking of Jelalabad, 
Dilkhoosha Park, and the Martiniere. Your recapitulation of the 
events there was the first we heard of it. A little recapitulation 
conies of use sometimes. 

CCXVI. 

24 November 1867. Tuesday. 

My Dear Sherer, — I have a letter from Saunders of yester- 
day's date. He says " the Column will not be removed from the Showers' 
neighbourhood of Eewaree for some little time, in the present °"^* 



282 MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 

unsettled state of our Frontier relations with some of the 

Eajpootana Statea" 

Sir J. Law- In consequence of the unquietness of some parts of 

foro^to be *^ Eajpootana, Sir J. Lawrence " is very anxious that a force should 

Ra* ^an ^^ possiblc be Organised for employment in Eajpootana." 

w. Foni, c.s. Ford, writing of the action of the 16 th, says it must have 

been productive of the most beneficial effect on the neighbom-ing 

Joadhpore an«i States, as " it was fought close to the Joudpore and Jeypore 

Jyepore forces, forces, who, mustering, it is said, some 15,000 men with 28 giins^ 

were afraid to attack the rebels." He adds that some Jeypore 

troops came up just as we had finished the battle, and caused 

anxiety on our right flank. Ford is suspicious that they meant 

to play false with ua He says : " Had the Je)T)ore Force 

advanced beyond the place where they had taken up their 

position on our right flank, I told Caulfield to attack them. 

These rascals are a serious obstacle to our movements. A 

zemindar, whom we found on the road, told me it had been 

proclaimed in the rebel Camp that Eaouljee would join them 

immediately with 5000 men. The gimners of the Joudpore and 

Jeypore Force were, I hear, in a state of mutiny." 

Fears for He adds, which I trust and believe is overstating the case : 

R^putana. a Qovemment must keep a sharp look-out on this frontier, — -all 

Eajpootana will, I fancy, break out" But there is abundance to 

support the earnest wishes of Sir J. Lawrence and Colonel Fraser 

for the presence of our troops in force in that direction. 

uiwar Sepoys, Some Ulwar Sepoys had threatened to fire on Ford if he 

beSiWow of. ^^® ^^^^ ^ them, and the Vakeel would not agree to Ford's 

sending a party into the Ulwar territory to apprehend some 

wounded fugitives. 

Loyalty of On the Other hand, it has been ascertained that the Ulwar 

Ulwar troops. ^rQQpg j^^d a brush with the fugitive Cavalry, and lost seven or 

eight men killed, sixteen woimded, and 20 horsea The loss of 

the Eebels is not known ; but the fact of the engagement proves 

that at any rate, after the insurgents were routed, the Ulwar 

army had no sympathy with them. 

The fugitives took the road towards the Jumna, the Foot 
going via Toojara, the Horse via Tapookrah. 
Affairs at About midday we received telegraphic intelligence from 

^^^ ' AUygm-h and Hatrass that two large bodies of fugitive troops 
had appeared in the Allygurh district. One at Tuppuhl, to the 
North-West of Allygurh, and opposite the Goorgaon district ; the 
other, some 2500 strong, in the direction of Hatrass or Sydabad. 
They were burning Chowkies and committing ravagea I con- 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 283 

elude they are making for the Ganges, Eohilkhund, Fumickabad, 
or Oudh. 

Eiddell's Cohimn, 800 strong, is at Sasnee, and was to beRiddeirs 
to-morrow at Hatrasa He will no doubt push forward and **^^°* 
inflict chastisement on the fugitives if he can catch them up. 

On the 19th a small detachment went from Sona towards Mewattis 
Hutteen, which had been attacked by the Mewatteea Our *^^^ 
troops burnt 12 villages with their stacks at Eoopraka; the 
Mewattees, in a force of 3500 . opened a matchlock fire on our 
little body of troops (only two Native Companies and about 100 
horse). Our men reserved their fire till within one hundred 
yards, then gave them a volley and closed with the bayonet. 
About fifty were killed in the village, and 400 were cut up by 
the Cavalry outside it. 

Colonel Seaton takes the command vice Gerrard. Colonel Seaton 

Captain Macdonald writes from Deolie that all was well up oerrard. 
to the 16th at Neemuch. The enemy had almost ceased firing. wP*f^° .^ 
It is to be hoped they are short of ammunition. 

He says Captain Eden writes to him " to be prepared for an DeoU likely to 
attack on my jwst (Deolie) by the Budmashes of Tank . He has the BudmashM 
received information that such a move is contemplated." Captain ^^ ''^»»^^* 
Mactlonald " has taken measures against a surprise, and for the 
rest will trust to the God of Battle." 

All this points to the necessity of aid being speedily sent to 
Bajpootana. 

Yours of the 19th just received,^ or rather Power's, with the 
good news of the successful advance on the 17 th. The litho- 
graphing is bad, and some of the names very indistinct. How- 
ever, I trust I have made out all con^ectly. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 

RS, — Our 600 camels are returned back safe from Etawah. 

CCXVII. 

26th November 1867. Wednesday. 

My Dear Siierer, — The Cossids we despatched on the 1 7th Ck)68iiia sent 
and 1 8th have all returned, saying that they were plundered of all p^ndeSl 
their letters. One party went by Ooreya, the other by the Canal. 

On the 17th I despatched 2 packets for you; and on the 
18th, *> for you, 1 for Beadon, and 1 for Colonel Baker. On 

* 19th-24th = 5 days — from Cawnpore to Agra. — W. M. 



284 MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 

the 17 th there was one for the Comniander-in-Chief and one for 
Strachey. I will try and supply the loss as far as I can. The 
letters of the 17 th are lost, as well as the duplicates I sent on 
the 18th. The item of chief importance in these was the siege 
of Neemuch. 

To-day I have nothing of much consequence. 

Movement of The Joudpoor rebels, it seems, must have crossed the Jumna 

rebels?" ^^ souiewhere opposite Hodul ; they then held a south-easterly 

course, passing by Noh and Moorsam, and came upon the 

Allygiu'h Boad a few miles this side of Hatrasa They are 

flying in the greatest possible haste and confusion, without 

baggage, guns, or anything; and are avoiding all the large 

villages. The Tehseeldar of Hatrass caught one of the Joudpoor 

Sepoys last night; this man says there are some 1300 fugitives, 

horse and foot — that they are all taking the same route, that 

they have no particular destination in \iew, but are making for 

the Ganges as rapidly as they can. 

RiddeU's Kiddell marched from Sasuee to Hati^ass last night. He 

Column. Yiad heard of another detachment of 400 fugitives being behind. 

It is to be hoped he may be able to overtake some of them. 
Ramperehad The Sepoy Said the fugitives were led by Bamj)ershaud 

SubandAr o i u i 

leads fugitives, oubaiiaar. 

Our last news was that they were pushing on, and would 
probably reach the Grand Trunk Eoad, somewhere east of Eta, 
during the day. 

State of The rebels in the Eohilkhund side seem to have had a fresh 

fit of activity. Baird Smith says that there are menaces of a 
descent there, though he does not think they will venture over. 

Dunlop, c.s. Dunlop, from Gurhmuktesur, says that they are " collecting 

in very large nimibers, and are now threatening many points on 
the river." He is watching with a very inadequate force the 
banks from Pooth to Hustnapoor. He has only 100 Police 

RaoOoiai) Cavalry and 50 of Coke's Eifles ; but there is a considerable body 

Kockesur. ^f Eao Golab Sing's (of Kochesur) men with 4 small guns ; — of 
these, 200 horsemen are good, but the foot very inadequately 
armed. 

On the 20 th heavy firing was heard in the direction of 
Amroha in the Moradabad district. It was an engagement 

Nawab of between the troops of the Nawab of Eampoor, and 1000 Mussulman 

GooLuurAiiy. iiisiirgents headed by a noted enemy of ours, Goolzar Ally, who 
was a leader of " Jehadies " at Delhi. The rebel was defeated 
and driven out of Auu-oha, and his house destroyed. 

General Penny writes to say that under the threatening 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 285 

aspect of our relations, from the various forces against us in the 
road between this and Cawnpoor, he has postponed, till further 
advised from there, the despatch of the convoy he had intended 
sending down the country, " as he does not deem it at all judicious 
to risk the loss of the stores and carriage which I have been 
collecting for the European troops, and on which they are so 
entirely dependent." 

Nothing further from Neemuch. 

W. MuiR. 
J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 

F.S. — Information has just come in from Allygurh that Wuiiee Dad 
Wullee Dad has joined the Futtehgurh rebels, who have advanced ^^tteh^rh 
towards the Allygurh district, and are now at Puttialee. They JJ^^JJ** 
have ordered supplies on the road to Kassgimge towards Allygurh. 
Allygurh, and the district in that direction is panic-struck. If 
they come on and are not repelled, the MussnlmaTi population of 
the Allygurh district will again be in a flame. Eiddell has there- 
fore been ordered to hold -on at Hatrass. It would be a sad pity 
if anything occurred to unsettle the arrangements at Allygurh, 
on which our communications with the N.W. entirely hang. 

W. M. 

CCXVIII. 

2&h November 1867. Thursday. 

My Dear Sherer, — The messengers of the 19 th have been Cogsids again 
equally unfortimate as those of the I7th and 18th. One was**"* * 
seized, and one got off, after losing his letters, and returned hera 
I am endeavouring to supply the loss. Yesterday I sent duplicates 
of the 17th and 18th. To-day I send those of the 16th, 19th, 
and 20th. 
..•.•■«• 

The Joudpoor fugitives have i)assed over towards the Ganges Joudhpore 
or Mynpoorie — that is to say, the first body of them. A second ^^**^®*- 
detachment, said to be 1500 in number (with 5 guns, which I 
much doubt), are reported to have crossed some way above 
Muthra — near Nohjheel — and to be on the same route as the others. 

Eiddell continues to halt at Hatrass. There are still threaten- Riddeii's 
ing reports of WuUeedad at Puttialee. ^''''"°- 

More Sikh Police coming down via Meerut for us. Sikh Police 

The Puttialee Eajah is sendmg a force of 2000 hoi-se and^""'"*^* 



286 



MSS. VOL. III.; FOURTH SERIES 



Riyah of 
Patiala seuds 
aid to Dhol- 
pore. 

H. S. Reid, 
C.S. 



Nawab of 
Ram pore 
defeats 
Goolzar Ally 
at Umroha. 



Nawab of 

Rampore's 

loyalty. 



Subscriptions 
for relief of 
the Rnfferers in 
the Mutiny. 



foot, with 4 guns, for his relative the Dholpore Eajah, to 
maintain order. Sir John Lawrence asked if there was any 
objection to this, and the Government here replied, nona H. S. 
Keid is going up to escort the Force this way. It will have a 
good eflfect if it marches through the Meewattee country via 
Goorgaon and Muthra. Located in Dholpore itself, this body 
will have an excellent effect upon our frontier, which, in that 
direction, is in a very unsettled state. 

Mr. Alexander reports publicly in a letter, dated the 22nd 
instant, Nyneetal, that the Nawab of Eampoor has wi'itten to 
say that his troops defeated Goolzar Ally and his rebel adherents 
at Umroha, " killing many and dispersing the rest." This is 
the engagement reported yesterday on Dunlop's authority. 
Alexander justly dwells on the significance of the fact that the 
Eampoor troops should have attacked and routed fanatics of the 
Mussulman faith headed by Syuds. It is really cause of satis- 
faction. 

The Christian women and children, whom the Nawab sent 
off from Moradabad, after having had them maintained so long 
there hospitably, have safely reached Meerut ; another material 
proof of his good wishes. 

Captain Eden has just sent us Ils.2011 subscriptions for 
relief of the sufferers in the Mutiny. Of this, 1000 Ea are 
fi-om the Maharaja, and the remainder chiefly from natives of 
the Court and City. This is gratifying. 

We are looking anxiously for your bulletin of the proceedings 
of the 18 th at Lucknow. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 



Neemnch 
relieved. 



Faithful 
conduct of 
Bombay 
troops. 



CCXIX. 

Agra, November 27f^, 1867. Friday. 

My Dear Sherer, — This Cossid will, I hope, get through 
with the happy intelUgence of Neemuch being reUeved. I have 
given almost aU the particulars in the printed bulletin. The 
information is contained in letters from Captain Lloyd and 
Captain Simpson, dated 22 nd inst. They were forwarded by 
Greneral Lawrence from Ajmere, where all was well on the 23rd. 
The fresh proofs now afforded of the faithful and gallant conduct 
of the Bombay troops is peculiarly satisfactory. 

In the attempt to escalade, when the enemy lost some couple 
of hundred men, we had only two Sepoys slightly wounded. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 287 

Lloyd says it was generally reported that a heavy cannonade 
was heard on the 2l8t from the direction of Mundessora This 
is highly probable. Durand's Column would have heavy fighting 
there. And it was that which, no doubt, caused the besieging 
force to withdraw so unexpectedly to the little garrison. 

" We are hard at work," says Lloyd, " clearing away the 
houses and trees which have been so damaging to us ; and if 
possible will destroy the trenches. Paiiiies are out in search of 
supplies, eta, in case we may yet have to hold our own." 

Captain Simpson promoted two men of the Bombay 12th Bombay 
N.L on the spot for signal gallantry, and recommended a third nn^'for^ 
to General Lawrence. He says, " The guns of the enemy made gaii«»try. 
little impression, but their matchlockmen annoyed us gi*eatly 
from the entrenchments; ... we want ammunition and an 
officer for Europeans ; ... we require a larger force here." It 
is to be hoped that the party which was escorting ammunition 
under Baumgarten, and which was obliged to take refuge in the 
Chittore Fort, will now be able to reach Neemuch. A young 
Cavalry Officer, Brett, was dying — but not of wounds. 

An Electric Telegraph message from Allygurh reports that Refugees from 
six more refugees from Rohilkhund have reached this bank of 
the Ganges at the Kutchla Ghat, and are under the care of the 
blind Tehseeldar — the Choubey. What a courageous old man that choubey 
Choubey is ! — holding out there with a small band of Sowars Daw : ISyai 
and people of the sunounding villagea He has been all along services, 
the most valuable support to us, and an able adviser while we 
were shut up in Agra. He will, I trust, receive by and by sub- 
stantial tokens of our favour.^ 

Cocks expects the refugees at Allygurh to-morrow or the 
next day. Their names are not mentioned. 

The reports from Puttialee continue more and more threaten- 
ing; — the force there is exaggerated into 4000 and 12 guns. 

Your despatches of the 21st came in this morning. I 
conclude that the "enigmatical" character of the Lucknow 
despatches you complain of was caused by the anxiety to 
conceal the intention of evacuating Lucknow, which, of course, 
it was important should not be known at Cawnpore beforehand, 
as the knowledge would no doubt have encouraged the enemy to 
making preparations for annoying our rear. 

I continue to regret the determination, for the reasons Evacuation 
I formerly stated. But it will have the important advantage ^mmenu ra. 

^ He was killed (see p. 358, post), and his brother. Raja Jey Kislien Doss, 
made C.S.I.— W. M. 



288 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



(besides setting free the troops otherwijse required for the 
Garrison) of affording a secure field, for the present, to the 
disaffected ; who will no doubt draw thither from all quarters, 
and stay there till we are at leisure to dispose of theuL They 
will also have a dearly bought lesson of the miseries of anarchy 
when left to themselves. T he Provin ce deserves it f or the 
almost universal enmit^ 



Jayed . A month or two ago 
the almndonment of Lucknow and Gudh might have had an 
untoward effect on Central India and Bajpootana ; I trust that 
we are now too far advanced in our i-ecovery of power for that. 
I trust that Power's news of a Column for Furrackabad is well 
founded. 

\V. Mum. 
J. \V. SuERER, Esq., Cawnpore. 



People in 
yicinity of 
Neeiuuch 
well affected. 

Ghulam 

Moheioofl- 

deen. 



Gwalior 
Contingent. 



Riddeirs 
Column. 



ccxx. 

Agra, 2Sth November 1867.^ Saturday. 

My Dear Sherer, — We have nothing of news to-day. 

Nothing later from Neemuch. A letter from Lloyd says 
that " he has every reason to believe that there will be Uttle 
diflBculty in restoring order in the Neemuch district when once 
the rebel invaders are expeUed." The people themselves in that 
vicinity seem well affected. 

He says that " the principal leader in the late inroad has 
been the late Bukshee of Neembhera, by name Ghulam Moheiood- 
deen, who has openly proclaimed his object to be revenge for his 
expulsion from Neembhera." 

Two of our scouts have come in who were at Calpee three 
days ago. They say that our troops with guns were there, and 
that the Contingent had fallen back seven or eight coss on the 
Jalaon side. We think this possible ; but I do not like to enter 
it in my bulletin till I hear fi'om yoiL I conclude the firet stei)s 
now will be to reoccupy Mynpoorie, and attack Furrackabad, 
which will at once open our communications again. 

Our last from you is of the 2l8t. 

Kiddell's force will make an advance towards Shekoabad, and 
will be in a good position there to co-operate with any parties 
you may send up the Doab. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. SuERER, Esq., Cawnpoor. 



^ Received by Sherer, Deer. 10th = 12 days. — W. M. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 289 



CCXXL 

Agra, 29*^ November 1867. Sunday. 

My Dear Sherer, — I have no news of consequence to-day. 
The despatch from Calcutta for Saunders has reached safely, and 
been forwarded by express. 

The King is, after all, to be brought to trial by a Military The Kinc to 

. . lift tried DV 

Commission, which is also to try the Nawabs of Jhuj jur. Military Com- 
Furrukhnugger, and Dadree, and the Bajah of Bullubgurh. Se^NawiJbeof 

Eden writes from Jyepoor, dated the 27 th. All going on Jhuijur, Fur- 
quietly and well there. and DadrM| 

Buldeo Singh, the Gwalior Thakoor, who did us good service SoiSSgwh!^ 
when our refugees fled from Gwalior, has brought safe away from au weU at 
Narwar two persons belonging to the Telegraph Department, one Buldersingh, 
lady and three children. They were to be at Dholpore yester- Thakoor, 
day. That man deserves weU of us. Eu?op/ii 

At the Kutchla Ghat there were five or six persons brought ^uk^Mon 
over from Rohilkhund, the only names given being Wilkinson »nd Maclean, 
(who has a brother clerk in the Ch. Engineer's OflBce here) and RohSSiund. 
Maclean. 

The Furruckabad people, with WuUee Dad, continue to creep Wuilee Dad. 
onwards to Etah. But nothing can be done imder present 
circumstances efTectually to coimteract them. 

W. MuiR. 



CCXXII. 

AoRA, 30th November 1857. Monday. 

My Dear Sueber, — I have no special news to communicate. 
Macdonald writes from Deolee, dated the 26th; all well Macdonaid 

i^Dorts all well 

there. He gives news from Nusseerabad of the 25 th. Neemuch at Deoii. 
continued quiet. Mewattee prisoners, " several without noses," Neemuch 
were being brought in by the villagers to the fortified Square. 
The mutilation of these captured rebels is rightly concluded to The country 
" show that the country people do little sympathise with the J^pJthy *" 
Mewattee movement" Macdonald is satisfied that there is no J^^J^*^ 
fear now for Eajpootana, " if all goes well elsewhere." But he movement, 
looks out anxiously for news -from Lucknow. In order to 
counteract the evil effect which our withdrawal from Lucknow, 
distorted as it will be into a reverse and expulsion, it is essential 
that there be an immediate show of strength upwards. You 

should press this so far as you can do so with propriety. The 
VOL. I. — 19 



290 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Sergeants 
CftiTol and 
Jervis of the 
Seepree 
Regiment. 



J. Cracroft 
Wilson, C.S. 

WuUee Dad 
Khan. 

Christian 
refugees. 



The Nana. 



fii-st step will, of coui^se, be against the Contingent and your 
other more immediate enemies ; but after that I hope the earliest 
possible movement will be made to crush the rebellion at 
Fun'uckabad, and occupy it and Mynpooria At Gwalior the 
disaffected section still maintain (I am assured by Macpherson) 
that the cause, the Been} is in the ascendant even at Lucknow. 
It is easy to see what use these, and other similarly minded 
people throughout the coimtry, will make of our withdrawal, 
unless it be followed by a prompt demonstration of power. 

Two Sergeants, with the wife of one of them, brought in 
yesterday from the Gwalior territory, turn out to belong not to 
the Telegraph Department but to the Sepree Regiment* (the 
third). When it mutinied, the Officers went towards Indore, while 
these poor people came northwards ; and after infinite hardships, 
and living for months in the Jungle (kindly treated, however, by 
the people), they were now, in the improved state of our name, 
enabled to be brought in. They were, however, still brought 
concealed in native conveyances, followed by music and drums to 
simulate a wedding procession. 

Wilson is bearding Wulleedad Khan by passing up to the 
Kutchla Ghat within 10 or 12 miles of the enemy, in order to 
bring in another party of six Christians who are said to be on 
the North bank of the Ganges. It is to be hopetl that the 
rebels will not stop him on his benevolent mission. He is a man 
of rare activity and daring. A few days would enable, it would 
seem, many to be brought over. " Our presence at Soron," 
Wilson writes, " if we can only hold our position, will enable the 
Eajpoots to bring all the Christians who have arrived in safety 
within a reasonable distance of the Ganges, across to ua But if 
we are compelled " to retreat, then there is great risk of their 
being murdered by Wullee Dad's people." 

Wullee Dad, with the Furruckabad rebels, continues to advance, 
and will not improbably embarrass the Allygurh demonstration. 

But before that leads to any ill result, we will trust that the 
Coumiander-in-Chief will have threatened the rebels from the 
opposite direction. 



W. MuiR. 



J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 



P,8, — Macpherson's Gwalior news makes the Nana and 
Ballajee to have been at Lucknow on the 17th and to have 

* Religion. 

' Sergeants Carrol (with family) and Jervis. They have been almost 
entirely in the jungles ever since the 7th June ! 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 291 

escaped to Futtehpore, where they were not received Ballajee Baiiigec. 
then went "to arrange" with the Contingent; and moving some of 
his other adherents to Akberpoor, emboldened the Contingent to 
go forward. This is from a correspondent with the Contingent. 

W. II 



CCXXIIL 

Agra, let December 1857. Tuesday. 

My Dear Sherer, — My Cossids of the 23rd and 24th have Cossids 
both returned, saying that they were robbed of their letters near ^ 
Akberpoor. It is a good thing that my letters of late have not 
been of any great impoi-tance ; the only news of much 
significance being the siege, and the raising of the siege, of 
Neemuch. However, I have had prepared copies of the letters 
supposed to have miscarried, and send them to you to supply the 

gap- 
General Penny is sending down a convoy with stores and General Pensy 

carriage for the use of the troops coming up country. His letter J^th storn s^ 

to the Headquarters Staff goes by this Cossid. There are 1500 c"riage. 

carts of grain, 80 elephants, 600 camels, 3000 camp-followers. 

The escort is a troop Horse Artillery; 336, First Bombay 

Fusiliers; 400, 7th Punjaub Infantry; one Company Sikhs, 

Pioneers; one squadron Carabineers; and Hodson's Horsa 

The convoy starts on the 10 th, but halts at Allygurh till you 

can send up an escort to convey it down. General Penny is 

quite right in this, for he justly says "the force imder my 

conunand is ^apeXt avif>iat€PT to enable me to garrison this city 

and to keep the distnct in Order/ ' 

No news from the North-West. That from Gwalior is good. Scindia 
Scindia is getting under control his rebellious vassals. We are hb^pMiSon. 
aiTanging for laying horses, etc., on the road to Gwalior, so 
as at the earliest possible date to reopen the Bombay dak that 
way. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 

F.S, — ^Edmonstone's message to the Chief Commissioner 
regarding the treatment of the Royal family and others at Delhi 
has been duly received, and will be conmiimicated at once to 
Saunders, who has been acting exclusively under Sir J. Lawrenca 
I have alluded to the subject of the message by anticipation in 
my letter to Harington forwarded yesterday. 



292 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



WulleeDad 

approaches 

Aliygarh. 



Reinforce- 
ments at 
Deesa. 



CCXXIV. 

Agra, 2nd December 1857. Wednesday. 

My Dear Shkrkr, — No news to-day, except growing alarm 
in the Allyguih District from the approach of Wullee Dad. I 
am writing to Delhi to urge that the escorting Column I repoi-ted 
yesterday as to leave on the 10th may be despatched as early 
as possible. That, once at Allygurh, will repress the insurgents ; 
and, if necessary, we could send out reinforcements if it were 
advisable to offer battle. 

Captain Macdonald wiites from Deolie that the native report 
is that the Mhow Column reached Mundessore on the 20 th 
ultimo. We have no direct intelligence regarding it. 

The force that was going from Nusseerabad to raise the siege 
of Neemuch does not now march ; but ammunition, stores, etc., 
are being escorted thither. 

Her Majesty's 95 th with Enfields, a European Battery, and a 
Company of Eoyal Engineers, are expected on the 10th prox. 
at Deesa. This will prove seasonable relief for Bajpootanah. 

The Headquarters of Her Majesty's 83rd were to be at 
Nusseerabad on the 29 th. 

Pi-ay say that I have received Mr. Talbot's letter of the 
17th, and am taking measures for securing as early and complete 
a reply as possible. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Shkrer, Esq., Cawnpore. 



MewattLs 
tendering 
submission. 



ccxxv. 

AORA, Zrd December 1857. Thursday. 

My Dear Sherer, — We have nothing from you later than 
the 25th ultimo. 

I have letters from Delhi of yesterday's date. Goorgaon 
appears to be quieting down. ** The Mewattees " Mr. Saunders 
says, "are all tendering their submission, and pravinsr to be 
allowed to return to their villages and resume their peaceful 
occupations. They, moreover, promise to pay their revenue for 
both crops." The Putiala Force coming to the aid of the Eana 
of Dholpore will march down the right bank of the Jumna, and 
will have a good effect in the Goorgaon and Muttra districts. 

Our Deputy Postmaster (a Baboo) has resumed charge of 

j^inknr Rao's his office at Gwalior. Dinkur Eao is prepared to give every 

assistance in his power to open out the road onwards to Indore 



Pfttiala 
force. 



loyal aid. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 293 

the moment the country about Sipree becomes quiet, and this 
may be expected immediately, as the Nurwar Chief has tendered 
his submission. 

At Gwalior the Durbar beUeves that arrangements are being 
made from Indore to Goona for replacing the horaes on the road, 
so that we may hope at no distant date again to have our postal 
communication open direct with Bombay. Letters now take 
12 days. 

A despatch has just been received from Durand, dated Durand's 
Mundessore, the 28 th November. His operations have been °i^™^°°*- 
entirely successful. The insurgents have been dispersed. They 
are nowhere in any force. The strongest body is believed to 
have fled via Chendwasa, towards Jalra Puttun and the Kotah 
country. 

I need not detail what he says regarding his operations Operations 
against Dhar, where he firat encountered the Shahzadah's forcea *^^*°*^ ""• 
Particulars have no doubt been received via Bombay of this, as 
well as of the escape of the garrison northwards, their attack on 
Mehidpoor, and the fraternization with them of the United 
Malwa Contingent. 

Our Cavalry (Hyderabad Contingent) came up with the Performances 
enemy carrying off the Mehidpoor guns, ammunition, etc., towards cavJry?* 
Mundessore, at Eavul, " dashed at them at once, cut up a great 
number, took many prisoners, and not only recovered all the 
Malwa Contingent guns, stores, ammunition, etc., but took two 
gims of the enemy's own in addition." 

On the 21st the Shahzadah, reinforced by a portion of the Shahzadah 
troops wlio were besieging Neemuch, attacked our Column four cofumn.^"'^ 
miles south of Mundessore. They were driven back with loss ; 
and on the 22nd we crossed the Sonwa river without opposition, 
and encamped near Mundessore. 

Our Cavalry pursued the enemy's horse to some difficult 
country, 10 or 12 miles north of Mundessore, on the Neemuch 
road, but withdrew on approaching the main body. 

On the 23rd we moved 4 or 5 miles in the same direction, 
'' and had just taken our point when standards were seen coming 
over a ridge in our front. They occupied a strong village as 
their centre, placed their six gims on a mound on their left 
centre, and deployed right and left, overlapping both our flanka 
A nullah and low ground with palm-trees covered their front. 
On the whole the ground they took was as well as could be, for 
we had caught them as I wished, i.e. on the move." 

''The battle conmienced with a cannonade, in which our 



294 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Fight with the 
ShAhxadah. 



Keatinge 

appointed 

I^Utical 

Affent of 

Western 

Malwa. 

Bheels giving 
trouble. 



88rd 
Regiment. 



Kassgnni 
invened. 



nge 



superior Artillery had the best of it. We advanced by Echelon 
from the right, refusing the left ; and at last, as our Artillery 
fire had driven the enemy from the mound and guns, Martin 
charged with a small party of Dragoons and took the mound 
top and gims, but could not hold it, as the enemy behind the 
mound opened a heavy fire, wounded Martin, and made the place 
too hot for the jyarty of Dragoons, who had to retire from the 
guns and mound, which were again occupied by the enemy. This 
lasted but a short time, for we brought up our right, reopened 
fire, and doubled them back on their centre and right: the 
Dragoons again charging and recapturing the Bebel Artillery. 
A strong body threw themselves into the village, and fought 
desperately all the 23rd and 24th ; but the mass was routed, 
pursued, and many cut up by our Cavalry. The debris of the 
Shahzadah's forces are now scattered in small parties, making 
their way through the jungles, and avoiding towns and villages, 
for the people have turned upon them, and destroy them. The 
only body of any size has gone across the Chumbul towards 
Chendwassa, probably making for the Jalra Puttun and Kotah 
Country." 

Durand had appointed Keatinge Political Agent of Western 
Malwa, as he finds an officer urgently needed thera Lieutenant 
Cumming is acting for him at Nimar. 

The Bheels are riving trouble on the Candeish frontier^ and 
infesting the Bombav road about Sindwa. But the grass can now 
soon be burnt, when operations can be commenced against them. 

The Headquarters 83rd reached Nusseerabad on the 28th 
ultimo from Dessa. 

Telegraphic information has just been received from Ally- 
gurh that Kassgunge was invested yesterday; and it is feared 
our old and staunch friend, Choubey Gunsham Dass, has been 
taken prisoner. This we feel much. Our messengers despatched 
from here on the 23rd have returned, and say that on the 27th 
the Contingent, having brought up the heavy guns, forced back 
our troops to near Cawnpoor: that Saturday was quiet, but a 
tremendous cannonade on Sunday. We look anxiously for tidings 
of these proceedings. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Shkrer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 



Neemuch. P,S. — ^We have letters also from Neemuch of the 28th. 

On the 26 th a party of Cavalry went in chase of some Mussul- 
man fanatics who had been engaged in a fanatic insurrection at 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 295 

Jamud. They were pursued 16 miles, and 30 brought in as 
prisoners. Thirteen were shot, and one hanged. 

It was very fortunate that Durand appeared when he did, as 
there had been three desertions from the 12th Native Infantry, 
and " the men were beginning to disbelieve in the existence of a 
Mhow or Nusseerabad force at all ; so often had they heard of 
their approach without seeing them." 

It will be a good day when a few thousand Europeans can 
show themselves in Central India. 

All the Nusseerabad officers (some 28, with ladies, etc.) have Nuweerabad 
arrived, having had a safe and pleasant journey across Eaj- ^t l^a^^* 
pootauah. 

The organised Police are making excellent progresa Fancy New Police. 
1 2 Sowars escorting a lac and a quarter of rupees from Baroti 
and Bhagput to Meerut. It would have required 12 hundred 
to have done it 3 months ago. 

W. MuiR. 

CCXXVI. 

AoRA, 4th December 1857. Friday. 

My Dear Sheree, — The roads so far as Cawnpore is con- Communica- 
cerned seem to be impervious to our Cossida Until you drive ruptei? 
away the Contingent and other bodies hanging about, I fear 
things will not improve. But we look for tidings of decided 
success against the parties who have been menacing Cawnpore 
shortly. 

WuUee Dad and the Furruckabad rebels continue to aSuai/?, Advance of 
and our noble friend the blind old Choubey has been crcifcS and ^nd the 
<roT by them. All honour to his memory. It will, I doubt not, ^JJS^^*^**^ 
be the care of the Government to mark their appreciation of his choubey 
services by the highest rewards to his family. Harington will d2m shS. 
be able to tell at Calcutta how much we owed to this man in the His Taioabie 
times of our difficulty. He was the originator of the first 
Allygurh expedition, and his coimsel to us throughout was 
invaluable. Only conceive the daring of this man, who was 
blind and hardly able to walk from paralysis, maintaining so long 
his position in the very front and almost within sight of the enemy. 

The following particulars, given in a letter from Neemuch, Prooeedingt of 
regarding the battle gained by the Mhow Column will be found ^t MandeMonl 
interesting. " Colonel Durand got word of the Insurgents' move- 
ments, and met them three coss this side of Mimdessore, and had 
a desperate engagement with them. They fought from 1 1 a.m. 
to 6 p.m. and renewed the engagement at sunrise next day, and 



296 MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 

fought till the evening. By that time the Velaities were nearly 
all killed. The rest bolted. Twelve hundred dead bodies have been 
counted. A couple of hundred have since been blown away from 
guns, and 150 are being sent in here (Neemuch) for trial" 

" The 2nd Cavalry it is believed will join the Mhow Column, 
and proceed to attack Eampoor, where the remnant of the rebels 
have fled." 

The attack by the Cavalry on the Insurgents while en- 
deavouring to carry off the Mehidpoor gims to Mundessore is 
said to have resulted in 300 of the Velaities being killed, and 
about 100 of the Contingent blown away from guns. 

Mr. Saunders has sent a full report in reply to the letter 
calling for an explanation regarding the allegations of the Friend 
of India on the proceedings at DelhL I have sent it by Bombay, 
as I dare not entrust it to the uncertainties of our present Cossid 
transit. The report is manly and satisfactory. The only point 
on which the vindication is not entire and complete is the carry- 
ing out of young Jewan Bukht on an elephant by Colonel Hogge. 

• • • • •••• 

I send a message. If you have telegraphed already about the 
Mundessore fight you had better omit that part of the message. 

W. MuiR. 
J. W. Sherer, Esq. 

CCXXVIII. 

Agra, 6^ December 1857. Saturday. 

My Dear Sherer, — Still nothing from you. The GwaUor news, 
however, of your proceedings is good. They explain the retreat of 
our troops on the 27th into a feint which succeeded in killing 
1300 of the enemy — though to accompUsh it they say we aban- 
doned at the Canal ten tents, ten elephants, and two guns. The 
truth of all this and the final result we are anxiously looking for. 
HurdeoBux On the other hand, we learn from a plaintive address of 

of Dhurnipoor. ji^j^^ g^ ^j Dhurmpoor that the " Shah Oudh " had been 

issuing orders as if he had Bpivev us ovt with Xocr? on the 22nd 
ultimo, and regained possession of Lucknow; was sending out 
armies to settle the country and to arrest Hurdeo Bux. This 
will be the turn which the disaffected will endeavour to give to 
the proceedings. The speedy advance of the Commander-in-Chief 
against Furruckabad will alone tend to disabuse the people of the 
idea ; and the sooner it is made the better. My messenger from 
Hurdeo Bux seemed quite to understand the real posture of 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 297 

affairs; and it is probable that the well afifecteJ in Gudh do so^ 
though I fear they are few in number. Our man said that we 
had withdrawn all our guns, ammunition, stores, etc., successfully ; 
and, about the 26th, were at Begumgunge, on the way to 
Cawnpore ; and that we had given Man Sing's people a salutary 
round of grape which killed 4000 of his followers. I tell you 
all this, as it is important that the impression produced by the 
proceeding of withdrawal should be known. The people here 
evidently do not yet know of the intention. 

Meanwliile the Insurgents are vpea-aivy vttov 1/9. Sapte 
from Boolundshuhur writes that the " rebels are getting very Unrest in 
' cocky,' and Kpoca the Favye^, and are even showing themselves ^^IJ^f " 
in fuurae^: near the fiavK<:', so our presence is required there 
urgently." He feels that the presence of the Insurgents at Rohiikhund 
Kaaayvvy has a very 7rp€jovSiaia\ effect all along towards his * ^ 
district, and that immediate measures must be taken against 
them. The last remnant of the Joudpore Legion has also taken 
up a TToaiTiov in 't^ SiarpiicT, and being joiveB bv the roojvp^. G oojurajoin 
He is obliged to send a strong party against them. Legion^'* 

A letter received from Delhi this morning (which I have 
not, however, seen) states that a petition was thrown into Mr. 
Egerton's carriage, saying that Tajite? were gaining admittance 
into the City by making use of other people's Traca-e;. This 
may be a mere idle rumour, but it may also tend to make them 
vvvtXTuvy to send the convoy on to Allygurh. If there had been 
anything serious in the report, Saunders would no doubt have 
written to me about it. 

A letter mentions the loss in the Mimdessore affair of a Moudessore 
Captain Eedmayne, 14th Dragoons, killed, 7 officers wounded, *"^j^ 
and 68 men killed and wounded. One would have expected R«amayne. 
more in such a hard-fought battle. The Velaities seem to have 
been desperate, coming on with cries of " Deen deen," " Ya 
Husein," " Ya Mahomed." 

From the further accounts we are now getting of the Mehid- MeWdpore 
pore affair, it would appear that some of the Contingent did * **'* 
continue to fight against the Insurgents who attacked the 
Cantonmenta Lt. Mills and Dr. Carey and two Serjeants were Lieutenant 
killed. But you will have all this by Bombay. Poor Mrs. ^J^ ^^ ^^^ 
Mills was at Neemuch, and was confined shortly after bearing seipanta 
of her husband's death. She is doing welL Mrs. Timins had a Mn. Timing, 
wonderful escape, her horse being wounded. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherkr, Esq., Cawnpore. 



298 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



CCXXIX. 



Dinkur Rao 
arrives at 
Agnu 



Desolation at 
Delhi. 



Agra, 6tk December 1857. Sunday. 

My Dear Siierer, — We have nothing further from you. 
Our last is now 12 days ago. Nothing new. Except that 
Dinkur llao has come in here on a visit. He had been medi- 
tating this for some time ; but did not know exactly what effect 
it would have on the Maharajah's troops. We have a day or 
two ago given him 4 light gims (a part only of a number due to 
him by treaty), and this mark of confidence has no doubt enabled 
the Dewan to come over. The proof of the unity existing 
between the Government of Scindia and our own given by 
Dinkur's visit will have a good effect, and pave the way for our 
return by and by. Our messengers sent for tidings come back, 
but with no precise intelligence, excepting that after our first 
success there was very heavy fighting, the result of which they 
cannot ascertain. 

There was nothing whatever in the story of the Ghazis at 
Delhi Travellers who left a day or two ago report everything 
as quiet, and (excepting for the awful desolation stamped upon 
the wretched city) as peaceful as if nothing had happened. 

General Penny, in consequence of our soUcitations, has 
altered the date for the convoy to leave, from the 10th to the 
7tL We shall therefore soon be able to organise a force, 
if necessary, for the chastisement of the Furruckabad rebels who 
have been advancing westward. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 



CCXXX. 



Commanica- 
tions inter* 
rupted. 



Nana Sahib's 
forces. 



Troops from 
England 
expected at 
Knrrachee. 



7th December 1857. Monday. 

My Dear Sherer, — ^All our efforts to get letters from you 
by the ordinary road having proved fruitless, this goes via 
Furruckabad. We were aoppi to hear that about a week ago 
you had been avppowheh by the vava Saj(ifi^ force& We 
earnestly trust that long ere this the Commander-in-Chief has 
reached Kamrwp and peXieueS lov, dispersing the €i/6/u. All well 
to the North-West. Three European Regiments and one of 
Dragoons, with Artillery, expected at Kurrachee a week ago. 
They wiU be soon in the field. Sir John Lawrence has written 
down to say that when the Commander-in-Chief can aevS up 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 299 

TWO evpoTTcav peyi/i€VT^ an immediate advance can be made into 
Poxf'^'cvvB, In the uncertain state of the commimications, I do 
not send the communication on the subject for Commander-in- 
Chief. But pray mention this to His Excellency. I will send 
copy via aWa^afiaS. 

W. MuiB. 
J. W. SiiERER, Esq., Cawnpore. 

CCXXXI. 

Agra, 7th December 1867. Monday. 

My Dear Chester, — Please send the above to the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, and also a copy for the information of the 
Governor-General. 

We cannot get our Cossids through the hordes of barbarians Communica- 
which have settled around Cawnpore. rupted. 

The vavaP o<f> i^vppaKafiah is also Trpeaaivy southwards, and Nawab of 
has oKKinrieS erava. We hope to have a strong force by occupies 
Friday at aXXd^pj^ to chastise the same chiefs troops which ^^^^^^^ 
have fieev vevrvpivy in the direction of era, 

I do not write more, as I am not very certain of this reach- 
ing you soon. All well in the North- West. Three regiments, 
Europeans, one of Dragoons, and Artillery expected at Kvppayee 
the beginning of this month, to move immediately on Aayv^p^ 
as you will see from Sir John's letter ; — so that our hands will 
shortly, Deo volente, be strengthened from the North-West, even 
if the Commander-in-Chiefs hands are occupied in the Middle 
Doab. But we look forward with confident expectation to his 
being able to burst through all opposition, and triumphantly 
sweep up the Doab. 

W. MuiR. 

C. Chester, Esq., Allahabad. 



CCXXXII. 

Aqra, 8ih DeemJber 1857. 

My Dear Chester, — I send a duplicate of yesterday's letter. 
I have nothing particular to add to-day. A strong Column will 
reach aXKirpjpx on Friday the 11th; and, joined by the troops 
there and also by some <^/>o/i '6p€, will proceed towards <f>vpvicafiaS ; 
— this will check the enemy in his quarters. All well to the 
north-west. 



300 



MSS. VOL. III.: FOURTH SERIES 



Dinknr Rao's 
visit to Agra. 

The R^jah of 
Patiala 
loyally aids 
Dholpore. 



AivKvp Eao is paying us a very satisfactory visit. A good 
proof of the friendly feeling at TvaXtop, 

The IlvTTULKa force of 2000 horse and foot, with guns, will 
soon reach A&\irwp. The object is to assist the Pava (a relative 
of the Pa^a\) to settle his country; and as A&Kirtop borders 
on A^pa, the effect f)p€ will be excellent. 

W. MuiR. 



Farruckabad 
still threatens. 



Etawah and 

Mynpoorie 

occupied by 

Farruckabad 

insurgents. 

MozufTemug- 

ger threatened. 



Neemuch. 



CCXXXIIL 

Agra, \Qih December 1857. Thursday. 

My Dear Sir, — I enclose for your Excellency's information 
the copy of a correspondence of which I have already sent 
two or three copies by Cossid via Allahabad. I trust that the 
operations at Cawnpore, undertaken after your Excellency's 
return from Lucknow, will permit of the present despatch 
reaching the Headquarters camp. We have had no letter 
from Cawnpore of later date than the 25th. But we have 
heard by messengers of the proceedings there, in a general way, 
up to about a week later. A Column under Colonel Seaton, of 
nearly deux mille, will reach aXKirivpx deinain. It will chastise 
the pefieM, who have aSvavaeB from ^vppvKa^ah half-way to 
€L)CKvyvp')(^. 

Ivavpy€VT<: from the same quarter have occupied fjuinrwpie 
and erava with both rpwir^i and yvv^. The right bank of the 
Fapye^ in fJLO^v<l>€pvvy€p has been OpeareveS by an iv/cvpatov of 
Pe/SeX? from PoxtXKvvS, and a force has gone from fieepvr to 
peneX them. But it does not seem that the movement is one of 
much importance. All is well here, and generally to the N.W. 
European troops are arriving at Kurrachee. The Mhow Column 
has completely routed and dispersed the Mundessore rebels, and 
Neemuch is again (f)op 0€ Trpeaevr quite safe. There is a large 
collection of carriage and supplies from JeXt and /leepvT, brought 
down with Colonel Seaton's Column. This will for the present 
be left at AXKi/yvpj^, under the guns of the fort there. We have 
also a large gathering of carriage, etc., ipe, waiting the first 
opportunity to be sent down to Kainroyp ; also establishments of 
servants, etc. 

I remain, Your Excellency's obedient servant, 



W. MuiR. 



To His Excellency 
Sir Colin Campbell, Cawnpore. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 301 

CCXXXIV. 

Agra, llth December 1857. Friday. 

My Dear Sir, — We have been trying in a variety of ways Communica. 
to get letters through to Cawnpore, but for some time unsuccess- cawnpore stiu 
fully. I trust that long ere this Cawnpore has been relieved by ^^^ aifficult. 
the return of your Excellency from Lucknow, and the hordes 
surrounding it dispersed. All well to the North- West. A 
Column, deux mille strong, has this day reached aWvyvpj^, and 
proceeds towards era^ etc., to chastise the rebels who have 
advanced in that direction from i^vppvKa^ah, This force would 
be in a good position to join any body of troops which your 
Excellency may be aevS^vy \m Be Awafi, There is a great deal 
of carriage, supplies, establishments, eta, at AWt^vpx and Carriage at 
Aypa, ready to send down the country the moment the road ^^^^JJ^J^y* 
is open, or a sufficiently strong escort available. ^°' ***** 

General Penny, imder instructions from Lahore, is prepared 
to organise an immediate advance into Po;^tX/ctri'S the moment 
your Excellency can airape two European peyifievr^. 

European troops are arriving at Kvppayee to be pushed to 
Aaytop. 

We have had no letters from Cawnpore since the 25th. 
I remain, Your Excellency's obedient servant, 

W. MuiR. 
To His Excellency 
Sir Colin Campbell, Cawnpore. 

CCXXXV. 

Aqra, \%th December 1867. Saturday.^ 

My Dear Sherer, — All that has come in since your letter 
of the 25th ultimo is General Mansfield's of the 3rd instant, in 
which he refers to the women, sick, etc., as on their way to 
Allahabad ; and expects a decisive action after they are well out 
of the way. Through Calpee, Jalaon, and Gwalior we have 
heard of what we believe has proved the utter discomfiture of Discomfiture 
the Contingent and all the Nana's forces on the 5 th, 6 th, and J^d nmuS°^ 
7th inst., and we are hourly looking out for despatches from you ^^rces. 
regarding it. 

Colonel Seaton's force reached Allygurh yesterday, bringing 
with it a large convoy of carriage, supplies, establishments, etc. 
1 Received by Sherer, 19th Dec. = 7 days. — W. M. 



302 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



DeUils of 

Beaton's 

ColumD, 



Baird Smith. 



Koteh. 



loyal. 



These remain at AUygurh for the present, and, as I have 
repeatedly before said, we have considerable store of carriage 
and establishments here, only waiting for the road to open. 
Colonel Seaton will go against the rebels at Kassgunge, and 
probably on to Mynpoorie, and will there be in a good position 
to form a junction with any force the Commander-in-Chief may 
be sending upwarda He has some 650 Sikh Horse, and about 
140 European Horse, Carabineers, etc., which would be of in- 
estimable service to His Excellency. Moozufifemugger was 
threatened some days ago by an inroad of some of the Bi jnore 
rebel dacoits. etc., and a force went from Meerut tliither. The 
thing seems to have died out ; and, indeed, never to have been 
very important. Baird Smith is said to have the militaiy 
command in Seharunpoor and Moozuffemugger. 

There appears to have been an emeute at KotaL Captain 
Macdonald writes from Deolee that the troops intercepted a 
RigiOi reported letter from the Baja to General Lawrence, inviting him to send 
a force to Kotah, and promising to detach his own regiments in 
small parties on duty elsewhera On this they attacked the 
Palace and demanded the Raja's adviser to be given up. This 
was refused, when they assaulted the Palace and apprehended 
the Minister. Firing was still going on at the Palace when 
Macdonald's messenger left. If all this be true it speaks well 
for the Baja. Dinkur Eao (who has just been with me) has a 
good opinion of the Baja, and says he was helpless in his troops' 
hands. 

Dinkur Bao's \isit has had an excellent effect, and is only 
the prelude, I believe, to a visit from the Maharajah Scindia 
himself, who will probably be over in a few daya Dinkur's 
views are very satisfactory, and openly given. Though he does 
not conceal some of the defects of our administration, he assei-ts 
that the j>eople were not discontented, that the revolt is not a 
popular one, and that the idea of interference with their religion 
did not extend beyond the soldiery. 

Macdonald says that the rebels have entirely abandoned the 
country towards Neemuch, and that Lloyd is now making his 
collectiona 

W. MuiR 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 



Dinkur Bao. 



His opinion 
of the revolt. 



Ladies leave 
Agra. 



P,S. — Mra Harington and a great number of ladies left 
to-day to go via the Punjab to Bombay. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 303 

CCXXXVI. 

13^^ December 1857. Sunday. 

On the reverse is the copy of my letter of yesterday's date. 
The messenger who carries this will be directed to take it if 
possible to the Commander-in-Chief, or to the Commanding officer 
of any force between this and Cawnpore, or to Mr. Sherer. 

Colonel Seaton's Column halted yesterday at Allygurh, and Colonel 
to-day made a double march as far as Secundra Eao. To-moiTow co*«^n ad- 
it will move on Kassgimj — if the enemy stand there, which it is ]^^^ u 
not likely they will do, I fear. Mr. Sapte, with the Boolimd- b. Sapte, C.S. 
shuhur force under Colonel Farquhar, is at Churra, half-way 
(15 miles) between Atrowlie and Kassgunj — with the view of 
co-operating with Colonel Seaton, but that force belongs to 
Boohmdshuhur, and must return thither. 

Colonel Seaton will, I hope, move on eastwards so as to be Seaton's 
at Mynpoorie in 3 or 4 days. Bin fi vCK\ pot go beyond that. i^werDoab. 
He will be in an admirable position to form a junction with any 
force the Commander-in-Chief may be sending towards the N.W. 
or Furruckabad. The Cavalry of his force are noted in yesterday's 
letter ; but of these, 50 Seikhs belong to the Allygurh garrison. 

Major Williams has been very busy organising Police MioorWiiliMns 
Battalion Sowars. If His Excellency urgently desires it, a body p^ce^ii^ 
of 300 of these mounted police — Seikhs, Vilayatees, Mahom- t*iion- 
medans, etc. — could be placed at his disposal It would cripple 
during the time of their absence the district police, but that is 
a small matter compared to the imperial exigency His Excel- 
lency has to deal with. They are tolerably drilled, and could do 
the work of Irregular Cavalry. 

Seaton's Colunm is deux mille et deux cents strong, with Seaton's 

-^^f g-- w! Muia '^^""^"' 

CCXXXVII. 

I4dh December 1857. Monday. 

My Dear Shkrer, — Still no letters from Cawnpore. But we 
have abundant proofs by messengers, and native letters from 
various sources, of the complete defeat of the Contingent; it is Newt of the 
supposed on the 6th inst. All is well to the North-West. The owSiof ^^'^ 
Allygurh Column will be at Gungeree to-day, some 10 or 12 ^^^^e«^^ 
miles from Kassgunge, and it is to be hoped will have an 
opportunity of discomfiting the insurgents. The Boolundshuhur 
Column, some 600 or 700 strong with 2 gims, would form a 



304 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Colonel 
Becher. 

Emeute at 
Koteh. 



junction at Gungeree. Colonel Becher with the Headquarters 
Staff are at the Allygurh Fort 

The emeute at Kotah took place on the 5 th instant. The 
opposition ofTerecl to them must have been trifling, as no lives 
were lost. The mutinous troops are in possession of the city 
and Palace. The City Gates were kept closed for two days. It 
is to be hoped that a force may soon be available to satisfy justice 
against the murderers of Burton. 

Major Williams will have the 300 horse brought together 
here in 8 or 9 days, so that they may be able to work in a 
combined body. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq. 



CCXXXVIII. 

Ibth December 1857. Tuesday. 

My Dear Sherer, — The enclosed slip will give you an 
victory at account of oiu' victory at Gungeree, 30 miles east of Allygurh. 
Captain The officers killed are Captain Wardlaw and Lt. Hudson, Cara- 

Seutenaiit"^ bineers. Lts. Vyse and Head were severely wounded — one since 
Hudflon killed, dead, but not stated which. The enemy got ofif, it is supposed, 
with two horse artillery guns. Our force is to-day at Kassgunge, 
but it is not likely the enemy would wait to receive us again. 
They are, however, in great strength, as they were estimated at 
about 5000, of whom only about 150 were left dead on the 
field. Seaton's Colimm will be in an admirable position to co- 
operate with any force that may be sent in the direction of 
Mynpoorie or Furruckabad. 



W. MuiR, 



J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore, 



Action of 
Gungeree. 



CCXXXIX. 

I6th December 1867. Wednesday. 

My Dear Sherer, — Our loss at the action of Gungeree was 
heavier than at first supposed: 56 killed and wounded — 14 
killed. The Carabineers suffered severely, besides the officers 
(3 killed and 1 wounded), having 6 killed and 22 wounded, and 
this out of 140 ! There was no loss among the Artillery or 
Infantry. So it would appear that the Cavalry had made their 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 305 

dash too soon. The force moved on to Kassgunge yesterday, and 
found it entirely evacuated by the enemy. 

We have still nothing later than your letter of the 4th : and Communica- 
the latest prior to that was of the 25 th ultimo. I conclude you c^Siipore 
have been equally unfortimate in receiving our despatches. almost cut off. 

The moment the Doab between us and you is quite clear and Accumulation 
safe, we shall have a speedy income of above 20 lacs, it is hoped, hicomV™* 
on accoimt of duty on salt, which is ready to be brought over 
our Customs line so soon as a passage eastward is opened out. 
This is a financial consideration of some consequence, which should 
be known to the Commander-in-Chief. 

All well to the North-West. The Puttiala force will soon Putiala foroe. 
be marching down the right bank of the Jumna, via Goorgaon 
and Muthra to Dholpore, and will be of use indirectly in its 
efifect on our districts. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Shkrkr, Esq., Cawnpore. 

P.S. — K A. Eeade has mislaid the bill I proposed for Proposals for 
restoring property to the status existing prior to the disturbances, Jl^pSy. 
with my memo, on the subject. The Chief Commissioner had 
ordered it to be sent down to the Supreme Government with his 
concurrence. Will you kindly ask Harington to send me up a 
copy of the memo, and of the draft bill ? w M 

CCXL 

nth December 1857. Thursday. 

My Dear Sherer, — We are grievously disappointed at still 
hearing nothing from you, although private Cossids and Commis- 
sariat messengers, and our other spies sent without letters, now 
come from Cawnpore without diflBculty. We cannot make out 
what is the cause of our getting no letters. . . . 

Our spies and the Gwalior reporter tell us of some chastise- 
ment inflicted by our troops on the ^fugitives at Sheorajpoor.^ 
But I conclude it was merely a scouring party, and not a regular 
move westwards. 

Will you oblige us by bringing to the Commander-in-Chiefs 
notice, that the Government of India have long destined a large 
amount of treasure for Agra ; and that opportunity should be 
taken for sending up with the first available force as much of the Suggestions 

" . as to senuiog 

treasure as possible ? The drain on the North- West Treasuries, up treasure. 

^ Town on Cawnpore road. 

VOL. I. — 20 



306 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



especially when troops move up from the east, and into Baj- 
pootanah and the Pimjab from the south, will be very serious, and 
without aid from Bengal very embarrassing. 

Everything quite quiet to the North- West I have heard 
nothing further from Colonel Seaton's Column. Eajpootanah 
seems to be settling down since the discomfiture of the Mundes- 
sore rebels by Durand's Column. 

I trust the Commander-in-Chief received General Penny's 
communication. Troops are quite ready, under Sir J. Lawrence's 
instructions (by order of the Supreme Government), to ad^'ance 
on Bohilkhimd the moment His Excellency can spare a couple of 
European Regiments. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 

P,S. — Colonel Becher is here ; we expect Scindia over im- 
mediately. It will be a new era in our fast reviving prestige. 



Allygarh 
OolQinii. 



flghtingin 
OttDtnlDoab. 
Aetioii at 
Gnngeree. 



CCXLL 

ISth December 1857. Friday. 

My Dear Sherer, — Yesterday evening I was rejoiced by 
again receiving one of your despatches, dated the 10 th instant. 
We are all very glad that Outram maintains his position at 
Alum Bagh, and hope that the idea of temporarily abandoning 
Oudh altogether has been relinquished. I mentioned in one of 
my letters, which perhaps you may not have received, that we 
heard of the intended evacuation by a letter Lady Outram re- 
ceived from Sir Jamea 

Everything continues quiet to the westward. The Allygurh 
Colunm was on the 16 th at Suhawur, 12 miles east of Kassgunge; 
yesterday it was to advance on Putteealee, where the enemy are 
said to have been assembling. I conclude that there was pro- 
longed fighting in that vicinity, as reports have come in from 
various quarters that heavy firing was heard in the direction of 
Kassgimge from 5 a.m. till 10 a.m. yesterday. The result must 
soon be known. 

The following particulars regarding the action at Gungeeree 
may be of interest as explaining the unusual proportion of loss 
amongst the Carabineers and Hodson's Horse. It is from a letter 
of Sapte, who, with Colonel Farquhar and the little Boolund- 
shuhur Colunm, had reached Gungeeree the day before. 

On Monday morning Seaton's Colunm arrived at that place, 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 307 

and encamped 2 miles in advance of Farquhar'a " About two Furruckabad 
hours after his arrival a large body of Cavaby suddenly appeared j^. 
on some rising ground in front of his camp. The Carabineers, 
Hodson's Horse, and some Horse Artillery, got ready sharp and 
went at them and away they bolted, but a heavy fire was opened 
on our advancing troops from two 6 -pounders and one 9 -pounder, 
which the gallant Carabineers charged and took, but not without 
heavy loss. Three charges of grape were poured into them at 
about 150 yards, which told fearfully. Wardlaw, Hudson, and Wardiaw, 
Wyse of Carabineers were all shot by musket shots. Head of wyse shot. 
9th Lancers wounded by a shell, said to be mortally (no ; he is ^^;;JJ^„ 
doing well). Doyley, who charged with them, had a very wounded, 
narrow escape from being cut down, but his English hxmting-cap 
saved him. Our total loss was about 12 killed and 50 woxmded. 
The Carabineers lost about 25 horses kiUed and woxmded out of 
70 ! Hodson's Horse suffered too. The enemy lost between 
400 and 500 kiUed — and their three guns which the Cara- 
bineers took. The two 6-poxmders are the post guns of Shah- 
jehanpoor, and the 9-pounder the last of the Bareilly Battery. 
As it has turned out, our move on Gungeeree was a good one, 
for it brought the rebels into the open, which they would not 
have done had they known of the proximity of Colonel Seaton's 
Army. Kassgunj was evacuated during the night, the rebels EassgnnRe 
having fled towards Puttifdee. We were ordered to halt here® 
to-day, and to-morrow we retrace our steps towards Boolimd- Sapte reports 
shuhur. I have now recovered 60 guns in all, and hope I shall covered'dxty 
pick up some more in my wanderinga My own district, Bool- ^^ 
undshuhur, has been perfectly quiet in my absenca" hur quiet 

A letter, dated the 14th inst from Deolee, reports all right in 
that direction. Neemuch is quite quiet ; but the " Shahzada," with Neemuch 
a party of the Mxmdessore fugitives, is supposed to have gone via ^ * * 
Jalra Puttun in the Kotah territory. This, however, is uncertain. 

The Deesa Column is expected to proceed towards Kajpootanah 
about Christmas. 

Colonel Eraser has asked that the f ollowinf? statement. Detail of 
furnished by a native, of the supposed forces of Khan Buhadoor door's fonse^ 
be made known to the Commander-in-Chief. He has 35 guns, of 
which 12 are 12-poimders, a few sixes and nines, and a great 
number very small ones of native maka His Infantry are 
estimated at 18,000; but by far the greater part are an un- 
drilled rabbla Of 5000 Cavalry, 2000 are said to be fit for 
service; the remainder new Iftvifta. Of this force, 10,000 men 
and 8 guns are at Budaon, 5000 and 4 guns at Buheree, between 



308 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Kftladoongee 
attacked. 



Nawab of 
Rampore. 



Bareilly and Nyneetal, 2000 and one gun at Meergunj, 5000 
and 10 guns at Bareilly: — the rest scattered in detachments. 
But this must be received merely as a very loose estimata 

The dak with Nyneetal has been somewhat irregular of lata 
Alexander, writing on the 7th, says that his post at Kaladoongee 
had been attacked by some mounted Insurgents, supposed to have 
been some of Kamsay's sowars who deserted in June last, and 
who had a spite against the Thanadar. They ''killed the 
Thanadar and 3 others, and an advance vidette of my new 
Hindoo Cavalry," Alexander writes. " They have bolted without 
going against my Cavahy, who were unarmed on parade, about 
a mile from the Thannah. 200 of the Goorkhas are ordered 
down, but too late, I fear, to do any good." From a person 
who has lately come from llampoor, Alexander learns " that the 
Nawab is still the object of the vilest abuse among the Fathans. 
So he cannot use them for us ; and only keeps them, by gratifying 
their mercenary propensities, from going against ua The relief 
to him from an advance into Bohilkhund will be as great as to 
us. Judged with a due regard to the difficulties with which he 
has had constantly to contend, he should indeed deserve well of 
us, if he come out successful at the last, which indeed I hope 
he wilL" This is the concurrent opinion of all who are acquainted 
with the state of things in Bohilkhund. 

I have a letter from Sir John Lawrence, dated the 15 th. 
He says he has marched that day for Mooltan, where he hopes 
to be early next month to see Lady Lawrence off. He then 
returns to Lahore. 

W. MuiB. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 



Defeat of 
Furrnckabad 
force at 
Pntiala. 



CCXLIL 

I9th December 1857. Saturday. 

My Dear Sherer, — The enclosed bulletin will give you the 
result of the firing referred to in my letter of yesterday. The 
discomfiture of the Furruckabad rebels at Puttialee, though 
strongly posted and protected by an entrenchment with 1 1 guns, 
has been most complete — 600 killed. 

The efiect will be immense. Mynporie will probably be 
evacuated ; at any rate the Column, if it (as we understand it 
will) advances there, will meet no serious opposition. And the 
rebels at Etawah will also be shaken. They form a detachment, 
you know, of the Furruckabad troops — two regiments, it is said. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 309 

of Infantry, and a rissala of Cavalry, with 6 guna From 
Mynporie the Column will be able to communicate with any 
force the Commander-in-Chief sends westward. 
• • • • • •'• • 

W. MuiR. 
J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 

• ••••••• 

P.S. — The following is a copy of Reade's epitome of our 
financial operations for November. 

"Cash balance for October, Us. 4,29,590 ; for November, Fimmdal 
9,73,180. Military expenditure larger than usual, owing toj^^**** 
purchase of grain and stores for Cawnpore, and demurrage. 
Principal receipts, land revenue collections of Allygurh, Muttra, 
and Agra ; one lac of rupees from Jyepoor received ; no more will 
be required from that quarter." 

CCXLllI. 

19^ Deomber 1857. Saturday. 

My Dear Beadon, — This is now about a month old, and 
rather out of date ; but as my copyist had made a transcript of 
it along with other letters supposed to have miscarried, I think 
it is well to let it go. 

The ransacking of unransomed houses by the Prize Agency Prize Agency 
has at length been stopped. I believe. With two months' license ** 
to dig and hunt for valuables, little can have been spared. 

Sir John Lawrence is as much disinclined as any to involving Sir John Law- 
the innocent indiscriminately with the guilty in punishment on Delhi 
But his tenure of Delhi is so very peculiar that he complains 
of a want of power to give effect to his wishes. It will be well 
when things there return to a moi*e normal state. But it cannot 
be doubted that a large Military authority must be permitted 
in the City for some time to come ; and a stringency of adminis* 
tration allowed, — especially in reference to the Mahomedan 
population, — in order to secure perfect security. A good idea 
has been started by Eraser of forming the space from the Pcdace 
(inclusive) to the Cashmere gate into the cantonment, clearing 
away the City to a little distance inland. This would give a 
healthy locality, and maintain the City well under conmiand. 
You may like to see the enclosed from Bamchunder. The appeal 
has been attended to by Sir J. Lawrence. I merely send it to 
Bhow the feeling at Delhi As to the pension to Chimmun^P«Mi<«to 
Lall's widow, this Government has moved Sir John to make an Lall's widow. 



310 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Charles 
Saunders, C.S. 



R^jputana, 
excepting 
Kotah, now 
quiet. 



Furruckabad 
rebels still at 
Etawah. 



Proposals for 
reinstatement 
of proprietors. 



application ; and I trust a liberal annuity will be allowed. It is 
a peculiar casa Chimmun Lall was held in great estimation by 
the people, and had a city practice. The King, when ill, used 
to send for him. The Government should mark its sense of the 
value it places upon a Christian servant, massacred as he was. 

Saunders* reply to the allegations of the Friend of India was 
forwarded early in the month by Bombay, and will soon, I trust, 
be in your hands. I am getting a copy prepared to send by 
Gossid. It is a complete vindication of himself in all respects, 
except perhaps in that of allowing Colonel Hogge to take the 
King's son out for a ride on his elephant. I think it is a matter 
of congratulation having at Delhi a man of so sound a judgment 
as Saunders; for it is not every man who could have resisted 
the popular crv for indiscrim infttft vftnprftAT^(>ft which rings throug h 
Delhi, and ia re-ftahned by the Lahore Chronicle. 

Will you mention to Lord Canning that I have obtained four 
or five of the returns I called for before venturing to record my 
opinion on the point of violation being a frequent concomitant of 
the massacre of European females ? ^ All the evidence that C€ui 
be got is directly and strongly opposed to the taleB that have 
been so induatrioualv cu-culated on this head. Native opinion, 
which ought to be a good test, is imiversally and conclusively 
against them. I hope soon to put together the various opinions 
I have collected, and submit them with a memorandum for his 
Lordship. 

I hope my lettera to Sherer ai'e again beginning to reach 
regularly. The siege and relief of Neemuch, and the rout of the 
Mundessore rebels, must have been events narrated at the time 
of the break in my correspondence. Bajpootana, excepting 
Kotah, is now quiet ; and our late signed successes at Allygurh 
will be of great effect in the central Doab. Mynpoorie, I expect, 
will be immediately occupied without opposition by Seaton's 
Colunm. 

There are still some two or three thousand Insurgents at 
Etawah, with 6 guns. But they are dependent on FuiTuckabad, 
and will hardly survive its faU. They will probably move off 
betimes, either into Bundelkhund, or more likely over the 
Ganges. 

I trust a bill will soon be passed giving summary power to 
reinstate proprietors with compensation in possession. I sent 
a copy to Harington of a bill of this kind which I proposed, and 
which Fraser approved. But Eeade has kept it by him so long 

* See separate Report, ^t, — W. M. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 311 

that he has mislaid it. I have asked Harington to give me a 
copy — or I may submit to Fraser a new draft. 

I should much like to see the disarming process universally Disaming. 
carried out in the wake of i-estored peace. 

W. MuiR. 

C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 

CCXLIV.^ 

December 20eA, 1857. Sunday. 

My Dear Sir, — I forward copy of two letters received for 
you from Sir J. Lawrence and Major Macpherson of the 16th 
inst. I will send the originals by another Cossid. 

All is going on well to the North-West. The affair atPutiaU 
Puttialee was most complete. The Insurgents lost 14 g^iiifl> Defe[[t of 
and made off in such haste and confusion that they probably did Furruckabad 
not stop till they reached Furruckabad. 

Yesteixlay Seaton's Column was to fall back on Kassgunj, 
with the view of taking the road to Mynpoorie, where it will, I 
trust, be able to open up communications with any troops the 
Commander-in-Chief may be despatching towards Fumickabad. 
I do not think there will be much, if any, opposition at Myn- 
poorie. At Etawah there are some 2000 troops, including a 
rissala of Cavalry; but the Lifantrv. at any rate, are new levies^ 
and not worth much. They have 6 guns. At Furruckabad 
there will no doubt be some fighting. Bukht Ehan commands 
the troops there. But I conclude Mr. Sherer is able to supply 
you with later information regarding Furruckabeul than we could 
give you. 

Will you oblige me by showing this letter to Mr. Sherer, for 
whom I have no further news of importance to-day, and also by 
giving him the enclosed copy of my letter to him of yesterday's 
date ? 

At Puttialee there was only one man on our side killed, 
and 2 or 3 wounded. This, coupled with the fact that the 
rebels had their guns playing on us for a length of time, is 
evidence that their Artillery was very badly served, and indeed we 
may hope that skilful artillerymen are now getting scarce on the 
Insurgents' side — a want they will not readily be able to supply. 

W. MuiR. 
General Mansfield, 

Headquarters, Cawnpore. 

1 Handwriting of W. Lowe, C.S. 



i 



312 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Putiala 
▼ictory 
complete. 



Colonel Kinle- 
ride, H.A. 



Hukeenyee. 



Khan 
Bnhadoor. 



Ckdonel 

Beaton's 

Column. 



TheTerai. 



Nepanl offers 
assiistanoe. 



CCXLV. 

2l8t December 1857. Monday. 

My Dear Siierer, — There is nothing new to-day. But the 
following particulars which Cocks gives regarding the affair at 
Puttialee will be of interest. The slaughter, he says, exceeds 
the estimate officially given. " I followed the enemy," he writes, 
" for upwards of two miles from Puttialee, and the bodies lay in 
heaps. We have had no loss to speak of — one of Hodson's men 
killed, and a few slightly wounded. Colonel Kinleside, Horse 
Artillery, won the victory, and the Cavalry followed it up riglit 
welL You can scarcely conceive such a complete affair. The 
Enemy's shoes, puggrees, and kummerbunds strewed the road for 
miles. Every gun-carriage and tent left. An elephant with 
silver howdah, and Hukeemjee (one of the Furruckabad chiefs), 
captured; the latter shot. I can haixlly fancy their stopping 
until they reached Futtehgui-h." 

Colonel Seaton was to halt another day (19th) in conse- 
quence of a rumour, which, however, Cocks did not believe, that 
the Enemy intended to cross over from Rohilkhund. It is in 
the last degree improbable that the Insurgents would venture 
over while our Column is anywhere in the vicinity. Besides, 
Cocks understands that Khan Buhadoor's orders to the troops on 
the bank are that they should only watch, and if attacked fall 
back on Bareilly. 

From Puttialee the Column mai*ches back to Kassgunge, as 
there is no bridge over the Kalee Nuddee lower down, and 
thence probably in 4 or 5 days to Mynpoorie, where I trust 
it will be able to communicate with the Commander-in-Chiefs 
advanced force. Chalmers is having his Commissariat stores all 
ready. And there is a vast supply of carriage awaiting the first 
convoy both here and at Allygurh. The Column is looking 
forward to co-operate in the proceedings against Furruckabad. 

Bamsay writes from Nynee Tal on the 10th of December that 
the Bareilly troops are occupying the Terai and cutting off their 
supplies. A letter had, however, been received from the Eesident 
at Nepaul, says Bamsay, " telling me that Jxmg Buhadoor has 
ordered his general, now encamped at Burmdeo, to give me 
assistance if we were in need. I immediately wrote off asking 
for a thousand Goorkhas, though I don't expect to get more 
than 600. We can muster as many Sepoys of our own, and 
300 Cavalry, with 4 guns; and as soon as the Goorkhas come, 
we'll go at these scoundrels that have reduced us to such diffi- 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 313 

culties, and soon open up our communications, and get in lots of 
provision." This clearing out of the Terai, which they wiU no 
doubt do easily, will be a great point ; as otherwise they might 
take up strong positions, and attract the fugitive troops of 
Bareilly there also for shelter. 

They are busy at Nynee Talj or below it, getting ready the 
limbers, etc., for their 6 -pounders, and will soon, they hope, be 
able to take the offensive again. But Bamsay's hand, I fear, 
will hardly allow him to join personally in the attack. The 
direct dak with us is cut off, and sent round by Mussoorie. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 

P,S, — J. C. Wilson's account of the Puttialee affair is interest- Wiiaon's 
ing. It is as follows, dated the 18th : " We marched yesterday at the PutiiSS*' 
5 o'clock a.m. from Suhawar, and we were told on the road that ^^^' 
the rebel force would be found at this place. About three miles 
short of Puttialee we halted, and grog was served out. The line 
was formed. Horse Artillery on both flanks — on the right the 
Ist Fusihers, then the 3rd Europeans — Seikhs Muzhubees. The 
Cavalry, except a strong body in the front on the right, was kept 
in the rear to act as circumstances might requira The rebel 
force was commanded by Ahmud Yar Khan, the Governor of the Ahmud Yar 

irTia.Ti mnA 

Western part of the Futtehgurh district, and Mohsin Allee, the MohMn Ally 
Governor of the Eastern part of the Futtehgurh district, both ^^•"^ *^® 
Governors being in the service of the Nawab Eaees of Futtehgurh. 
Their Artillery consisted of 1 2 guns, and the heavy 9 and 6- 
poxmder iron guns opened upon us at a great distanca Our 
Artillery preceded to the front, and when they got into range 
they opened upon the enemy's guns. The Infantry gradually 
drew on, and by the time our 3 eighteen-pounders were placed in 
position the Staff and the Horse Artillery gave a cheer and 
galloped into the enemy's camp, which was left standing. Then 
began the chase, and the result was that the 12 guns were 
captured, tents, ammimition, etc., and some 700 or 800 men were 700 or 800 men 
killed. Four elephants were a portion of the plunder." 

CCXLVI. 

22nd December 1867. Tuesday, 

My Dear Sherer, — 

General Mansfield's of the 14th came in. to-day,^ with 
one from Jackson (of whose accident I am sorry to hear) to 

^ Dak from Cawnpore =8 days. — W. M. 



314 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Raikes, C.S. 



A. H. Cocks, 
C.S. 



MeaBures 



against 
Farrucl 



irruckabad 
and Etawah. 



Slanghter at 
Putiala. 



Effect of 

Putiala 

victory. 



Cracroft 
Wilson collects 
documents. 



Baikes, saying that he had nommated him to the Commander-in* 
Chief to accompany His Excellency. Kaikes, however, has left 
for England. The Commander-in-Chief could not get a better 
man for the purpose than A. BL Cocks. I may be able to tell 
you whom Eraser has fixed on before closing this letter. We 
were glad to learn from General Mansfield's letter that an early 
movement is contemplated on Furruckabad, and that a smaller 
Column simultaneously sweeps roxmd by the Jumna to Mynpoorie. 
This will effectually clear out Etawah, so that when FuiTuckabad 
falls the entire Doab will be free of insurgents. I enclose copy 
of a note sent in reply to General Mansfield by a separate Cossid, 
who has been directed to proceed direct to Headquartera 

The slaughter at Puttifdee was very great. Colonel Seaton 
sajrs, to be moderate he has put it at 700, though he thinks it 
must have been nearer 900. 

From Kassgunge they send the captured guns, sick and 
wounded, on to Allygurh. The Column wiU probably reach Eta 
to-morrow, and be there joined by the convoy from Allygurh. 
It will then proceed to Mynpoorie, and there await news or 
instructions from the Headquarters. 

The effect of this signal chastisement has been most decisiva 
The fugitives did not stop anywhere till they got close to 
Furruckabad. Allygurh, Mhow, Shumshabad, Kaimgimj, all 
evacuated by the rebels ; and our people sending for orders to 
re-establish Thannahs. 

A combined movement from the Rohilkhund side had 
evidently been determined on, as the insurgents and rabble 
actually crossed over on the 18th to this bank, in ignorance 
evidently of the discomfiture of their confederates, for on the 
19th they hastily retreated to the other side. 

Mackenzie (8th L.C.), Gowan, and Daniell, C.S., have been 
posted on the Ganges to facilitate the escape of some more 
refugees believed to be in Eohilkhimd. 

The two Governors of the East and West Furruckabad 
(Mohsin Ally Khan and Ahmud Yar Ehan) were in the 
engagement at Futtialee, and all their records have been seized. 
Wilson says these papers will be invaluable to him, as they 
implicate hundreds in the rebelhon. He is getting lists made 
out. He has made a good suggestion to the Chief of the Staff, 
that all documents, English or vernacular, found upon rebels, or 
taken in their camps or houses, should be carefully preserved. 
This should be mentioned to General Mansfield in case Wilson's 
letter may have miscarried. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 315 

The Postmaster of Moradabad (a Baboo) writes from that Rebels beaten 
place to say that our troops attacked the rebels near Ealadoongee, doongee.* 
below Nynee Tal, on the 10th inst. ; killed 70, and dispersed the 
rest, with the loss of only two on the British side. This of 
course needs confirmation. But Wilson says he knows from 
independent sources that an attack was intended about that 
date ; and, as I mentioned yesterday, Bamsay intended to take 
the offensive soon. 

I was glad to see by an incidental remark on one of John 
Power's letters that the telegraph as well as the dak was open Telegraph 
from Cawnpore to Calcutta. We were afraid that it had been cfi^j^I^to 
injured by the Gwahor rebela Calcutta. 

W. Muiiu 

J. W. SuERER, Esq., Cawnpore. 

Poor Mrs. Kirk (widow of Dr. Kirk, killed at Gwalior) widow of 
is anxious to have the following message commimicated to ' 
Calcutta for her sister, Mrs. Ommaney. Will you help her? 
"From Agra, Mrs. Innes — To Calcutta, Dr. Macpherson. Tell 
Mra Ommaney from Lucknow to write to Mrs. Kirk at Agra." 

I have written, by Eraser's desire, to Greneral Mansfield that 
the services of Harvey can be placed at his disposal ; that Wilson, Harvey, c.s. 
as Commissioner for hxmting down the Mutineers, might accom- wiison, c.a 
pany the Camp ; or that, if H. K prefers it, A. H. Cocks could ^-g^- ^^^» 
be deputed with the Army. 



CCXLVII. 

22nd December 1857. Tuesday. 

My Dear Sir, — ^Your letter of the 14th to the Chief Recounts 
Commr. has been duly received. I send this brief acknowledg- §km in^^!w.P. 
ment, as I am forwarding a Cossid to Captain Bruce. 

Colonel Seaton's Column was still at Puttialee on the 20th, 
and was likely to remain there another day ; it would then fall 
back on Kassgunge, and move to Eta, sending the captured guns, 
sick and woxmded, to Allygurh — and being joined at Eta by the 
carriage, stores, eta, now at Allygurh. He would then move 
on direct on Mynpoorie, which he may reach probably from the 
26 th to the 28 th. He has been directed by Colonel Eraser to 
halt at Mynpoorie tiU he heara from the Commander-in-Chief. 

The carriage and stores which are ready here will wait for 
further news of His Excellency's movements and wishes. The 
Chief Commissioner thinks it better not to risk their passage 



316 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Repair of 
telegraph 
line. 



Kotah. 



direct to Mynpoorie while their flank might be threatened by 
the Mutineers at Etawah. But if His Excellency desired he 
could send the carriage by a detour via Hatrass and Secundra 
Rao, round by Eta to Mynpoorie. 

It is, however, almost certain that Etawah will shortly be 
evacuated by the insurgents, on their hearing of the discomfiture 
of their comrades at Puttifdee and the advance of Seaton upon 
Mynpoorie— certainly on the onward movement of the Column, 
which, we learn from your letter under acknowledgment, His 
Excellency is sending via Akberpoor and the left bank of the 
Jumna. In that case, of course, the direct road to Mynpoorie 
will be quite free for the passage of carriage and storea 

I wish we had wire to begin the telegraph. But every inch 
has been expended in endeavouring to complete the line to Delhi, 
and yet there is a gap of 10 miles. 

All is well Westwards. In Eajpootana, the only place where 
active measures are at present required is Kotah, where the 
Durbar troops will need chastisement for their atrocious pro- 
ceedings in the murder of Major Burton. 

We expect Scindia over in a day or two to pay a visit. 

W. MuiR. 

To General Mansfield, Cawnpore. 



Mr. Baikes. 



P.S. — Mr. Baikes has left Agra to proceed to England on 
medical certificate. But Colonel Eraser says " that the services 
of Mr. Harvey, Commr., can be put at the disposal of His 
Excellency; that Mr. J. C. Wilson has been appointed Commr. 
for the detection and punishment of rebels and Mutineers, which 
duty he could carry on very well in Camp; and that it is 
believed that he would also be found most useful from his know- 
ledge of native character and of the country ; and finally, that 
should His Excellency prefer. Cocks, an oflBcer of high character 
and attainments, can (if preferred) be put at his disposal" 



CCXLVIII. 

23rd December 1867. Wednesday. 

My Dear Shereb, — I enclose a copy of a letter to Oeneral 
Mansfield. 

There is nothing new. But there is a rumour of some 
unpleasant anticipations in Bohilkhund. What the exact nature 
of the apprehension is I do not exactly make out. But it would 
seem as if some attack from Bareilly were expected on 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 317 

Moradabad, and other proceedings which imperil the Nawab Moradabad in 
of Eampoor. His whole soldiery, you know, are composed of *°^^' 
very inflammable matter, and any movement of the kind would 
place him in a position of great delicacy and probably of peril 
On the other hand, our Nynee Tal force is becoming stronger, 
and would probably repel any attack which approached the 
Terai ; and Colonel Seaton's successes should have a good moral 
influence. 

It cannot, however, be doubted that the establishment of any 
hostile body at Moradabad would render our reacquisition of 
Eohilkhimd a more difficult task than it otherwise would have 
been. And it is an object to expedite as much as possible the 
proceedings which may be in contemplation for its reoccupation. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 

P.S. — A telegraphic message has just been received from 
Mr. Cocks, at Kassgunge, of yesterday's date. They were to 
remain over on the 23 rd in order to mature some police arrange- 
ments, and then move on to Eta. Cocks' information was that 
Mynpoorie was evacuated I think, however, if it had been we 
should have heard of it hera 

Mi\ Wilson expected to have over by the 22nd 20 more Rescue of 
Christians from Eohilkhund, 7 of them Europeans. refuged 

There must have been some Gwalior Contingent men in the 
affair of the 14th at Gungeree, as Major Eld picked up the Dak 
Bungalow book of Bhudwas, the last entry of which was that 
some officers left without payment, as they were fleeing for their 
lives, and carried off some spoons, etc., or more probably it 
might have been brought by some of the Mhow force after the 
battle of the 10th of October. 



CCXLIX. 

Agra, 23rd December 1857. Wednesday. 

My Dear Sir, — I send herewith the copy of a letter which 
I despatched to you yesterday. I have no fresh intelligence to 
communicate. But the Chief Commissioner has made a slight 
alteration in the orders to the Allygurh Column. He thinks it 
safer that the carriage should not join it at Eta, but should wait 
at Allygurh until Mynpoorie has actually been taken possession of 
by Colonel Seaton. This will be a delay in the arrival of the 
convoy at Mynpoorie of some four or five days ; — but it will in all 



318 MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 

probability be there as soon as the road onwards is sufficiently 

clear for it to be escorted to Cawnpore. ,^ «, 

^ W. MuiR. 

To General Mansfield, 

Chief of the Staff, Headqnartera 

P.S. — Colonel Fraser desires me to say that for the Army 
Mr. F. Wii- which will proceed into Bohilkhund, Mr. F. Williams is the Civil 
ms, . . Officer who will accompany. He has been nominated to the 
Commissionership of that Province. 

I subjoin extract of a letter from myself to Mr. Sherer, 

which His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief may like to see. 

It is quite possible that the apprehensions referred to may be 

unfounded. His Excellency has, I conclude, received a communi- 

Sir John Law- cation which I forwarded by various opportunities from Sir J. 

lo^wTMgefor Lawrence, saying that, with the addition of two European 

I^h5i^'"d? regiDiients, a force could be organised from Delhi to proceed 

against Eohilkhund. Sir John had been desired to arrange for 

that object by the Governor-General ™ , ,. 

CCL. 

24th December 1857. Thursday. 

My Dear Sheker, — Nothing from you of date later than the 
10th. No Cossid has returned from Cawnpore these two daya 

• ••«••• • 

B. Saptc, C.8. Sapte writes from Eamghat ; he had been absent from his 

BooiuncUhu- district (Boolundshuhur) with Colonel Farquhar's force for above 

hur quiet. ^ fortnight. They found all perfectly quiet on their return. 

This says a great deal for the disposition of the people. While 

at Gungeree, there were no troops whatever in the large section 

of the Doab lying between Allygurh and Meerut. 

Sapte was sinking or bringing to this bank the boats at the 
several ghata At one place they were fired on by matchlockmen 
from the opposite bank, and had to bring their guns to bear on 
the rebela A party, under cover of our fire, went over the river 
to secure the boats, and at this demonstration the whole of the in- 
surgents, who had before been loudly challenging us to cross, ran off. 
Cocks writes to say that the report of the Rajah of Myn- 
poorie having fled is not corroborated ; but our messengers state 
Nawah of that the Nawab of Furruckabad has withdrawn the Begiment 
which he lent him. This he did inmiediately on hearing of the 
defeat at Putteealee. He has also sent, we hear, four B^iments 
with guns to guard the passage of the Kalee Nuddee at the 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 319 

suspension bridge on the Cawnpore road. They are the fugitive 

Delhi Corpa The Seetapoor Raiments and horse are retained Furruckabad. 

in Furruckabad, and all the city gates are guarded by Artillery. 

A correspondent of the Delhi Gazette states that sentence 
of death has been passed on the Nawab of Jhujjur, and that he Nawab of 
was to be hanged yesterday afternoon. ,^ ^ ^^^' 

J. W. Shkrer, Esq., Cawnpore. 

P.S. — Can you in any way get us lists of the Uncovenanted 
portion of the Lucknow garrison ? The greatest anxiety prevails 
here regarding the fate of many; and Mr. Montgomery has 
w^ritten to me also from Lahore to do all I can to get him 
information. We should have complete lists both of the Cove- 
nanted and the Uncovenanted. A letter from Deolee reports all Deoli quiet, 
continuing quiet thera The news of our success at Cawnpore 
was received by the natives there with pleasure, but without the 
old feelings of the Delhi days, that anything affecting themselves 
depended on the result. 

Sir R Hamilton and Sir H. Rose were expected at Mhow on Sir R. Hamil- 

the 15 th. Sir'H.Roac 

A portion of the Hyderabad Contingent is located at Mun- 
dessora 

Everything is so tranquil that Captain Macdonald was about 
to ride into Nusseerabad, 60 miles, for Xmas, with a single 
attendant to point out the road. 

CCLL 

AoRA, 25^ December 1857. Friday. 

My Dear Shkrer, — Letters came in last night up to the 
19 th, but still none from you. 

I have a letter from Durand dated the 15th inst. It saysDanmd. 
his return to Mhow had enabled Holkar to disarm his regular Holkar dis- 
Cavalry (chiefly Eampore Mussulmans) and Infantry. BySSJ„, 
Durand's arrangement, Holkar did this himself, though our 
Column was at hand ready to have gone to his assistance had 
coercion been necessary. 

Sir B. Hamilton was expected with Sir H. Hose on the IGth. Biidor 
Major Eickards has returned to Sehora RickMoa. * 

Seaton's Column will reach Mynpoory on Sunday, or, if able Beaton's 
to make a forced march, to-morrow. '*™^* 

Wale's Horse have reached Allygurh. I do not know the Wale's Hone, 
strength. It is to take on the inmiense convoy of carriage, 
establishments, and supplies at once towards Mynpoory. One of 



320 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Christian 
reftiffees from 
Rohukhund. 



Mahan^ah 
Soindia visits 
Agra. 



Temper of 

Scindia's 

troops. 



Soindia 
received in 
Durbw at 
Agra. 



the private letters of the 19 th mentioned that the Column for 
Etawah had marched from Cawnpore that morning. This will 
open up the way for our carriage, etc., being sent towards you. 

• •••••• • 

The 20 Christians from Bohilkhund reached this side all 

safe ; and another, a Mr. Erith, is expected. 

Scindia comes in this afternoon. ,^r -i*- 

W. MuiR, 

p.^._Scindia has just come in. The salute is firing. 

CCLII. 
TEL MESSAGE 

From W. Muir, Agra, 

To G. F. Edmonstone, For. Secy., Calcutta. 

HoLKAR successfully disarmed his soldiery, Horse and Foot, on 
15th. Sir E. Hamilton expected next day. Scindia has arrived 
here on a N4sit 

CCLIII. 

Extract of above Letter to General Mansfield, 

Adding : — " Your letter to the Chief Commr., dated the 18 th 
inst., has just been received. Major Macpherson, the Govemor- 
Generars Agent, will be consulted about the Mahratta Horse 
from Scindia, but Scindia is as badly off as ourselves. I should 
say, far worse off for reliable troopa There must be a great 
disarming at Gwalior, so soon as a British force can be brought 
into the vicinity." 



W. M. 



CCLIV. 



2Qth December 1857. Saturday. 

My Dear Sherer, — No news of any kind to-day. The 
Government is beginning to resume its functions, for the Chief 
Commissioner received Scindia to-day in Durbar styla Scindia 
was near an hour beyond his time, but the excuse given by 
Macpherson was so fine a compliment that it disarmed criticism. 
The Maharajah, during the past six months, has not had a single 
night of quiet sleep. Last night, for the first time, he slept 
soundly in the security of the British Capital — so soundly that 
nobody dared awake him, and Macpherson found him asleep 
when he went to fetch him to the Durbar ! 




LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 321 

Everything quiet to the north-west, and also to the south- Unrest in 
west ; — excepting Kotah, where the disaflfected Mussuhnan troops 
and refugees, etc., are said to be collecting revenue preparatory, 
it is supposed, to their flight northward. They may possibly 
make for Eohilkhund or Oudh. 

W. Mum. 

J. W. Sherkr, Esq., Cawnpore. 

P,S, — Scindia says he feels so comfortable and happy here Maharajah 
that he is inclined to stay on and send Dinkur back to manage 
Gwahor ! 



CCLV. 

26^ December 1857. Saturday. 

My Dear Sir, — 



Will you kindly inform General Grant, if he is near you, 
that his horses and servants, with Gapt. Hamilton's horses, are 
all safe here ? They had a narrow escape from Etawah, where 
they were taken by mistake of the servanta 

Colonel Seaton's Column is believed to have been at Eta on Colonel 
Thursday the 23rd ; it will be at Mynpoorie, if all has gone well, coimmi! 
to-morrow, I beUeva 

I have consulted with Major Macpherson about the Mahratta Temper of 
Horse for Cawnpore ; he fears Scindia is quite unable at present troops, 
to help in this respect. He has two rebellious vassals on his 
hands, and his troops at Gwahor are a considerable portion of 
them not trustworthy, and will have to be disarmed. 

W. MunL 
To General Mansfield, Headquartera 



CCLVIII. 

28^^ December 1857. Monday. 

My Dear Sherer, — Yesterday I acknowledged the receipt of 
your letter of the 1 9th, but had no news for you. 

To-day a letter has been received from Capt. Macdonald at 
Nusseerabad saying that the " Raj Troops " at Oudeypoor have 
mutinied. A private letter from Neemuch, dated the 22nd Jf'^i^^y*^' 

Oudeypord 

inst., contained the information. Macdonald says there are troops. 

VOL. I. — 21 



322 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Colonel 

Walpole's 

Cdmim. 



Boorkee. 



Mozaffemui 

gerthorc 

aiBcnrganifled. 



thorongi 






Colonel 

Beaton's 

Colomu. 



Affair at 
Mynpoorie. 



three thousand of these men at Keembhera, and a considerable 
number at Jahazpoor near Deolie, who are likely to follow the 
example of their brethren. As yet we have had no further 
corroboration of this newa If the Mutiny has been an open 
and decisive one, the rebels will probably act in co-operation with 
the Kotah insurgents. Foorbeas are believed to be numerous 
in the Gudeypore service. 

There is stated to have been no British officer at Gudey- 
poor. 

We are in hourly expectation of news of the occupation of 
Mynpooria The post cart runs to Shekoabad — 40 miles, and the 
horses are all ready at villages near the Ghowkies to run all the 
way to Mynpoorie the moment the road is clear. We have 
heard of Golonel Walpole's Golumn only as far as Bhagney- 
poor. 

The insurgents still hold Etawah. 

Baird Smith, writing from Boorkee on the 26th, says that, 
** excepting an occasional dacoitee raid from across the water on 
police chokies, we are quiet enough hera Though I have 
accepted, as a possible event, a passage of the rascals to this 
side in force, and made such arrangements as I can to provide 
against it, yet it has always seemed to me, and seems to me now, 
an extremely improbable one — at the same time, there can be no 
doubt that Moozuffemugger is thoroughly disorganised and ready 
to kick up a row on no great amount of temptation, so I will be 
very glad when inaction ceases to be considered expedient, and 
we can have our posts on the left instead of the right bank of 
the 6ange& As we drive rascaldom back, its influence on our 
own people disappears, but till we do so I am quite prepared to 
hear of night surprises and the Uke, as the natural price we pay 
for our temporary weaknesa It won't last long now, however, I 
hopa" 

A message has just come in from Colonel Seaton, dated 
Mynpoorie, yesterday afternoon ; it came round by Allygurh and 
thence by telegraph. 

Gn their approach to Mynpoorie, about a mile to the west, 
the enemy was found posted behind some high treea As we 
advanced he opened with 4 gun& Colonel Seaton on this sent 
the Horse Artillery and Cavalry by a flank movement to the 
right, following with the Infantry and heavy guna The in- 
surgents, seeing their way back to the City intercepted, soon 
b^an to retreat. We took all their guns, 6 in nimiber, and cut 
up 250. None reported killed on our sida 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 323 

Our mail carts will now forthwith begin to run to Mynpoorie. Mynpoorie 
They run all the way from Allygurh to Mynpoorie, and we have ^ ^^^ 
material for setting them up immediately in the rear of any 
advancing column ; — this with reference to a request to have a 
horse (saddle) post established — we are far ahead of that 

W. MuiR. 
J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 

CCLX. 

29th December 1857. Tuesday. 

My Dear Sherer, — Your letter of the 23rd reached last night 
Many thanks. It is pleasant returning to the normal state of Commanica- 
getting a reply within a fortnight. In another fortnight I hope pro^g. 
the post will only take a day. 

We have had letters from Mynpoorie of yesterday's data 
The Rajah had escaped, no one knew exactly where ; some said The Biyaii of 
towards Etawah, but more likely towards Furruckabad, unless esca^L * 
(which perhaps is the most probable) he contemplated a flight 
into Bundelkhund, where his family ia CoL Seaton had yiv^n 
orders for the town not to be plundered, but it was found Mvnpoorie 
impossible to enforce their observance. He proposed moving on ^ "" * 
towards Bhowgaon on the 31st — ^with what object is not stated. 
But as Colonel Fraser is anxious to cover the convoy, he has 
directed the Column to remain at Mynpoorie till further orders, 
unless CoL Seaton should have other instructions from the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. 

A further letter from Nusseerabad, dated the 26th inst, 
states that conmiunications from Deesa corroborate the mutiny at 
Oudeypoor. The troops at Jehazpoor had not up to that time 
displayed any mutinous symptoma 

Regarding Kotah, Capt Macdonald gives the following as the Affairs at 
result of inquiries instituted at Deolee. "It appears that at ^ 
Kotah there are now about 7000 men, collected from different 
parts; amongst them 1500 Mundessore rebels; they are said to 
have 32 guns outside of their cantonments — 4 or 6 on a Boorj, 
in which they keep their magazine, and 2 before one of the gates 
of the City. The Eajah is in his palace guarded by his Nujeebs, 
who do not number more than 200. The rebels are pressing the 
Seths and wealthy men for money." 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpore. 



324 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



CCLXII. 



Chief Com- 
missioner asks 
thatMynpoorie 
be occupied in 
strength. 



Laiige revenue 
expected. 



Chief CoDi- 
missioner 
issues in- 
structions for 
preventing 
plundering. 



Zlst December 1857. Thursday. 

My Dear Sir, — We have private letters from your Camp up 
to the 27th at Arroul, and are hopeful that by this time the 
Insurgents, who seem to have contemplated some opposition at 
the bridge over the Kalee Nuddee, have met with a severe chastise- 
ment from His Excellency. 

The Chief Commissioner is desirous that the Commander-in- 
Chief should be aware of his anxiety that Mynpoorie should be 
occupied in strength, so as to be able to put a detachment at 
Etawah. Furruckabad wiU, no doubt, immediately fall into His 
Excellency's hands, and be garrisoned. With the thre^ points 
held, — Etawah, Mynpoorie, and Furruckabad, — our Exchequer will 
soon be replenished. An area yielding a land revenue of between 
50 and 60 lacs will be secured. The greater part of the instal- 
ments which fell due in May and June, as well ad the Bevenue 
payable from the autumn harvest, will be at once demandable, 
and (as experience has proved elsewhere) be speedily realised on 
the restoration of quiet and security. Facilities for the transit 
of salt, from which, as I had occasion to mention before, a very 
large revenue will be collected, will also be partially provided, 
although not fully until the passage of the Jumna is rendered 
secure by the reduction of Bundelkhund. I need not refer to 
the importance of these financial questions, considering the 
immense drain there will shortly be on our western treasuries 
from the advance of European Eegimenta 

The Chief Commissioner has felt it his duty to issue instruc - 
tions in t hQ (rftzftthfl hnlHing the Commanding officers of detach- 
ments responsible for preventing, as far as hes in their power , 
the plundering and destruction of villages where that course may 
not have been justified and directed in consequence of opposition 
or rebpllioufl prncftftdiT^gft. Apart from all other considerations, 
the plunder and destruction of villages will affect our future 
sources of revenua CoL Eraser has desired me to mention the 
subject, feeling confident that His Excellency will promote 
his views on this important point by every means in his 
power. 

W. MuiR. 
General Mansheld, 
Chief of the Stafif of 

H.R the Commander-in-Chief. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 325 

P.S, — Colonel Fraser having just heard, from what he 
considers reliable native information, that Etawah was occupied 
two days ago by Brigadier Walpole, and believing the Mynpoorie 
road to be now perfectly safe, has determined on starting our 
immense convoy to Mynpoorie on the 2nd. He expects that it 
will reach its destination about the 8th proximo. 

W. M. 

CCLXIII. 

ZUt December 1857. Thursday. 

My Dear Sherer, — No further news from Eajpootana. From M*raud«r« in 
Muthra we hear that a small body of Horse and Foot, 200 or^^'*^' 
800 in number, have been committing some depredations in the 
southern parts of Goorgaon. They may be a renmant of the 
Joudpoor rebela They are said to find shelter in some Ulwar 
villagea We must be prepared to find light bands of marauders 
in various parts of the country. Our organised police horse will 
be of service in their suppression. 

Besides this, all is quiet to the north-west. 

• ••••••• 

Mynpoorie news you will get, no doubt, more full and earlier 
from Mynpoorie itself. The Chowhans are in great alarm chowhana in 
throughout the district, feeling that they have compromised*^™* 
themselves by the support of Sajah Tej Singh. Cocks' measures 
are judicious, and will no doubt prove successful He is issuing 
a proclamation for all to return, or to consider themselves Tej Singh 
offenders against the State. Tej Singh is to be proclaimed a^Jtor. 
traitor, and Rao Bhowanee Singh installed in the dignity of S^^°^^ 
Eajah. This will, I think, bring them round. lUjah. 

You will hear, of coui^se, of Hodson's deputation yesterday Hodaon. 
with a himdred horse from Mynpoorie, to open conmiunications 
with the Commander-in-Chief's force. Colonel Seaton has also Beaton's 
sent back a detachment to guard the convoy, which must by this '^"^ 
time be nearing Mynpoorie under charge of Wale's Horsa Seaton 
himself has marched to-day to Bhowgaon, and sent on a party of 
Horse to watch the bridge at Mudunpoor over the Kalee Nudee. 

In reply to the Financial Secretary's letter, pray tel^raph Accounts, 
to Mr. Lushington that " the accoimtant promises to have the 
accounts completed by the 15th of next month, and despatched 
about the 20 th (January), by which time it is hoped the post will 
be able to carry the mass of papers. The abstracts kept open to 
the last moment in hope of receiving some accounts yet missing." 



326 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Cocks, after a ride of 24 miles, says that the country about 

Normal con. Mynpoorie is looking as of old, excepting the Chowkies and 

^S^^nct Electric Telegraph Posta The harvest, he says, promises to be 

abundant ; and the villagers came out in crowds to welcome him. 

" They had not seen a white face for eight months." 

I trust you are getting rapidly on in the estabhshment of 
order. The people should now be able to see that they will not 
be again abandoned to Insurgent forces, and ought therefore to 
co-operate willingly. They had an excuse before, for nothing 
has exceeded the horrors of those wretched localities where we 
have been obUged to come and go over and again. Our partisans, 
of course, paid dearly for their signs of friendship towards us. 
But all that, so far as the Doab is concerned, is, God be praised, 
fairly over now. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 



Sufferings of 
those wno 
tided with 
Goremment 



My Dear Sir,- 



CCLXIV. 

AoRA, lit January 1858. Friday. 



Agra garrison 
cannot afford 
detachments. 



If, as Mr. Cocks tells us. Captain Hodson led His Excellency 
to imderatand that the Agra garrison could detach parties to hold 
Mynpoorie or Etawah, he must have acted on wrong information. 
From the weak force here it is all that the Chief Commissioner is 
able to do to hold Allygurh. 

W. MuiR. 
General Mansfield, 

Chief of the Staff of H.R the C.-in-C. 



CCLXV. 

Itt January 1858. Friday. 

My Dear Sherer, — Nothing new from the North-West. 
We have letters from Cocks at Bewar of yesterday's date, men- 
Hodson'sride. tioning Hodson's brave ride with 100 horse to the Conmiander- 
in-Chief s camp, of which you have of course heard. He came 
across the fugitive Etawah force and had a narrow escape, 
losing one of his Sowars, He was charmed with the imposing 
appearance of the Force and the look of the Highlanders ; but 
he told the Commander-in-Chief what was a stretch of imagina- 
tion, viz., — that we could garrison Mynpoorie, and I suppose 
Etawah, ourselves ; — this, considering that we hold Allygurh from 
our weak garrison, was rather overstepping the mark. The 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 327 

tendency of the separate Brigade (as they cannot at present cut 
out any independent work for themselves) is towards the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, as at the Headquarters there will be, for some 
time to come, prospect of distinction. I fear, accordingly, that 
both Mynpoorie and Etawah will be again denuded of troops, and 
unsafe for our officers. At neither place have the troops been 
long enough to probe the nests of fanatics and rebels hatched 
during the long prevalence of the Insurgent rule : and unless our civil officen 
officers are supported by some military display, such persons J^p^^rt. 
might reappear and have their revenga 

Dunlop says of things in Meerut, that " we have never Prompt col. 
collected a kist so fully, promptly, and easily as the last one (t.e. reyenue in 
the Khurreef instalments). We have already six lacs of it, and Meerut 
the whole will come in during January, excepting that of a few 
bad villages by Dusna and the places destroyed by Goojurs in 
Mouana." I hope you will soon (I don't see why you should not) 
be able to tell the same story. The fact is, that wherever our 
authority is re-established, it is so in an incomparably stronger 
form than befora 

Dunlop does not anticipate any attack from Bijnour, except- 
ing small predatory bands, which will not cease till we cross the 
Ganges. 

W. MuiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 

CCLXVI. 

2nd January 1858. Saturday. 

My Dear Sherer, — As the dak of the 30th has come in 
from Cawnpoor, of the 29 th from Allahabad, and the 26 th from 
Calcutta, I shall for the present suspend our expensive Cossid Conid system 
system, and hope that we may wash our hands of it for ever. "^P*^ 

Sir B. Hamilton is now endeavouring to reopen direct dak Sir R. Hunil- 
communication with us, and I have a letter from him dated the **'''• 
23rd ultimo. I trust very soon the Horse dak, eta, will be 
running in that direction too. 

I wish you were in the Commander-in-Chiefs camp ; we can 
get nobody to write to us from it Colonel Becher, who left 
AUygurh with the Convoy for Mynpoorie, eta, had heard of the 
Commander-in-Chief having halted to depute Windham to blow 
up the Futtia Baja's " Palaca" It is a pity he halts for so petty 
an object ; our great want now is the reduction of Furruckabad, 
and a speedy advance into Eohilkhund. 



328 



MSS. VOL III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Raikes. 



Baikes is anxious to throw up his leave and join the 
Commander-in-Chief's camp. 

W. MuiR. 



ConyoT 
started. 



Our convoy started this morning, — the lines of hackeries 
seemed endless: from early morning till 10 or 11 o'clock they 
were moving along in double line. 

J. W. Sherer, Cawnpora 



CCLXVIL 



^h January 1858. Monday. 



My Dear Sir,- 



Allan Hame, 
C.S. 



Establiahmeiit 
of Police. 



Troojps 
required to 
rapport CiTil 
omoers. 



All is well to the west. 

Mr. Hume is on his way to occupy Etawah, but without any 
military force but 50 Sikha He will not be able to do much 
in the way of authority and retribution. 

As to the establishment of a Police, as urged in your letter, 
we are doing what we can, — but it is little more than 2 J months 
since the Delhi column, by beating the Mhow Mutineers, enabled 
us to move freely about outside. Since then a good deal has 
been done in getting up horse and foot police; and notwith- 
standing local necessities. Colonel Fraser offered the Commander- 
in-Chief 300 horse — part of our Police. But since the Native 
army has clean swept away everything, it will take some time 
to work up something to take its place, and I do not see how 
officers in Mr. Hume's place, for example, can get on for a time 
without the detachment of some of His Excellency's troops to 
places like Etawah, which were formerly held by Sepoy detach- 
menta 

W. MuiR. 

Captain Bruce. 



CCLXVIII. 



Mt Dear Sherer,- 



4 January 1858. Monday. 



Etawah. 



Hume has gone to Etawah, but he has only 50 Sikhs with 
him ; and Walpole has gone, as you know, to Mynpoorie. It is a 
pity some det£u;hment was not left at Etawah. But Hume will, 
I expect, be well supported by loyal Talookdars ; and if, as he 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 329 

expects, he finds things (not) unfavourable, will go on to occupy 
the City. Our officers, however, should return to their stations CivU officers 
with more prestige than that; and though Hume may be able mUitary*^* 
to hold his own, and get in some revenue, he will not be able to support 
do much in the way of authority and retribution. 

Cocks is all right at Mynpoorie, as Walpole has left a Cocks at 
European Eegiment there. Cocks finds it somewhat difficult to ^^^^ 
get supplies for the immense convoy from Allygurh, and he will Large convoy 

r>i*. 1 y -1. T * 3 T j^y ' 1 ' down country. 

find it more so when ours reaches him. I said, I think, ma 
former letter, that it took from early morning to 10 or 11 to 
cross, but the fact is, the carts, etc., were crossing in a continuous 
line over the bridge of boats till near 4 p.m. ! Cocks says, 
" between the plunder which has been carried on by the enemy 
and ourselves, it is very difficult to quiet the apprehensions of 
the people." But things will soon settle if the Mutineers keep, 
as I have no doubt they will, north of the Gangea 

All perfectly quiet and tranquil to the west. 

W. MxJiR. 

J. W. Sherer, Esq. 



CCLXIX. 

6 January 1858. Wednesday. 

My Dear Sir, — Colonel Fraser has, I think, already Attack on 
reported the attempted descent upon Boolundshuhur by thei,„rfrSni ^ 
Rohilkhuud rebels, on receiving telegraphic information of the ^^*^^^'*'*^* 
same. We have now received Mr. Sapte's letter. It is dated the B. Sapte, c.a 
4th. He says that on the previous day the rebels attempted to 
cross at Anoopshahur, but were driven back. " We move out 
towards Anoopshahur to-night. I hear they are also collecting 
opposite Ramghat," which is some miles farther down the river. 
Mr. Sapte accordingly requested Major Eld if possible to move Miyor Eld. 
out from Allygurh towards Atroulee, in order to check the rebels 
at the latter ghat. He adds that the enemy had brought down 
guns to the ghat and were firing across. 

Major Eld, writing from his camp in the interior of the 
Allygurh district, in a letter dated yesterday, expresses his 
intention of starting for Allygurh this day, and of being at 
Atroulee to-morrow. 

I do not know exactly how many men either Colonel 
Farquhar (commanding in the Boolundshuhur district) or Major 
Eld can bring into the field — not more, however, I think, 
than 500 or 600 at the outside. The march eastward of the two 



330 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Baird Smith 
anxious to 
secare timber 
for new 
barracks. 



Patlee Doon. 



Major Ram- 
wfa force. 



Naini Tal. 



Affair at 

Khodagunga 

Bridge. 



Mr. Raikes. 



Columns (Grant's and Seaton's) has of course greatly weakened 
the avaikble forces in the Meenit Division, and any incursion 
from the opposite bank would have a most agitating effect upon 
the Doab. It is in the last degree improbable that the pusil- 
lanimous and ill-furnished troops of Bohilkhund could effect a 
lodgment on this bank ; but their attempts, and their reported 
intentions, have a very harassing effect. 

In addition to the military reasons for the early occupation 
of the western portion of Rohilkhund, which must be under the 
consideration of the Commander-in-Chief, there is one to which 
Lt.-CoL Baird Smith has just called my attention in a letter 
dated Roorkee the 4th inst. He says that unless something 
is soon done for the reoccupation of western Rohilkhund he 
believes our capacity to give cover to the troops will be seriously 
affected, for it " essentially depends on the reopening of the Patlee 
Doon forest," to the north of Bijnore. " We can get no timber 
fit for barracks anywhere else." Colonel B. Smith, as Director of 
the Ganges Canal and Controller of the Roorkee workshops, has 
the charge of the forest in these parts, and is the highest 
authority on the subject. 

Major Ramsay, Commissioner of Kumaon, is ready to com- 
mence operations for clearing the Terai, which would otherwise 
no doubt afford dangerous shelter to the fugitive troopa He has 
1000 foot — viz., 600 of the 66th, 250 Nepaul Goorkhas, and 
150 of his own levies. He speaks well of the whole. He is 
badly off for cavalry. There are 300 newly raised horse, but as 
yet only 50 are fit for use. He has a few 6 -pounders and some 
mountain guns. Two of the mountain howitzers are on elephants. 

Captain Ramsay is about to commence barracks for a Regi- 
ment at or near Nynee Tal. 

I believe that I need not apologise for writing at such length, 
as I am expected to keep the Headquarters informed of any 
general intelligence which is received at Agra bearing upon His 
Excellency's operations. 

It afforded us great satisfaction to hear of His Excellency's 
success at the Khodagunge Bridge, preliminary, as we do not 
doubt, to the entire dislodgment long before this of the rebels 
from Furruckabad. 

Mr. Raikes writes from Umballa that he intended to start on 
the 4th, and hoped soon to join the Commander-in-Chief. 

W. MuiR. 
General Mansheld, 

Chief of the Staff, Headquarteiu 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 331 

CCLXX. 

Qth January 1858. Wednesday. 

My Dear Beadon, — The enclosed copy of a letter I have 
just written to General Mansfield will give the greater part of 
our news. 

H. S. Eeid reached here this morning, having marched down H. s. Reid. 
from Delhi through the Goorgaon and Muthra districts with the 
Putiala force, which is on its way to Dholpore. He found the Putiaia Con- 
country quite quiet. The small marauding body which I men- DhSpowT* 
tioned some days ago as disturbing the southern part of Goorgaon 
seems to have been dispersed. Reid rode along the road without 
any escort. 

The Putiala troops are about 2000 in number, with 2 guns : ComposiUon 
— they are Sikhs and Punjaubees ; rude-looking people, but useful ° * ^*' 
probably as light skirmishing soldiers. There was a considerable 
number, a hundred or more perhaps, mounted on camels, with 
formidable-looking Jezails. 

I do not know what is intended to be done at Dholpore. Goqjnr Diwan 
The Dewan, Deo Kuns, a Goojur, has a faction in favour of a ** ° ^^' 
Goojui* Rana. The Rana has not much strength of purpose, I 
fancy, but is understood to favour the Jat party. Deo Kuns 
should be tried foi; his alleged junction with the Mhow Mutineers 
against us. It would have been a convenience if during the late 
events Dholpore had been under this Grovemment, or under 
Macpherson. It lies between us and Gwalior. 

Baird Smith, in answer to an enquiry about the workshops, Baird Smith 
says that for months to come they will be fully occupied in erM?SnTOcki. 
preparing wood and iron-work for barracks and canal works. 
" I have now received," he says, " reports from all the canals in De«tniction 
the Doab ; and the destruction of everything that was destructible pr^Jrty. 
or plunderable has been sweeping and complete, except in our 
own neighbourhood, where vigorous measures of repression were 
used from the beginning." 

You will see from my letter to General Mansfield the argu- 
ment he uses for the reoccupation of western Rohilkhund. 
" We can get no timber fit for barracks anywhere eke ; and if we Timber re- 
fail to get it, and the men die, as die they certainly will, the 2arr»cki'^ 
Crimean cry will be re-echoed about India, and there will be a 
pretty mess." 

Ramsay, I am glad to say, is getting over his wound, and Migor Ramsay, 
will be fit to take an active part in the proceedings in the Terai. 
His presence will double the force, and more than that. 



332 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Force at 
Huldwanee. 

The Terai. 



Nepanl 
Sepoys. 

Mig'or Bangh. 



Territorial 
changes. 



Entire Doab 
should remain 
in N.W.P. 



AgTtk versus 
A&ahabad 
as seat of 
Government. 



Writing on the 30th ultimo, he says that he had been with 
Maxwell to look for a site for barracks near Nynee TaL At 
Koorpa Tal, the position of which Harington and Campbell will 
be able to explain, there is abundance of room, and the elevation 
above 5000 feet. They were going to look at Shamkhet, where 
there is also ground, and the point would be immediately settled, 
so far as Eamsay is concerned. He is a gloriously energetic 
fellow, and will have everything ready, no doubt. 

You will see from General Mansfield's letter the force which 
Eamsay has collected at Huldwanee. He strongly urges that 
the Terai be taken into consideration in the military movements 
now projected. " If the forests," he says, " are neglected, all the 
villains who found the plains too hot for them will take refuge 
on the edge of the forest, and I shall have a huge population of 
dacoits to blacken my name ; " and it will be exceedingly diflScult 
to remedy the evil. 

He says the roads are still close, there being some 2000 men 
at Rooderpoor and Buheree, but he expects to turn them out 
soon ; — " I had fortunately stored up a couple of months* supplies, 
so we are not in want. The Nepaul Sepoys are good men. I 
have put Baugh in command of them, and got five Officers ft'oni 
Mr. Causland ; for the little fellows reqmre a lot of brushing up, 
and on service * holding in.' " 

I wrote you on the spur of the moment, and I fear very 
hurriedly and imperfectly, about the territorial changes you men- 
tioned in your letter of the 26 th as in contemplation. The more 
I reflect on the dismemberment of the Doab, the more confirmed 
am I in believing that it would be a highly inexpedient measure, 
and that the Jumna should be maintained as the boundary ; the 
entire Doab remaining an integral part of the N.W.P. 

Begarding the changes at Headquarters, although Allahabad 
certainly was not cut off from Calcutta as we were, — an admitted 
inestimable advantage, — yet had the seat of Government been 
there, the Lieut-Governor would have been cut off from more 
than three-fourths of his Province ; — while at Agra, from its more 
centrical position, communications have been more or less kept 
up all round. Efforts were made for restoration of government 
and order, which, to a great extent, would have been impossible at 
Allahabad, and an influence exercised in Rajpootana which cannot 
be overrated. 

But the decision of the question will not, I imagine, depend 
upon argument derived from the position of affairs on so entirely 
exceptional an occasion as the insurrection. For the purposes of 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 333 

ordinary government, the most central point must be the most 
advantageous. And that Allahabad surely is far from being. 

W. MuiR. 
C. Beadon, Esq., 
Home Secretary, Calcutta 

P.S. — The Commander-in-Chief has a prodigious concentra- Commander- 
tion of force at Furruckabad. We do not understand why he JSree at " 
does not depute, as requested by Sir J. Lawrence, some portion Furruckabad. 
of it towards Meerut, to make a descent on the west of Eohil- 
khund, and clear it eastwards. It will complicate matters if an 
opening be left for the escape of the insurgents in any force 
westwards from Bareilly. An advance from Bijnore or Moradabad 
would probably meet with little opposition, and prove a barrier 
in that direction. The Commander-in-Chief might, at any rate, 
have sent back Seaton's Column. Delhi and Meerut are left 
weak by both Grant's and Seaton's Column being retained by 
bim. 

CCLXXL 

*Ith January 1867. Thursday. 

My Dear Beadon, — 

Even at Mynpoorie (some 40 miles only from Furruckabad) 
not a hint had reached them on the 5th of what had occurred. 

At Mynpoorie all is going on welL Cocks is delighted with Coclw at 
the discipline of H.M.'s 38th under Sparkes; this begins fcOn^^ssth 
restore confidence. " And the wretched plundered Bunnias, etc, ^ndw Sparkes. 
are gradually returning to their business." Colonel Seaton's 
Column was not so well held in hand. 

Things seem settling down, but there will be some work yet 
to do. " There is one Achhar Singh, the late Eaja Tej Singh's Achhar Singh 
right-hand man, — he is holding out in his village and ' gurhee,' Judged, 
about 10 miles from Mynpoorie, with 100 matchlockmen, and 
Bwears he will die." A party was being organised to dislodge him. 

General Mansfield writes to Cocks that the stationing of a 
Detachment at Mynpoorie is only a temporary measure, and the 
Commander-in-Chief declines leaving any troops at Etawah. " He EUwah cannot 
conceives that your own Jat horsemen, to support the future 8^**"™®" • 
arrangement lately made by Capt. Bradford in combination with 
the Mynpoorie and Cawnpore arrangement, should be suflBcient 
for revenue business for the present, while the few troops at his 



334 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Allan Hume, 

c.a, at 

Etawah. 



Civil officers 
require mili- 
ta^ snpport 



Rohilkhund 
hostility. 



Harvey, C.S. 



Skekoabad. 



Attitude of the 
agricaltnral 
community 
during the 
rebellion. 



command are so much required to carry out the views of the 
Governor-General in Council" 

Of course, if the troops at His Excellency's disposal are no 
more than suffice for field operations, that settles the question. 
Hume, I doubt not, will be able to maintain his hold on the 
district, which has been in general wonderfully amenable to our 
influence, even when it was at its lowest ebb. But one would 
like to see our British officers reinstated in their posts with 
a greater show of authority, and more power to vindicate our 
honour by bringing the rebellious forthwith to condign justice. 

Meanwhile the Rohilkhund rebels continue to keep the country 
about Ram Ghat and Anoopshahur in an uneasy state. Attempts 
made to cross have been repelled, but there the Insurgents remain 
massed on the opposite shore and fire away with their gun& 
This is more serious just at this season, when the river is low 
and fords easily found. We have a report to-day that rebels 
have again appeared at Saron, which is north of Kassgunga We 
do not yet know how they got there ; but it shows that the 
C!ommander-in-Chief would need to be sending some part of his 
army to replace the strength he has been draining downwards 
from the Meerut Division. 

Harvey, who has accompanied the convoy to Mynpoorie, 
writes on the 5 th from Shekoabad that the presence of the 
convoy is having a good effect. The passage of the long line 
of carriage and troops induces the belief " that a larger army than 
any since the days of Xerxes is proceeding through the country." 
The preceding day a notorious rebel near Shekoabad endeavoured 
to get off with a gun given him by the rebel Bajah of Mynpoorie. 
The Tehseeldar with his people captured the gun, but the rebel 
eluded their pursuit "The respectable people of Shekoabad," 
he adds, " are rejoiced at the restoration of order. The whole 
population turned out to welcome us, and I rode on with two or 
three Sowars an hour before the troops. All will come rapidly 
right here if we are firm and uncompromising with rebels and 
their aiders and abettors, and conciliatory with the agricultural 
commimity, who have in some instances paid off old scores 
without the least intention of embarking in the rebellion, but 
driven into excess by the absence of order and the Ucense of 
turbulent neighbours." It is of the most essential consequence 
to our future success in the administration of the country that 
this latter class — a prodigiously numerous one — should be care- 
fully discriminated in treatment from those who acted treasonably 
against the Government. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 335 

Nothing new to the west; but the following statement 
presents an interesting feature of the injury done to the morale influence of 
of even the well-disposed peasantry by the long prevalence of JS-dfapoSed * 
anarchy. Imdad Alee, our excellent Deputy Collector of Muthra, p<«»iitry. 
was deputed to Kosee to collect some telegraph posts that had 
been left thera There had been a fight among the people the day 
before, — seven wounded, eight killed : and the Deputy Collector 
arrived just in time to stop another fight. " It was reported to 
the Deputy Collector by the Kosee people that some thousands Kosee. 
of fellows were collecting to loot Kosee itself. They are com- 
posed of many castes, — originally banded together for mutual 
protection; now, led away by long license and disorder, are 
prepared to loot on their own account." 

The following abstract may be interesting, of the orders for Abstract of 
execution of mutineers and rebels by court-martial and special com- cxecSio^of 
mission, at the station of Agra, from July to November inclusive. JJbJ^^fAm. 

78 persons were sentenced ; of these, capital sentences were 
commuted in two cases, — 62 were condemned by court-martial; 
16 by Special Commissioner. 

17 were Mutineers: viz., 10 Mussulmans and 7 Hindoos; 4 
were blown away from guna 

The remainder were for the most part sentenced on account 
of general rebellious proceedings, murder, plunder, arson, etc., — ^viz., 
61, of whom 32 were Mussulmans and 29 Hindoos. 

Directly concerned in the riot here succeeding the 5 th July 
are 1 3 persons, of whom 6 are Mussulmans and 7 Hindoos. 

The charge in one court-martial case is remarkable : — " For Remarkable 
having attempted to excite a spirit of opposition among the ^ *^' 
prisoners in the Fort of Agra, by taunting the sick prisoners 
about loss of caste from receiving medicine from the hands 
of their European medical attendant'' I mentioned this to 
Harington, who will recognise the case as that of Ameer Khan. 

W. MuiR. 

C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta 

Eaja Bhowanee Singh, who is to succeed Tej Singh at Rigah Bho- 
Mynpoorie, and who, you will remember, was our Nazim after ^ "* ' 
Grant's Column passed down, has returned to Mynpoorie with 
Cocks, who is much pleased with him. " He is acting," he says, 
" most sensibly, moderately, and well, — he has no personal spite 
against the Chowhans who acted against him, but at the same 
time gives me every assistance in unferreting ringleadera" 

W. M. 



336 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Rohilkhnnd 
hostility. 



Huldwanee 
(Kumaon) 
attacked DY 
Bareilly rebels. 



Bangh and 
his Qoorkhas. 



M^jor 

Ramsay's force 
ready. 



KalaKhan, 
near Naini 
Tal. fixed on 
for barracks. 



CCLXXIL 

8^ January 1858. Friday. 

My Dear Beadon, — ^The Bohilkhund insurgents still threaten 
the Doab at vaiious points, and as the Commander-in-Chief has 
not yet sent back any part of either Seaton's or Grant's brigade 
the Upper Doab is rather \aUnerable. 

At Meerut they had a report that the Bijnore rebels had 
crossed into the Moozuffemugger district and reached the town 
of Meeranpoor. This, however, has not yet been corroborated ; 
but the report (received from Edwards, Magistrate of Moozuffer- 
nugger) was sufficiently serious to make Williams, the Com- 
missioner, keep back two troops of mounted police he was 
sending down to u& 

The rebels are still in considerable numbers opposite Anoop- 
shahur, and other ghats farther down. When attacked in 
Shahjehanpoor and Bareilly, the fugitives may partly take that 
direction, though their more natural, because at present safer, 
course is eastward. 

Huldwanee (Eumaon) was again, for the last time I fancy, 
attacked by the Bareilly rebek. Fortunately the Goorkhas were 
at hand, or the supplies might have been destroyed a second 
time. 

They were about a thousand strong, with two little guns, 
which they fired when about 250 yards off. But the moment 
Baugh let loose his Goorkhas at them they fled in such haste 
that there was no getting up with them. They lost 20 killed ; — 
we, only one man. 

Bamsay expected all his conmiissariat arrangements to be 
completed by the 4th, and on the 6 th " the Huldwanee force," he 
says, " will be ready to start anywhere and to do anything." 

He has fixed on a place called Kala Khan for the barracks, 
near to Nynee Tal, on the Bheem Tal sida " The water will 
run round and round the hill, so that the children may wash 
their faces in the running stream." The water-course for this 
charming arrangement is commenced, and the energetic Com- 
missioner is already busy in laying in materials for the building. 
He wants sheet-iron for roofing. I have mentioned this to 
General Mansfield, as they may be able to pick up some at 
Furruckabad. 

He will need money, but I trust he will be able to get a 
couple of lacs soon from Bareilly ; without this I fear there will 
be a lack. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 337 

He says : " Don't be uneasy about us. The appearance of 
Khan Buhadoor's army at the foot of the hills causes no alarm Khan 
whatever. In ten days you shall, I hope, hear of the whole of " ^^' 
the Terai armies being destroyed or dispersed for the time ; but 
they will grow again when all the budmashes are driven out 
of Bareilly." 

Hume has made a triumphal entry into Etawah, notwith- Hume makes a 

frintnnliAl 

standing the depai'ture of the British bayonets. " The whole entry into 
population of the town and its environs, and almost every K^'^*'*- 
Zemindar of importance in the district, came out to meet us. 
There could be no doubt that the people were glad to see us. 
Illuminations were prepared, guns were firing, music playing, and 
the rich were throwing alms before us in handfuls." 

Nevertheless, it cannot be concealed that in the present Sunported by 
unsettled state of the country one would like to see the Collector of ^owan? 
supported by more than his handful of Sowara The district is 
quite quiet, excepting near Oreya, where the rebel, Eoop Singh, The rebel 
has collected from all quarters an immense body of desperate ^t (^ya.^ 
characters, matchlockmen, etc. They are encouraged by the 
Calpee Mutineers, who have a guard of 100 Cavalry and 150 
Foot at the Sheregurh Ghat. Oreya is, you know, in the 
Cawnpore border, and should be amenable to the Cawnpore 
moveable column ; but so long as Calpee is held, the banks of Calpee. 
the Jumna in that direction will be in an insecure state. 

Hume gives the Calpee rebels at 2000 men with 8 guns. 
Macpherson has intelligence that they are 5000 strong with 15 
gims (2 eighteen-poimders, 4 nine-pounders, and other little ones 
for which they are making carriages) ; and they are doing as 
much damage to Gwalior as to us, for "they are corrupting 
Scindia*s neighbouring districts " and drawing men from them. 

Hum6 can command some three thousand matchlocks, he Hume 
says, but untrained they would be useless against any regular JJg^ct ^oree 
attack. He is organising a himdred District Horse and 250*"^*^^ 
Foot, which will be of use as auxiliaries to the Sikha " They 
are chiefly Thakoors, and for every man a written guarantee is 
given l)y some loyal and influential Zemindar." 

Hume's conviction that " the people as a body are most Loyal attitude 
unmistakably and cordially with us," is quite in accordance with ° ^^^ *' 
what the officers of Seaton*s Brigade said. One of them, 
writing in a letter not meant for any official eye, says " the 
people of the country (speaking of the Etawah district) hail our 
approach with delight." fi^^'^ 

The precedent of Futtehgurh having escaped plunder because plunder. 

VOL. I. — 2 2 



338 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



the rebels had evacuated it, will, I trust, be of great use as 
showing that we do discriminate ; and as encouraging the people 
on the approach of our troops to get rid of the insurgents, 
though I fear they will seldom have the power to effect much 
that way. 



W. MuiR. 



C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 



Major 
WUliams' 



P.S. — Major Williams is getting on marvellously with his 
invMtig«tion8 Meerut police investigation, and will have a mass of evidence 
*rifli*^fth ^ ^ ^^^ origin of the Mutiny which will not fit in easily with 
Mutiny. the popular notion of a long preconceived plot. 



CCLXXIIL 

8^^ January 1858. Friday. 

My Dear Sherer, — This is a memorandum by Macpherson. 
Rebel force at You no doubt have better and earUer information than we can 
^^^^ have regarding the Calpee assemblaga 

Hume believes it to be 2000, with 8 or 10 guns. 

I hope Hume is in correspondence with you. He is 
threatened from Oreya, where Roop Singh has a gi-eat congre- 
gation of dacoits, etc., in correspondence with the Calpee rebela 
The latter have a post at the Sheregurh Ghat. 

Your moveable column should suffice for Oreya. 

The ordinary news I now send on direct to Beadon.^ 

Keep us informed as to what you hear of the Calpee and 
Jalaon peopla 



W. MuiR. 



J. W. Sherer, Esq., Cawnpoor. 



Naini Tal 
barracks. 



CCLXXIV. 

8(^ Jantiary 1858. Friday. 

My Dear Sir, — At the risk of giving you over again what 
you may have already heard from Mr. Thornhill, I mention that 
Major Ramsay is anxious to have collected and sent up to him 
as much sheet-iron as possible ; it will l)e requiretl for roofing 
the Nynee Tal barracka Perhaps you will kindly give in- 
structions to some officer at Furruckabad, where there used to be 
great stores of sheet-iron, to secure what lie can. 

A charming site has been selected near to Njiiee Tal. " The 
water will run round and roimd the hill, so that the children 
may wash their faces in the nmning stream." 

^ Beadon communicated with direct, since road open. — W. M. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTR^Y 339 

Huldwanee (at the foot of the Nynee Tal Hills) had been Huidwanee 
attacked on the Ist; but the Goorkhas put the rebels to an 
ignominious flight. By the 6 th, Major Eamsay says, he would be 
ready to operate actively against the Teraie Insurgents. 

Mr. Hume has been well received at Etawah, and things are Mr. Hume 
generally quiet there, excepting towards Oreya, where the rebel, at^EUwah. 
Boopsing, has gathered an inmiense band of da.coits and match- 
lockmen, and is in conununication with the Calpee rebels, who 
have a post at the Sheregurh Ghat. The Calpee men are 
variously estimated at from 2000 to 5000, with from 10 to 15 
guns. Their presence unsettles the Eastern districts of Gwalior 
equally with our own ; and, so long as Calpee stands, the Jumna 
bank cannot of course be secure. But the Oreya insurgents 
being close on the Cawnpore border, will no doubt be attacked 
by the moveable column of that district 

To General Mansfield. 



CCLXXV. 

9^ January 1858. Saturday. 

My Dear Beadon, — All still quiet at Etawah. But Hume 
has been told from Mynpoorie that no reinforcements could be 
sent to him even if he were besieged ! Luckily, he says, the 
Mutineers do not know this, or they would be paying him a visit. 
As yet they have made no move beyond sending a small 
detachment to Eoopsing at Ayana, near AjeetmulL 

He is having an entrenchment prepared, which will be in 
order by the middle of the month. This is necessary, for Etawanaweak 
Etawah will, for some time to come, be our weak point from the ^*° * 
distance of troops. 

The rejoicings in the city continue unabated, he says, not- 
withstanding that they have been rather discouraged. The Sikh soldiery 
Sikhs also are popular, and becoming friends of the city peopla ^^ 

Hume praises in high terms the discipline of Walpole*s Walpoie's 
Column. It passed through without any plunder or injury to ^^^' 
the town. Two Europeans were punished for attempting to rob 
a shopkeeper. " Several equally judicious and decisive measures 
are related by the people of the officers of our force — which I 
am sure have contributed no Uttle to restore confidence and 
inspire goodwill" It is quite refreshing to read this after the Complaints of 
interminable complaints of oppression and plunder by the SET oSumn/ 
Columns from Delhi 

The news from the Upper Doab is much as befora The 



340 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Ezecntion of 
the Dewan at 
Futtehgurh. 



Bnngash 
PiAthans. 



parties on the opposite bank are in no great force, but being at 
many points they distract and harass our peopla 

I was glad to hear that Major Weller found the Grand 
Trunk Eoad in good order. He has examined it from here to 
Allygurh, and thence downwards. His last report was from 
Groorsuhaegunge. 

All reports say that the Futtehgurh rebels had made up 
their minds to hold out in the city — which would have occasioned 
great loss to us probably, but for their thorough defeat and flight 
on the 2nd. 

The execution pf thp. Dewan seems to h ftv<? bftfin himfrlftd 
. . . It is also a pity the soldiers wftr<^ allowftd (as is aaid"^ to 8tufi[^ 
pork mto the wretch's mouth. The English ought to be above 
such proceedings. 

All Furruckabad news you of course get fresh and prompt 
from the Headquarters camp. They come to us by driblets, and 
uncertainly. The move on Mhow Shumsabad is good The 
Bungish Pathans, who supported the Nawab, deserve no quarter 
and must be rooted out. 



W. MuiR, 



C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 



CCLXXVI. 



My Dear Sir,- 



\Oth January 1858. Sunday. 



Letter from 
Nana to the 
R^'ah of Myn- 
poorie inter- 
cepted. 



Proceedings 
of rebels near 
Boolnndshu- 
hnr. 



Etawah continues in the same satisfactory state excepting 
towai-da Oreyah. Mr. Hume has, I believe, addressed you direct 
as to what he believes to be the menacing position of the Calpee 
Mutineers in reference to Cawnpore. 

I should not thmk they would have much heart left for an 
attack again on that placa But a letter from the Nana to the 
Raja of Mynpoorie has been intercepted, in which, after advert- 
ing to his misfortune in the rout and dispersion of the Gwalior 
troops, he informs him that he looks to a fresh assemblage at 
Calpee with the view to another attack on Cawnpoor. 

I give the following quotation from a letter of yesterday's 
date, received from Mr. B. Sapte, Magistrate of Boolundshuhur : 
" The rebels opposite Anoopshahur are very cheeky ; they fire at 
us every day, but as yet have not done any harm. But it is 
almost impossible to hit them, as they hide like jackals in the 
sugar canes, and blaze away at us. They are all up and down 
the river. But I hope we shall nobble them if they attempt 



LETTERS DOWN. COUNTRY 341 

to crosa We want a couple of heavy guns sadly, and I hope 

General Penny will send them to us if he can spare them." 

From native accounts I gather that the y are almost all new 

leviea Their object is probably not more than to watch the 

ghats, though they keep us in a ferment. Opposite Seharunpoor 

and Moozuffemugger they appear to be more lively, and plan a 

descent on our side every now and then. ^„ . - 

•^ W. Mure. 

General MANsnELD, 

Chief of the Staff, Headquartera 

CCLXXVII. 

11 (A January 1858. Monday. 

My Dear Beadon, — I enclose copy of a letter I sent yester- 
day to General Mansfield. 

On the 8th, 8 of the 8th Irregulars were traced near Myn- Men of the 
poorie. Four of them were killed on resisting apprehension ; the kluedhm?*" 
remaining 4 were captured by the Thakoor's zemindars, and sent captwre<i« 
in with the 8 horses, trappings, etc. The Sowars were in uniform, Khan 
and hal a perwana in their possession from Khan Buhadoor. Buhadoor. 

Harvey, the Commissioner, writes from Mynpoorie : " I find 
many of the old Amlah, against whom there is nothing, but who. Court Amlah. 
having been hiding in villages till the late tyranny be over past, 
have come in, and all will go smoothly hera" "The Raja," he Flight of the 
adds, "fled slipperless and coatless, and got a *rezai' from a^J^^®'^^" 
compassionate traveller near Bhowgaon." 

Unwin, late Magistrate and Judge of Mynpoorie, and well 
acquainted with the people, writes also from Mynpoorie (he is on 
his way down the country on medical certificate) : — 

"You will have heard from Cocks how serene all is hera 
The Chowhans terribly ashamed of themselves, and anxious to Chowhans at 
show loyalty by paying up revenua Very few of my oldJ^K^^® 
Chowhan friends have had the imprudence to present themselves shamed, 
yet. A few examples must be made ; but Iftrpfi ftH nwanc e should AUowance to 
be made for a clan which followed its chief, and was foolish them. 
enough to suppose us done for." 

A requisition has just come from the Commander-in-Chief to Beqoiaition 
despatch from this Magazine a large addition to his siege train, comnumder- 
with ammunition, etc. Every effort will be made here to despatch ">Chief. 
it with all celerity. I conclude that this portends a movement 
via Shahjehanpoor on Lucknow. We are keeping the thing as 
quiet as can be; but I fear it is getting wind, though the 
eventual destination of the train is of course not publia 



342 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



ChrUtian 
woman 
brought in. 



Women and 
children 
desirouH of 
going home. 



Mr. Wilson, fi*om Meerut, says that some Brahmins have 
brought over from Cader Chouk, in the Biidaon District, a 
Christian woman named Susan, the daughter of a drummer of 
some regiment near Calcutta. 

Mr. Poynder writes to me from Nynee Tal, that there are a 
great number of women and children desirous of going home, both 
at Nynee Tal and Almorah. Including both places, he says, they 
are " not far short of a hundred." 

I fear it will be some Uttle time before active operations in 
Oudh (if that, as we suppose, be the first scene of operations) 
will permit of an escort being furnished for them. I have sent 
his letter to General Mansfield. 

W. MuiR, 

C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 



Affairs at 
OadeTpore. 



Tonk. 



P.S. — ... No actual outbreak, he says, has taken place at 
Oudeypoor, though the troops, especially the Mahonmiedans, are 
" ripe for mutiny." The Eana's warning to Captain Brooke and 
others, that he could not guarantee their safety in passing 
through Oudeypoor, originated (Macdonald thinks) the report on 
an actual Mutiny. 

Macdonald gives a cheering account of the state of things at 
Tonk since the fall of Delhi ; and especially since the execution 
of the Nawab,^ the Nawab of Tonk has become wonderfully 
anxious to prove his loyalty to us. " On the 3rd he ordered his 
brethren, who in July and August last threatened to attack me 
(Macdonald) in this place, together with his maternal uncle" 
(Meer Alum Khan) and other disaffected persons, " to be seized. 
The uncle resisted, and was killed with others." 

The brother, Moneer Khan, with others, including fugitives 
from Delhi, put in chaina 

W. M. 



CCLXXVIII. 

12^^ January 1858. Tuesday. 

My Dear Beadon, — The state of things along the Ganges 
seems to remain pretty much as befora There are still nimierous 
bodies of insurgents, who fire guns and set afloat vapouring 
reports, but it appears probable that their sole object is to 
watch the ghata 

The eight Sowars whom I mentioned yesterday were 
^ Probably refers to the Nawab of Jhujjiir. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 343 

apprehended on the other bank near the Kutchla Ghat by 

Thakoor Dara Sing of Piproul, in Zillah Budaon. He has, I Thakoor Dara 

believe, been handsomely rewarded, as he deserves. ^^ ' 

Cocks is " getting on famously " in recruiting for local Cocks recruit- 
Cavalry. The Thakoors, he says, come in much more willingly caviSy. 

than the Jats. Thakoors and 

Jats. 

His collections too are beginning to come in well. Revenue 

There are still refractory Zemindars, both Thakoor and 
Aheer, in some quarters of the district — ^which is not to be 
wondered at. But Cocks will soon put them straight, and visit 
the rebellious with due pimishment. 

I have got a Memorandum from Major Williams, who has Ma^ior 
been investigating the conduct of the Meerut Police, on the Memorandum 
result so far of his enquiries. It is an interesting paper — the ofthe*Mw^°t^ 
precursor, I trust, of a still more interesting ona I will send a Police, 
copy. Meanwhile I may state the purport briefly. Though a 
latent discontent had been smouldering , no premeditated plan of Revolt not 
revolt can be traced. The first overt act was an oath taken bv ^^^ '** 
two of the 3rd Light Cavalry not to receive the cartridges till TheCartridges. 
the whole army had taken them. The confinement of 85 men 
of that Regiment led to the belief that the Government intended 
to force the cartridges upon the armv. Rumours that chains 
were being prepared at once for all the recusants, and that the 
Rifles were to march upon them, confirmed that belief and pre- 
cipitated the general Mutiny. The most would have returned 
to their allegiance had they not been compromised by the few 
wretches who fired at their officers. From the evidence of 
persons who met them on their way, "it appears that the 
Mutineei-s went to Delhi, accompanied by a large body of Mutineers' 
convicts and rabble as a disorganised mob, with no express object fSST* ^ 
in view, excepting that the Cavalry, principally composed of How the 
Mahommedans. taking the lead, naturally resorted to the anknow- }^y^^^^^^ ^ 
ledged head of their sect (the king) ; and hence the insurrection M«hominedan 
took at once a Mahonunedan com-'''"-* — " 



The rumours above referred to were circulated by the cook- Rumours, 
boys of the European regiments and bad characters of the 
Sudder Bazaar, which he describes as having been in a corrupt 
and dangerous state. The liberated prisoners, with electric 
rapidity, spread the news of the revolt, and that very night 
hordes of robbers joined the vagabonds of the Bazaar in the RespecUbie 
savage riot. " The respectable portion of the community, as the ffeerut com-^ 
evidence negatively proves, did not join in the riot." nlS^^I? 

The police may in parts have remained neutral ; but in some not. 



344 MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 

quarters at least they have been identified as having taken part 
in the outrages. 

Williams does not pledge himself to these opinions until he 
shall have completed and compared the evidence. 

W. Mum. 

C. Beadon, Esq., Calcuttii. 

CCLXXIX. 

13^^ January 1858. Wednesday. 

My Dear Beadon, — Thanks for yours of the 7 th. The daks 
are now getting very regular. 
Governor- I am very glad to hear that the Governor-General proposes 

p^^toSSuin eventually to disarm the population. 

^P®P^**®°- As to the change of the seat of Government, I have already 
ment for fully Said my say in my former letters to you and Harington. 

The new point you mention now as to our retention of the 
Sanpirand Saugor and Nerbudda territories does not appear to me to 
territories. improve the case. However much the communications with 
Jubbulpoor and the near parts of the province may be facili- 
tated, the tract itseK is, and will always be, aUen from us in 
manners, laws, institutions; — it far more assimilates in these 
respects with the South, and could be better managed from 
Nagpore. 
Raising of I am glad to see what you say about PoUce BattaUons. Men 

BatuSions. ^^^ being raised everywhera Cocks is getting on with foot and 
horse. Landholders, like the Zemindar of Peproul, who caught 
the Irregular Cavalry men, are desired to bring in 50 good men 
or so : — in a week Cocks will have one troop at least — *' every 
man's character is well sifted before enlistment." 
7i8t Native A mutineer of the 71st Native Infantry was caught and 

Infantry. ' j^^^^g^^ ^^ Mynpooria He, as weU as the Irregular Cavalry 

men, were " brought in by the people of the country." 
A. Ck>ck8, C.S., Writing yesterday. Cocks says : " I took a ride this morning 
tudeofthe perfectly alone, making a circuit of 16 miles and entering 9 
P«opl«» different villages. I was recognised in all, and heartily welcomed. 

The people are thoroughly ashamed of what has occurred, and 

are contrite and humble to an extent I should not have imagined 

possibla" 
Unrest in Meanwhile the aspect of affaii-s is a little uneasy in the 

^iis?on. Meerut Division. The raid on Meeranpoor in Moozuffemugger 
Raids on has been followed by another at Kunkul near Hurdwar, where 

Meeranpore 

and KunkuL the Telegraph assistant (of the Canal Telegraph) was seized and 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 345 

his bungalow burned. All this tends to keep our population in 
a state of excitement. I send a "private" letter from Mr. 
Dunlop on the subject. You will see that other causes have 
added to the uneasy feeling: — the treatment of Meeranpoor; 
draining of troops eastward, and non-fulfilment of long-promised 
new re-enforcement from England. The apprehension of Jan- Janfiahan's 
fishan's Moulvee for seditious language (see para. 4 of the public ^^ ^^ 
letter) is not insignificant, especially as it is the act of a Walaitee. 
The retention of both the Delhi Columns, Grant's and Seaton's, 
by the Commander-in-Chief, has undoubtedly left the N.W. dis- 
tricts weak, and tempts the development of disaffection and revolt. 

Williams, the Commissioner, has submitted Dunlop's public 
letter ofiicially. Ee-enforcements are going from Meerut towards 
Moozuffernugger, etc. ; but Meerut and Delhi can ill spare any- 
thing mora 

Meanwhile the Commander-in-Chief remains at Furruckabad, Commander- 
with the accumulated force of his own and the Delhi Column, pumickabad. 
The siege train won't be with His Excellency for a fortnight 
probably. It is to be hoped that he will be doing something in 
the interim. 

At last we have seen the face of new re-enforcements hera First new 
A detachment of the 38th has come over as a convoy, troops. 

You will have received the scheme for PoUce BattaUons Scheme for 
officially — also the memo, on the subject which Sir John Lawrence ^tt2i<m«. 
sent me : though drawn up by Ai^nold, it embodies Sir John's Sir John 
sentiments, as you will see from the note which I enclose. sentimMiti 

There is a great amount of valuable matter and argimient in 
it — though he has not con^ectly apprehended what Major 
Williams* scheme is. I agree with Sir Jojin about ha\'ing better 
paid native officers. 
. • • •,. • . • 

You have not said a word abdut the proposal of the Chief 
Commissioner to transfer Jackson to the Court. I am still hold- 
ing on in the Board, pending the Govemor-Generars answer to 
that appointment. ^. ^^^^ 

C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta 

CCLXXX. 

I4th January 1858. Thursday. 

My Dear Beadon, — ^The enclosed extra gives account of a 
brilliant affair on a small scale at the head of the Ganges CanaL 



346 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Oreya and 
EUwah 
threatened by 
Calpee force. 



Rohilkhund. 



Detailaof 
rebel force at 
Bareilly. 



WoUeeDad 
Khan and 
Delhi prince. 



Deesa force 
takes Rawal 
Fort 



Kotah Riyah. 



Macdonald 
alone at Deoli, 
but cheerful. 



It will do much good in restoring confidence and repressing dis- 
affection in the Upper Doab. 

Hume, from Etawab, writes ratber bad accounts of tbe 
advance of tbe Calpee force on Akberpore, and of its threatening 
Oreya and Etawab. I trust tbe moveable column of Cawnpoor 
will prevent sucb a contingency. If tbe district is Uable to raids 
and plunder, we sball get no revenue. It would be a good plan 
to place tbe Mynpoorie force at Etawab, — tbis would keep tbe 
Doab intervening between Etawab and Furruckabad, including 
Mynpoorie, quiet. Captain Bruce is over bere, having been sent 
over by tbe Commander-in-Chief to communicate direct with 
Colonel Eraser (be came over by tbe dak cart), and I hope tbis 
may be an*anged with him. 

The last accounts from Sobilkbuud are that tbe rebels 
opposite Anoopsbabur have been refused aid from Bareilly. 
There are said to be 40 guns at Bareilly, of which 3 are very 
large — but most are of country manufacture. There are some 
8000 foot and 2000 horse at Bareilly; 2500 foot and 300 
horse at Shahjehanpoor ; about half that number at Budaou. 
The Infantry are generally new levies and raw ; — the Cavalry 
better. They have lately had re-enforcements from Oudb. 
Wullee Dad Khan and a son of tbe King of Delhi are said to be 
at Bareilly. 

Captain Macdonald, from Deolee, on tbe 1 th instant, says that 
the Deesa force has begun well You will perhaps have heard 
by telegraph, but I may mention that the fort of Eawal in tbe 
Serowie district was taken after two hours' fighting. It is in the 
vicinity of Aboo, and was " gallantly can-ied in a rush : — the 
Thakoor and a part of tbe garrison escaping to the hilla Three 
officers of the 10th Bombay Native Infantry, one of H.M.*s 
95 th, are wounded ; — further casualties do not exceed a dozen — 
one of tbe 95 th alone being killed." 

The Kota Baja, Macdonald says, is strengthening himself 
against his rebelUous soldiery, and he may be able to dispose of 
them himself yet "Should be not succeed unaided, we shall 
soon be strong enough for anything in Eajpootana." This is 
cheerful language from a soUtary European officer in a place like 
Deolee. 

The Jowra Nawab had recently been at Neemucb. 



W. MuiR. 



C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 347 

CCLXXXL 

15^^ Janua/ry 1858. Friday. 

My Dear Beadon, — I have no news to-day. 

Harvey (Commissioner of Agra) has reached, and been Harvey joins 
coi-dially received by the Commander-in-Chief at Fun-uckabad. uJ!cSS *'' 
But you will have all the news from that quarter earlier than I 
get it. 

He says the 64 th go to Allygurh. This is a good move, 64th Regiment, 
showing to the people up the Doab new Europeans. It will 
produce an excellent effect, both locally and throughout the 
Upper Doab. 

The 23rd are out making a bridge over the Ramgunga, some 23rd Native 
7 or 8 miles on the Shahjehanpoor road, so that I trust there *°^' 
will be an early move in that direction. 

W. MuiR. 

C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 

CCLXXXII. 

16^^ January 1858. Saturday. 

My Dear Beadon, — Boldero, the new Magistrate of Myn- Boideroreports 
poorie, has joined. He has an unusually intimate acquaintance retunmigorder 
with native character, so his opinion concurring with that ^f^^^^tT^"® 
Cocks and Harvey may be of interest. "The people in this 
district," he says, "in general seem quite delighted to see 
Europeans coming back amongst them, and their civility beats 
the famed civility of the Delhi folks " (Boldero had lately been 
there), — " theirs being in a great measure forced, and here entirely 
of their o^vn accord. They seem tired of all the anarchy that 
has been f^oin^y on. and seem inclined to settle down very quietly. 
Of coui^se tliere are some few choice spirits who object to the 
old style of things, as they will not be able to loot ad libitum as 
they have been doing." 

The revenue is coming in fairly, and the Sowar levies Revenue 
" getting on very briskly." Boldero very properly looks to ®®°^*^ °* 
these local levies for the settlement of the district. 

From Etawah, Hume writes cheerfully ; Oreya has hitherto Hume, c.s., 
escaped. A i>arty of Sepoys, who came to reconnoitre it, got *" 
fireil on from several quarters and flecl Still, there are parties 
of rebels about in various places between Secundra and Ajeet- 
mull. Hume is getting on with his entrenchment, which will Fortifies 
be a very respectable one, with a ditch 10 feet deep and 18 wida 



348 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



General Law- 
rence reports 
on Kotao 
R^jah. 



Commander- 
in-Chief 
praised. 

Sikhs' pro- 
pensity to 
plunder. 



He is also running a line of defence round the city, at which the 
people work cheerfully. The low Mewattee and other disaffected 
Mahommedans all took themselves off before the advent of 
Walpole's Column. 

General Lawrence, writing from Ajmere on the 12th, has 
enclosed a letter for Edmonstone, in which he gives, I conclude, 
his own views. The Eajah of Kotah, he says, is strengthening 
himself in the citadel there by calling on the Bajpoots ; and the 
mutinous soldiery are daily quitting in dread of our approach. 
Lawrence insists rightly on his delivering up the ringleaders in 
the murder of Bui'ton. 

We have heard of a success at the Eamgunga, and that Peel 
is constructing the Bridge — but no further particulars yet. 

The Commander-in-Chief is greatly praised for combined 
caution and activity, and for " doing his best to maintain dis- 
cipline," but the truth is the Sikhs are imrestrainable when 
plunder is before them. 

W. MuiR. 

C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 



Affair at 
Myapore. 



Mr. Debrass. 

Unrest in 
Rohilkhund. 



Inroad at 
Meeranpore. 



CCLXXXIIL 

ISth January 1858. Monday. 

My Dear Beadon, — Yours of the 6 th was received by me 
yesterday through Sherer, simultaneously with one from Haring- 
ton of the 12th. 

Nothing is stimng to the West. 

Baird Smith has officially reported the affair at Myapoor 
under Captain Boisragon and some of the Canal officers. It was 
most complete and decisive ; what with killed and drowned, the 
loss is estimated at 400. 

The damage by the invaders was not great, but the capture 
by them of Mr. Debrass, the signaller, is much to be lamented. 
They also seized a number of the Canal people. 

Baird Smith says " the general agitation along the Ganges 
front has materially increased of late. While the incursions 
above referred to were taking place near Hurdwar, an almost 
simultaneous inroad had been made at Meeranpoor in the 
Moozuffemugger district, and for some time before petty raids 
on Choukies or outposts had been occurring. The cause I believe 
to be that fugitive Mutineers from the southward are finding 
their way in larger numbers than before into the Bijnour District. 
Both at Kunkul and Meeranpoor, the extremities of the line 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 349 



under my charge, the invacling parties were clearly seen to have 

both Regular Infantry and Cavalry among them. The sole per- Baird Smith 

manent remedy for such a state of things seems to me to be the Sju^^onhe" 

occupation of the left bank of tlie river, and imtil this can be *®^ ^°^- 

done I am prepared to find these isolated incursions persisted in 

by the Insurgents, whose general object seems to be to avoid 

any collision with the troops, but to create feelings of alarm, 

want of confidence in the local administration, and insecurity of 

life and property among the population of the Districts." 

Mr. Spankie, too, writing from Seharunpoor on the 14th, Mr.Spankie 
anticipates that when there is a pressure felt to the East, the Jccu^tira of 
safety of the Western districts will need to be looked to and ^Unoro- 
re-enforcements provided. " In my opinion, Bijnour should be 
reoccupied simultaneously with any movement from Meerut or 
Agra or elsewhere on Rohilkhimd." He says, however, he 
understands from Barnes that there is a colimin preparing at Column pre- 
Lahore for Eohilkhund serM'ce. We have had no later intima- ESSw for 
tion on the subject than Sir John's letter, which I sent on to RoJ»JJJ^J»wnd. 
the Commander-in-Chief last month. 

The end of the Irregulars who did Spankie such good ser^'ice Sad defection 
hds been imfortunAta They " wer6 sent," he says, " by me to who^SSdone 
Baird Smith, and by him to join a force at Meeranpoor. They fi^*^ wnice. 
went very unwillingly, and evidently the cause of their unwilUng- 
ness was the fear of the Afghans and Sikhs in the 1st Punjab 
Cavalry, who they thought would do all they could to ruin them. 
The result has been imfortunate: 25 of their 33 have been 
tried for misbehaving themselves before the enemy, and have 
been transported for life — 7 went boldly over to the enemy. I 
am very sorry for all this, and think there will be strong 
feeling on the subject, as their friends are numerous in this 
district. They coUecteil a great deal of revenue for me here, 
and did very good service against the insurgents in May and 
Jime and subse<iuently." 

Young Daniell has gone out to take charge of Eta, and finds Danioii, c.s., 
everything quiet, though " there are constant reports of the ^^^ ®^ *• 
Mutineers on the Budaon side of the river; and yestenlay (15th) 
they appeare<l in great force at the Kutchla Ghat." The collec- 
tions arc getting fairly on. 

I have a memo, from Reid regarding the attendance in the H. a Reid, 
schools in the Meenit, Moozuffemugger, Delhi, and Boolimdshuhur ^^ itterSance 
districts — the only ones for which he had materials at hand. ^° ^^^ schools. 
I will send you a copy of it. In 18 Tehseelee Schools the 
attendance in November was 593 — being 33 per school "The 



350 MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 

schools are gaining ground agaiiL The Haupper School showed 
an attendance in December of upwards of 80 boys." 

At Kosee, Reid found on his way down from Delhi 100 boys, 
and at Muthra 90, at the Tehseelee Schoola He attributes 
great importance, and I think rightly, to keeping these institu- 
tions at work They are Government Institutions , which should 
always be to the fore. 

His next memo, will cover a larger area 

W. MuiR. 

C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 

Agra CoUeges The Agra College was hardly closed for a few days, and it, 

well attended. ^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ Church Missionary College here, have been for 

months well attended. 



CCLXXXIV. 

19^ January 1858. Tuesday. 



My Dear Beadon,- 



Rebei activity I fear that the pressiire is already beginning to tell in 

RohU^hS^d. Western Eohilkhund. Sapte writes to me in a letter of yester- 
day's date from Boolundshuhur, that the Insurgent army opposite 
Anoopshahur has been re-enforced, and that on the 1 7th they 
brought down to the river six guns — two of them 9-po\mders, 
the others smaller. Their fire killed one of Sapte's Jats and 
wounded two. Our guns silenced theirs after two houre' firing. 

Colonel Farquhar (commanding the Boolundshuhur force) is 

very anxious for some more Europeans and heavy guns, but 

General Penny cannot assist him. Perhaps something will now 

64th Regiment be done for him from this side. The European Regiment 

( uropeans). ^g4|jjj^^ destined by the Conmiander-in-Chief for Allygurh, is going 

on towards Meerut. Perhaps a portion of it may be diverted 
to Boolundshuhur. Sapte also needs something more than 
6-po\mdera The boats must be guarded, and the force on our 
side should be strong enough to repel all attempts at a descent 
upon this bank. 

Since writing the above I have seen Fraser, who thinks that 
the 64th might be with advantage posted at Boolundshuhur, and 
this will probably be suggested to General Penny. 

The Deputy Postmaster of Moradabad (a Baboo) writes from 
that place, under date the 14th, that about 150 horse and foot, 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 351 

said to be fugitives from Furruckabad and Bareilly, arrived at Fugitives from 
Moradabad on the 1 3th — stayed there that night, and went on j^d^BarciUy 
next morning to Amroha^ which is a town full of disaffected ^ Amroha. 
Mahommedans, long nurtured by Jageers in the Moradabad 
district ; some also went on to Seohara, a town in Bijnour. As 
Shahjehanpoor, etc., are occupied by us, I fear that, if we do 
not soon break groimd on the Bijnour and Moradabad side, they 
will get strong, and our advance (which could probably be easily 
made now) be eventually contested. 

The Furruckabad Nawab is said to have fled to Bareilly, and Furruckabad 
to have been sent back with troops and gims by Khan Buhadoor g^,^ * 
to fight with us. I suspect the wretched Nawab has not much Buhadoor. 
fight in him left of any kind. 

Dunlop (writing from Meerut on the 1 6th) confirms the good 
effect of the affair at Mayapore. AhmedooUa, the Nawab present AhmedooUa 
at the engagement, was brought back to Nujeebabad in Bijnour wounded, and 
** on an elephant, wounded on the shoulder, and ShuffeeooUa was Sli^j?**^^ 
killed. The rebels are greatly disgusted at the ease with which 
our handful of men thrashed them, and the affair will have a 
very wholesome effect throughout the district." 

The labours of peace are being resumed in Meerut. Dunlop 
says they are getting on fast there with the revision of the 
Settlement papers. "Haupper and Mooradnugger are the only two Settlement 
Tehseelees not occupied, and we have 66 jureebs^ going in the ^git^^rnt 
others. We shall be able to act as the dep6t for supplying ^^^^^^ ^'^'^P- 
detachments of Surveyors, as well as Police, to other districts." 

The records were generally saved, but some of the measure- Records 
ments, papers, and maps completed before the Mutiny wereSvSat'^ 
destroyed. After the outbreak all the records were packed off ^^^^ 
in hackeries to the entrenchment; and have since been sent 
back : — a heap of confusion, but mostly in good condition. For 
two or three days the Goojurs had access to the office, and the 
gaudy colours of the bustahs (the papers of each pergiunah are Bustah clotha 
wrapped in cloth of one colour) attracted the fancy of the ooojur women. 
Goojur women, who tore off every scrap. 

We have not heard of Eaikes from Furruckabad, but Harvey 
seems to be getting on well with the Commander-in-Chief. They 
are getting the Fort into order and supplying it. The Treasiire 
to be kept thera A regiment will garrison it when the Head- 
quarters leave. The Thannah has been replaced at Bewur, and 
a Tehseeldar sent to Chibramow on the 16th. 

Hume writes in distress from Etawah that the Calpee 

^ Measuring chains. — W. C. 



352 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



Action of the 

Cftli>ee 

Mutineers. 



Captain Bruce 
objects to the 
fortification of 
Allygurh. 



Active opera- 
tions of 
Dr. Clark, 
Postmaster- 
Gkneral, at 
Allygurh. 



Mutineers, having made havoc of the Jumna side of Cawnpoor, 
are supposed to be making for him. But a private letter from 
Colonel Inglis mentions active movements against the insurgents 
in the direction of Calpee, so that it may be hoped the rebels 
will have enough to occupy them at home without thinking of 
Etawah. 

Captain Bruce has run over to Allygurh. The Magistrate 
there has been strengthening the defences of the City, to which 
Bruce advances serious objections, as in case of its occupation 
by the enemy at any time it would be very strong : — not that 
that contingency is at all likely — but it is a contingency, and 
walls with bastions, etc., are not necessary for Police purposes 
Fraser will attend to thia 

Bruce is astonished at the busy scene Dr. Clark has 
already set in operation with his Postal Department, constructing 
waggons, etc. ; only, he thinks it should be closer to the Fort, 
which I fear Clark would not find convenient. Clark told me, 
I think, he was turning out two waggons a day. 

Bruce says the Fort is very strong, and could be amply held 
by 300 to 350 men. 

W. Mum. 

C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 



Kintrand 
Del 



nga 



Delhi Field 
Force broken 
up. 

Civil Govern- 
ment reverted 
to at DelhL 



Private letters from Delhi speak of the King as dying. It 
is a wonder he has lived so long. How often poor Mr. Thomason 
and old Metcalfe thought he was going ! It is most satisfactory 
to find from your letter that a discriminating justice is intended. 
The Andaman Islands will be a most suitable place of banishment 
for the less guilty mutineers and rebels. 

Saunders writes on the 13th: "Colonel Bum has been 
ordered down to Futtehgurh to rearrange the Clothing Agency ; 
and the Delhi Field Force having been broken up, and the 
Military Government al)olished, the City has revertetl to the 
Civil Authorities. The Gates and Defences of the place, how- 
ever, remain as before under Military charge." 



CCLXXXV. 

20^^ January 1858. Wednesday. 

My Dear Beadon, — Everything seems quiet at present in 
the Upper Doab. 

I have a letter from Sir John Lawrence of the 15 th instant. 
He does not allude to the preparation of any force for Eohilkhund. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 353 

But he says: "I have sent, or am sending, the Commander-in- Sir J. Lawrence 
Chief 32 rissalas of Horse, equal to more than 5 Regiments — mor/thaTtiTe 
besides three and a half corps of Punjaub Infantry. All these I h^^^jJ^®' 
hope will be in his vicinity by the 15 th of next month — some, three and a 
long before." The Commander-in-Chief has been written to, to of Punjab 
know what His Excellency wishes the destination of these troops ^"'*^*^» 
to be. 

Sir John adds : " I have sent a good Police Battalion of 800 And Police 
strong to Delhi, and another of 1100 men has just started for Delhi and 
Benares ; I do hope that no more troops will be required of ma If ^'*»"f«^ 
so, I must raise them, and this is not politic^ • The number of Lar^ number 
Sikhs that have already been sent down is immense, and the down, 
feeling is becoming strong on all sides that it is time to stop. 

I have a letter from Captain Macdonald, dated the 15th 
instant The Tank Nawab seems to be making violent plunges Nawab of 
to regain his name for loyalty ; — he proposes, it is said, to despatch 
his brother and other disaffected characters to Lawrence by 
Ajmere, bound hand and foot. 

The agitation continues at Kota. On the 12th there appears Agiution at 
to have been a fight there between the Rajah's adherents and those ^ ' 
opposed to him, including the murderers of Burton ; firing had 
been heard throughout the night The result was not yet known. 

There were rumours at Deolee that a number of the 
insurgents having crossed the Chumbul were moving on Deolee, 
but Macdonald did not credit them. 

The whole available Nusserabad force was understood to be Nusseerabad 
on the 15 th before Awah. Awah. 

One hundred and fifty of the 2nd B. Cavahy had been sent 8th Hussars, 
from Neemuch to Deesa to make over their horses to the 8 th 
Hussars. 

Both Neemuch and Nusserabad are therefore for the moment 
weak ; 1)ut it will not last long — and it is for the last time, I 
trust, they will ever be left so exposed. 

Macdonald thinks that the two parties at Kotah are pretty 
nearly balanced ; but the reports he receives are so contradictory 
that it is difficult to make out the precise state of affairs. 

Alexander, Commissioner of Eohilkhund, writing from Nynee 
Tal on the 15 th, says: "We have still enemies in and about Enemies in 

the Ter&i 

the Bhabur, between Rooderpoor, Wilson Gunge, and Huld- 
wanee" — places lying between Moradabad and the foot of 
Nynee Tal Hills. He says: "Now is the time to strike at 
Bareilly. If it be left behind, and a move be made on Oudli, u h 
Khan Buhadoor Khan will wax bolder, if not stronger ; and door Kuan. 
VOL. I. — 23 



354 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



the suffering of those left iu the town and district will be 
proportionately augmented, and hope of getting a stiver of 
revenue will go." 

W. MuiR. 
C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 



Inexpediency 
of alienating 
Meerut from 
N.W.P. 



Concurred in 
by Sir J. 
Lawrence. 



CCLXXXVI. 

20th January 1868. Wednesday. 

My Dear Haringtgn, — Here is my first instalment for you 
in the matter of the three bills. It contains nothing which I 
have not already urged in private lettere ; but it is put in official 
form, and will probably go up to Government. I have not 
spoken with Eeade on the subject, and do not know his views 
regarding it. 

I have not, however, as yet heard any dissentient opinion as 
to the inexpediency of alienating Meerut. 

I sent Sir John Lawrence the copy of a letter which I wrote, 
entering fully into the question both of the change of the seat of 
Government and the transfer of Meerut. He says : " I was much 
obliged to you for your last letter and its enclosure. I think with 
you that it is not a good plan dividing the Gangetic Doab under 
two different administrationa The annexation of the Delhi 
Division to the Punjaub would not matter." Kindly let this 
opinion be known to Lord Canning; and you might also show 
His Lordship the Memorandum — though I fear there is nothing 
new in it. 

I have not, of course, touched on the question of the change 
in the seat of Government. 

W. MuiR. 

H. B. Harington, Esq., Calcutta. 



Fighting at 
Kotah. 



CCLXXXVII. 

2}8t Januarij 1858. Thursday. 

My Dear Beadgn, — Fighting seems to have been kept up 
at Kotah for several days, and was still going on on the 14th. 
Communication with Deolee was cut off, and Captain Macdonald 
was still ignorant of the result. He has been told that the 
Oudeypoor, Keraolee, and other neighbouring chiefs ha^'e been 
sending Contingents to the aid of the Kotah Bajah — who is 
anxious to chastise the mutinous forces before our arrival 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 355 

lu the forenoon of the 16tb Capt. Macdonald and othei*s at 
Deolee heard a report like a distant salvo of ordnanca It could 
hardly, he says, be oi-dinary firing at Kotah — the sound of which 
would not reach Deolee, as hills intei-vene. He hopes it may 
have been the explosion of a grand Magazine the Mutineers had 
got together. But it is prematiire to speculata 

The rebels maintain their position opposite Boolundshuhur ; RebeUion in 
but Sapte has ascertained that they lost, by our cannonade of 
Sunday the 17 th, fourteen killed, and some 40 or 50 more 
wounded. 

The shutting of the Canal at the Mayapoor Dam raised the 
water in the river at Anoopshuhur 2 feet, but I doubt whether 
such a rise would be permanent if the Canal were shut. I am, 
however, sending Sapte's letter to Baird Smith, who formerly 
assigned what appeared good reason for not closing the CanaL 

There is a strong body of the rebels at Eam Ghat about 18 
miles below Anoopshuhur with 3 guns — and the water is very 
shallow there. 

The posting of the 64 th, or a part of it, at Boolundshuhur 
will, however, protect this side. 

Hume, writing from Etawah on the 19th, says he is entirely EUwah. 
relieved from the apprehension of attack; the insurgents had 
hastily retreated to the southern side of the Jumna. The cause 
he did not know; but it was evidently the presence of the 
Cawnpoor moveable column near Secundra, or the Etawah 
frontier. This column was magnified by native report into 
10,000 Europeans! Meanwhile, however, much damage has Damage done 
been done. Ajeetmul and 13 other towns or villages between y**^*^*^"*' 
Sukna and Oreya have been burned or plundered; and Hume 
fears that some portion of the Oreya revenue will be lost. If the 
Cawnpoor force had been out 10 days earlier, this misfortune, he 
says, would have been averted. 

What the Commander-in-Chief is doing with his vast 
concentration of forces we cannot make out. The siege train will 
leave this to-morrow. But in the interim between his occupation 
of Furruckabad and its reaching, something might surely have 
been done either south of the Jumna or north of the Gangea 
Every expedition in which a single gun is taken has an important 
bearing on the final struggle, as it emphatically draws the teeth 
of the insurgents. 

W. MuiR. 

C. Beadon, Esq. 



356 MSS. VOL. III.: FOURTH SERIES 

CCLXXXVIIL 

22nd January 1858. Friday. 

My Dear Beadon, — Up to the 17th instant Capt. 
Macdonald had received no authentic intelligence of the result 
of the fighting at Kotah ; but he had a native letter from 
Jahazpoor (the reports of which place had ordinarily turned out 
correct) saying that the Eajah of Kotah had subdued the 
insurgents, kilhng 600 and taking all their Artillery — with a 
loss of 200 on his side. 

The Lahore Grovemment have intimated the march from 
Dera Ismail Khan towards Ferozepoor of the 1st Sikh Infantry 
and Moultan Horse, and expected arrival at Lahore of the 2nd 
Punjaub Cavahy and 5 th Punjaub Infantry. But all such 
movements are probably reported direct to Calcutta. 

I have a letter from the Postmaster at Moradabad stating 
KhAnBuha. the prevalent report that 5000 of Khan Buhadoor's troops had 
c^^*f2^ deserted from him, and that he had in alarm raised the Crusading 
in RohiiklimS. flag^ but with little succesa 

A proclamation has been affixed by some rebels on the 
Jumma Musjid at Moradabad calling upon the faithful to rally 
round Khan Buhadoor and proceed to Bareilly, but it had not 
met with any response in that city. 

Numbers of the respectable people of Bareilly were flocking 
to liampoor and Moradabad for shelter. They stated that the 

Furruckabad Furruckabad Nawab was at Bareilly with some of his 

^•"^•^ attendanta 

Disturbance at There is a little disturbance in a \'illage about 20 miles 
oj lanee. north of Muthra. A Fakeer there (the village is called 
Oojhanee) during the disturbances took possession of some 
Government timber — railway posts, I think — and on our 
resumption of authority refused to give them up. Imdad Ally, 
the Deputy Collector, expected to persuade him to do so 
amicably : as there are no available troops whatever at Muthra, 
Colonel Fraser forbade the attempt of forcible measures. But 
Imdad Ally attacked the place, and found it defended by a wall 
from which he was obliged to retire. Imdad Ally holds his 
place in an adjoining village surrounded ])y numerous matchlock- 
men of the loyal neighbouring Zemindars. The Goorgaon troops 
will probably be able to detach a small body to put the Fakeer 
down ; and indeed the thing is so unimportant but that for the 
general tranquillity of the country westward it would not. have 
deserved mention. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 357 

Our contribution to the Conmiander-in-Chief's siege train is Agra contribu- 
starting to-day. The string of hackeries seems endless. Seven liander-in^ 
24-pounder8, sLx 10 -inch mortars, among other pieces, have gone ; ^jj^^'"®^ 
— above 30,1 believe, in all; which will give His Excellency, His ExceUency 
with what he already has, some 68 pieces of siege ordnance. siege oitln^ce. 

W. MuiR. 
C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 



CCLXXXIX. 

23rrf January 1858. Saturday. 

My Dear Beadon, — Captain Macdonald's favourable antici- 
jKitions have not been realised. The Hakim of Jehazpoor has Rigaii of Kouh 
informed him that " the day has gone against the Eajah of Kota, terms, 
who has been forced to make terms with the budmashea" 

I have no other intelligence from tlie West. 

But I have a message from Lahore of yesterday's date, in 
reply to my question as to whether a force might be soon 
expected from the Punjaub for service in Rohilkhund ; it is to 
this cllect: "The following troops are now en route. A jwrtion Troops «» 
will roach the Meerut district early in February ; the remainder the PuiyS). 
by the middle of the month. One troop of Horse Artillery ; one 
light Field Battery; one li^ment of Punjaub Cavalry. Two 
Infantry Eegiments, and a wing of Punjaub Infantry." Aided by 
some Europeans, this force should be fit for anything at present 
in Western Rohilkhund. 

We have a letter from Mr. Daniell at Etah of yesterday's DanieU, C.S., 
data He is getting on well, but somewhat alarmed at the***^^* 
reported inroads of the insurgents from the opposite side of the 
Gangea " Fifteen hundred rebels and five gims are reported to 
have occupied Kaimgunge, and killed the Thannahdar and some 
Chupraseea The enemy held every ghat opposite those in this 
district." 

Kaimgunge is not more than 20 miles from Furruckabad, and, Kaimgunge. 
as our letters from the latter place dated the 21st instant make 
no mention of the inroads, we hope Mr. Daniell's information 
may be at fault. What he says as to the ghats being all in 
possession of the rebels is not satisfactory. One does not see 
why, in this pause, expeditions should not have been planned 
some little distance up the river. Dinkur Rao is over here Dinkur Rao. 
again. The Narwar Bajah, he says, has run away. He hopes Narwar Rigah. 
the Bombay road may be open all the way in another week. 



358 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



I trust Sir E. Hamilton will be able to move towards 
Bundelkhund from Saugor. It would be a great relief. 

W. MuiR 
C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 

Baird Smith is in distress about the bursting of the Canal 
above the Daboulee escape, and anxious for the assistance of 
more officers in this Department. 



Cocks, c.s. 

Chowbey'a 

family. 

DilsookhRai. 



DilBOokh Rai 
recommended 
for title of 



AlaoJaykishen 
Dass. 



ccxc. 

23rd January 1858. Saturday. 

My Dear Harington, — Cocks has run in for a day or 
two from Mynpoorie, and I have had a talk with him about 
Chowbey's family and Dilsookh Eai. I had a long conversation 
with Dilsookh Eai himself. He gave me a deeply interesting 
account of the noble Chowbey's last days. Wilson was wrong in 
sending the Tehseeldar, the Chowbey, and Dilsookh Eai back to 
Kassgunge with the enemy so close at hand. From what Cocks 
wrote at the time, I believe Wilson was sensible of this after- 
wards, and felt it deeply. They seemed to have behaved with 
the greatest gallantry. At the time of the inroad of the enemy's 
horse, Dilsookh Eai was not with the Chowbey, who was over- 
taken ; his head was cut off and then stuck up at the Tehseelee. 
Dilsookh Eai himself, with a small body of his own horse, effected 
his escape with the utmost risk. They killed some of the enemy 
and lost one or two of their own men. 

I send Dilsookh Eai's testimonials. He is a fine, brave, 
open fellow — and will bear his honours welL Cocks agrees with 
Phillips that the title of Eajah is not too much, and I quite agree. 
Dilsookh Eai is anxious to succeed the Eaiah of Eta, who has die d 
without heii*8 — ^his family having no claims (but the reverse) to 
our favour. Cocks thinks this would he app ropriate. Rut the 
disposal of the confiscated eatatea and conferment of suitab le 
cunf^^ both JT^ thJR and the Chowbey's famihes' case, mi ght be l eft 
for future consideration by the local authorities . Both should 
have suitable landed property to support their titles, and that 
can be easily arranged. 

Cocks thinks that Jaykishen Dass, the Chowbey's eldest 
brother, might suitably be made a Eajah also ; and, with reference 
to our deceased friend's signal services, I think it would be 




LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 359 

warranted. Jaykisheu Dass himself rendered important service 
as Tehseeldar of Hatrass. 

Our friend, Chowbey Mohun Lall, the nephew or cousin who Chowbey 
used to attend the old Chowbey, might be made a Eao. ^ ^^ ^^ 

TT T» TT 17 W. MUIR. 

H. B. Harington, Esq., 

Legis^ Council, Calcutta, 



CCXCI. 

25^ JantMry 1858. Monday. 

Mt Dear Beadon, — No fresh incident at Kota: but the Facts of the 
facts of the disturbance are now better understood Jey Dial, Ti^^ 
one of the worst of the traitors, was passing through the City Jey Diil. 
with some of his followers when they seized a number of horses 
belonging to one of the citizena The latter resisted, when a 
general fight ensued. Jey Dial brought up guns and destroyed 
the house where he was attacked. He then turned the guns 
against the Fort and Palaca The insurgents appear fu-st to have 
been repelled and driven out of the City with considerable 
slaughter and loss of 6 guns, as before reported. But they 
attacked the Fort again, and, bringing guns and ladders close up 
to it, alarmed the Bajah, who abandoned one of his advisers to 
them, and agreed to confer a Khillut, Jageer, eta, eta, upon Jey 
Dial On this the insurgents retired, and peace was restored. 

All is right at Muthm. The rebellious Fakeer evacuated Mathra. 
Oojhanee, and the telegraph posts are in our hands. 

Hume writes in good spmts from Etawah. He has been Hame at 
re-enforced by a couple of hundred Sowars by the Commander- ^ ' 
in-Chief. 

I have a letter of the 23rd from Dr. Farquhar, our Civil Dr. Faiquhar. 
Surgeon, who ran over the previous day to Furruckabad. He 
met waggons laden with the telegraph wire at Shekoabad (40 
miles off from this), so that it will shortly be here. The line has 
now reached Mynpoorie, but you probably know this already. 

Some of the Mynpoorie Sowars accompanietl Farquhar as 
orderlies. They are quite village men ; " they are very greatly 
interested in the crops, which are rather backward for want of 
rain, which the clouds promise to-day" (we have had heavy 
showers since). The opinion of such men is worth recording. 
" They spoke freely of the rebellion of the Sepoys — lots of whom ^^™« ®? 
they describe as hiding in holes and comers, begging to be hadmatiiiiecL 



360 



MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 



screeued from detection. They said they {ie, the Sepoys) have 
no further desire to fight ; but from fear of the gallows, as the 
only alternative to death on the field, continue to i*e8ist." 

Trade reviving. "In riding from Mynpoorie to this (Furruckabad) we met 
several carts with good potatoes and cloth of sorts from Futteh- 
gurh bound for Agi^a. No guards or fear of molestation seemed 
to be near them." 

Naval Brigade. " The praise of the sailors," he says, " is loud in every one's 
mouth " in camp. 

" Three hundred men have been hung here already. The 
feeling is not so bitter in camp as you would expect, though a 
recklessness of life prevails in the convei*sation." Farquhar 
noted the feeUng closely at Delhi, and this statement, coming 
from him, is satisfactory. 



Hanging of 
rebels. 

Feeling in 
camp. 



CaUof 
Mr. Muir to 
Allahabad. 



W. Muir. 



C. Beadox, Esq., Calcutta. 



F.S. — Since commencing this letter I have received the 
message, dated the 23rd, directing me to proceed to Allahal)ad 
with paii; of the Secretariat establislunent. The firet convoy 
proceed on the 7th proximo, when I propose starting. 

In a letter of the 19th instant Captain Macdonald writes: 
" Awah will be invested on the 2l8t: it is now said to have a 
garrison of 700, but will jx)ssibly be found empty." 

" I have heard nothing of Tank for some time." The attack 
of the insurgents on Kaimgimge and the murder of the Thannadar 
is, I fear, confirmed. 

[I was simply acting member of the Kevenue Board at the 
time; Thornhill being Acting Secretary to Government. My 
" Intelligence " coiTcspondence may have suggested the call to 
Allahabad, possibly. — W. M.] 



Lieutenant 
Keatinge 
marches into 
Ooona. 



Sir R. Hamil- 
ton. 



CCXCIII. 

2Qth January 1868. Tuesday. 

My Dear Beadon, — You have probably telegraphic intelli- 
gence regarding Lt. Keatinge's movements. But in case you have 
not, I give the following particulai's from a letter of his, dated 
the 22nd instant. He marched into Goona on that day with 
600 Hyderabad Cavahy. Major Orr's instnictions are to return 
again to Bioura ; but Keatinge is ailxious to arrange for the force 
remaining at Goona. 

On the 18th Sir E. Hamilton with the 2nd Brigade were on 
march from Bhopal on the way to Saugor. 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 361 

The Ist Brigade was to march from Mhow on the 26 th or 
28th; on the arrival of the siege train from Ahmednugger, 
Keatinge expects the brigade to march in his direction by the 
Bombay road. 

In coming up to Goona, he says, " we have met no sort 
of opposition on the road ; and it is evident that the petty 
liajahs about here, though willing enough to fight with one Feeling of 
another and with Scindia, do not wish to try the chances of war ccntnOlndia. 
with our Government. There is nothing, I hope, to hinder the 
post going regularly between Agra and Bombay now." 

The enclosed letter received from Mr. M'Leod states in 
detail the force moving down from the Punjaub ; but from Sir J. 
Lawrence's letter you will see that he has made no arrangement 
in regard to "Rohilkhund in particulai." He is mistaken in 
thinking that the Agi*a authorities have any voice in the matter ; 
and Colonel Fraser does not now like to send any communica- 
tions to the Commander-in-Chief. 

One does not see why the direct route suggested by M*Leod 
should not be adopted if His Excellency destines these troops for 
the reoccupation of Eohilkhund from the West. The Governor- 
General would be in time to direct such a movement by telegraph 
if it is deemed advisable. 

I enclose a letter from . Charles Raikes, as you may care to 
see what he says about the protection of this bank. 

One does not readily understand why in this pause the 
Commander-in-Chief should not have been scouring the coimtry 
by miscellaneous detachments, without separating them from 
Headquarters for more than a week or ten days. One can 
imderstand why he is determined not to break up his force ; but 
such a course would not have done so. However, such specula- 
tions are of little use now, for I conclude the period of 
inaction is close at an end. One grand point is that the whole Confidence 
force has the most thorough confidence in its leader, and im- mander-in-' 
plicitly believes in him. Dr. Farquhar, who has just come back ^**^- 
from Furruckabad, describes the feeling as unanimous and enthusi- 
astic. This is good. 

The officers justify this month's inaction by saying that " if 
he put out his hand " (to anything but the object in view) " he 
might not be able to draw it back again " at the moment required. 

I send also a letter from R Alexander, which will be inter- 
esting as showing his views as to the facility with which Rohil- 
khund could be reoccupied. 

What appears good intelligence has come in that the 



362 MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 

Frincipai Principal Sudder Ameen of Agra and Mahomed Hussirn Khan 

ofi^ Imd*^ have been killed by Khan Buhadur's people. We knew that 

H*^*^™^ they had long been held under surveillance and exposed to 

kiUed. indignities for their rumoured loyalty to ua The Principal 

Sudder Ameen has been spoken against for not coming to Agra 

Difficulties of when invited back; but it is impossible to overestimate the 

Ma^ommedan difficulties a man with a family of helpless women and children 

official. would encounter in attempting flight Whether the unfortunate 

old man has been guilty of any disloyalty since he left this will 

be decided by Major Williams' investigation. He certainly 

induced his brother Hamid Hussan Khan to withdraw from 

Khan Buhadur's service when he (the Principal Sudder Ameen) 

returned homa 

Kindly mention all this to Harington ; — it will interest him, 
though perhaps hardly you. 

General Lawrence, writing on the 22nd January from 
Awa attacked. Ajmere, says : " Awa is being attacked ; — this time, I hope, 
effectually." 

Nothing from Kotah to-day. 

W. MuiR. 
C. Beadon, Esq. 

COXOIV. 

27^^ January 1858. Wednesday. 

My Dear Raikes, — 
• .•••••• 

M*Leod mistakes in thinking that the Government of Agra 
has anything to say in the direction of the troops ; but his sugges- 
tion about a direct inroad upon Bijnour without taking the detour 
to Meerut may be worth His Excellency's consideration, imlesa 
opposed to arrangement already determined on. ™ Mtttp 

Mr.Muir J leave for Allahabad, D,V.y on the 7th with part of the 

^S^M, Secretariat establishment. 

RSapte, C.S. Sapte, writing on the 25 th, says that at Anoopshahur " all 

RoWikhund. has been quiet since 17th, though there is still a considerable 

force there with gims. The Infantry consists of 18 th Regiment 

N.I. and a lot of good Irregular Cavalry. There is a gathering 
Ismail Eban. at Kutchla Ghat under Ismail Khan. He has now 2000 men 

and five guns there. It is said he means to cross. This party 

should be watched carefully." 

C. Raikes, Esq., Furruckabad. 




LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 363 

CCXCV. 

27(^ January 1858. Wednesday. 

My Dear Bkadon, — Sapte, writing on the 25th, says every- 
thing has been quiet at Anoopshahur since the 17th. But there 
is still a considerable force on the opposite bank with guna It 
consists of the 18th Native Infantry and a good number of 
Irregular Cavalry, — the latter efficient 

He adds: "There is a gathering at KutcUa Ghat under 
Ismail Khan. He has now 2000 men and five guns there. It 
is said he intends to cross. This party should be watched care- 
fuUy." 

I have communicated this to Bailees for the Commander-in- 
Chief. Our latest accounts from the Kutchla stated that the 
force had disappeared there, which may be connected with the 
inroad in Kaimgunge, or with a retrogressive movement to cover 
Budaon. 

I have also sent a copy of D. M'Leod's letter (of which you 
had a copy yesterday) to Eaikes for His Excellency. 

Daniell, writing from £tah on the 24th, hears that the Rebels in forc« 
rebels were still in force at Kaimgunge with three guns, and that * ^^"*^' 
another body with three guns were ready to follow them. You 
will no doubt have later accounts on the subject from Furruck- 
abad. 

W. MuiR. 

C. Beadon, Esq. 

CCXCVI. 

28^^ January 1858. Tliureday. 

My Dear Beadon, — An assault on Awah was intended on o«rri«on 
the 24th ; but on the night of the 23rd, under cover of a dark awSu*** 
and stormy night, the garrison evacuated the place and got off. 

Besides the Nusseerabad and Deesa forces, there was present 
a regiment of Scind Horse, — so there ought to be no difficulty 
in following the insurgents up. The Enfield seems to have told 
severely on the besieged. 

Things at Kotah remain much as before, according to Mac- KotiOi aflUn. 
donald's last letter of the 22nd. The rebels had applied to the 
Jalra Patun Chief, who declined to aid them. 

The enemy again crowd the Kutchla Ghat ; they have guns, RohiUchund. 
and are said to threaten Kassgunge. Daniell has a report that 
Ulhegunge is occupied by the same rebels who attacked Kaim- 



364 MSS. VOL. III. : FOURTH SERIES 

gunga One can scarcely credit it. But if the Chief allows his 

immediate vicinity on this side to be invaded with impunity, 

such advances cannot be wondered at. 

Intended Major Williams, writing from Meerut on the 26th, says that 

to^a few before he has evidence of the intended Mutiny being known to a few at 

iSth "iSu °^ 2 p.m. of Sunday the 1 0th (May) . A woman of the Suddur Bazaar 

sent word to a Kasmiri female living with a Dr. Smith (who was 

murdered), " that a trooper had told her the Europeans would all 

be murdered that night ." Williams has traced the girl, and will 

probably get something more out of her. 

Fakeer said to Y ou may remember a Fakeer. said to ha ve bee n a prince in 

diaguiseat disguise, having been about Meerut. This man, Will if\]TiH haf} 

^^^^^ traced at Umballa with the Sepoys at the Enfield Eifle Depot. 

" Here, after being ordered to leave the Sooruj Koond, he took up 

his quarters in the lines of the 20th, the worst Regiment here, 

and then is said to have gone to Agra and Gwalior." 

Sir J. Lawrence says the Commander-in-Chief does not re- 
quire the light field battery, and that it remains at Umballa, 
where there was no European Artillery. From Umballa he 
expects that the other troops will receive orders from the 
Commander-in-Chief as to their destination. I conclude His 
Excellency has issued instructions. Sir John quite agrees as to 
the advisabiUty of an early advance on Eohilkhund. 

C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 

The dak of the 24th has been delayed below Benares by the 
rain, I concluda 



CCXCVII. 

29^^ January 1858. Friday. 

My Dear Beapon, — I have no news of importance to-day. 
At Kotah the native letters imply that the compromise con- 
tinue& 

You will, I conclude, have intelligence from Furruckabad 

regarding the force that started on the 26th for Shumsabad, eta 

Kangunge It was high time, as Kassgunge was actually threatened and 

^uj^^ " Allygunge occupied. Hodson's Horse will, I hope, teach them a 

occupi^. lesson. 

The dak of the 23rd came in afterwards all right yesterday ; 
that of the 24th arriving in the evening ; — but I have still 
nothing from you in expansion of the message of the 23rd. I 



LETTERS DOWN COUNTRY 365 

have, however, made a selection of clerks to go down, about one 
half of the office or something less. I hope, however, to have 
something more specific from you by to-morrow's dak 

The coils of wire are, I see, beginning to come in on 
hackeries. 

W. MuiR. 

C. Beadon, Esq., Calcutta. 



MEMO. ON TREATMENT OF EUROPEAN FEMALES 367 



CCXCVIIL 

Meaiorandum, drawn up at the Eequest of the Governor- 
General, OF Enquiries into the Alleged Dishonour of 
European Feala^les at the Time of the Mutinies. — 
Submitted 30th December 1857. 

{This Memorandum is written at other end of MSS, Vol. Ill, 
from that which contains foregoing {Fourth) Series,) 

AoRA, 30^^ December 1857. 

My Lord, — I have now the honour to submit the result of 
the enquiries I have instituted in compliance with your Lord- 
ship's wishes, expressed in the Private Secretary's letter dated 
the 1 7th December last. 

I might have replied sooner, but I deemed that your Lord- 
ship would be desirous that the area of investigation should be as 
wide as possible, and to secure this object involved some little 
delay. 

I propose despatching this by Cossid to-day, and a duplicate 
similarly to-morrow. I also propose sending a copy of my 
Memorandum, with the original enclosures for your Lordship's 
satisfaction, by Bombay, unless (as I have reason to hope) a 
regular and safe post be immediately opened between this and 
Cawnpore. 

I venture to believe that your Lordship will view the result, 
substantiated generally by the opinions now submitted, as satis- 
factory. A melancholy satisfaction indeed it is ; — but yet such 
as may be calculated to lighten many a heart bowed down with a 
grief which the thought of simple death even in its cruellest 
form would not occasion. — I remain, Your Lordship's faithful 
servant, 

W. MuiR. 

To The Right Honble. Lord Canning, 
Governor-General 



368 MSS. VOL. III. 

Memorandum containing the Result of Enquiries made by 
Desire of the Governor-General into the Rumours of 
European Females having been Dishonoured during 
the late mutinies. 

On receipt of His Lordship's instructions to submit any 
evidence I might be able to obtain as to the credibility of the 
statements current regarding the dishonour of English women 
during the late disturl^nces, I immediately addressed such officers 
as appeared to me likely to possess the widest and most accurate 
information on the subject. 

Attached to this Memorandum is a copy of the opinions 
which I have collected. I might have waited for others, but 
these are quite sufficient. 

1. E. A. Reade, Esq., Member S.B.R, N.W.P. 

2. F. Williams, Esq., Commr., Meerut. 

3. Major G. W. Williams, Supt. Cant Police. 

4. Rev. T. C. Smyth, Chaplain, Meerut 

5. C. B. Saunders, Esq., Commr., Delhi 

6. C. B. ThornhiU, Esq., Offg. Secy, to Govt. N.W.P. 

7. R Alexander, Esq., Commr., Rohilkhund. 

8. A H. Cocks, Esq., Special Commr., Allygurh. 

I proceed to notice the several statements in detail. 

I. — The long service and great experience of Mr. E. A Reade 
will add peculiar weight with His Lordship to his opinion. 
Mr. Reade has been in constant communication with the best 
informed natives of this city ; he has also been in correspond- 
ence with people of other quarters, and has had ample oppor* 
tunity for enquiring into the evidence which has from time to 
time been received from the scenes of the various tragedies. His 
deliberate opinion is that the sto fififl ftf < ^shonour done to 
European females are generif |]lY fftj^ff^. 

This conclusion he founds on the unvarying statement of eye- 
witnesses of the massacrea He adds as a supplementary reason^ 
that the colour of Eiuropean females is repugnant to the Oriental 
taste, and that crimes of the nature alluded to never have been 
perpetrated, even when there was full opportunity for their 
perpetration. I do not myself allow the natives of this country 
credit for dislike or insensibility towards the European com- 
plexion, and, even if admitted, it might not prove a conclusive 
argument in the present question ; because it is apparently one of 
the current theories that dishonour was done, not to gratify passion, 
but to inflict shame and degradation upon the English name. 



MEMO. ON TREATMENT OF EUROPEAN FEMALES 369 

But the object of the Mutineers was, I believe, not so much 
to disgrace our name as to wipe out all trace of Europeans , and 
of everything connected with foreign rule . 

In the massacres perpetrated with this object the demon of 
cruelty was let loose, and tarbarity in every inhuman shape 
indulged. The set of passions, however, called into play was, I 
conceive, distinct from those which would have tempted to the 
commission of the suspected practicea There was cold and 
heartless bloodthirstiness, at the farthest remove from the lust 
of desir^. 

As there was, therefore, no dishonour committed on principle,, 
with the view of inflicting disgrace, so likewise, as it appears to 
me, there was no dishonour done from passion. 

Mr. Seade has mentioned the singular absence of this kind of 
crime in past times. But it has, I believe, been greatly owing to 
the awe with which Europeans have always been regarded by 
the natives of India. This awe, it is true, was rudely violated 
when the rebels ventured on their work of wholesale murder. 
But I apprehend that it still, at the very moment of the mas- 
sacres, operated to chill and repress the idea of any familiar 
approach. I speak of the general native feeling, without Venturing 
to assert that there may not possibly have been exceptions. 

I have thought it right to add so much on my own part^ 
because the remarks of Mr. Eeade appeared open to some variety 
of opinion on the two points I have alluded to. 

II. — The second letter is from Mr. F. Williams, Commr. of 
Meerut. He was present as Judge at the outbreak there, and 
has had the best possible means, both then and afterwards, for 
reaching the truth. His evidence is decisively against the com- 
mission of any act of f<i>.ma1ft dishonoi^ r. 

The case of horrid mutilation, after death, of a pregnant lady, 
noticed by Mr. Williams, may serve, perhaps, to explain the 
manner in which the painful rumours of violation gained currency. 
Such diabolical outrage to the human frame hardly bears to be 
narrated. Words fail to express the shocking nature of the 
barbarity. But the very veiling of the transaction by the 
remark (a likely one in ordinary correspondence), that it is too 
horrible to be mentioned, would naturally lead the reader to the 
conclusion that the dishonour was of the worst character, and 
that the poor \ictims had been abandoned to the brutalities of 
lust as well as to the last cruelties of a fiendish rage 

I believe that the most of the stories — those which are not 
wanton fabrications — must have grown up in this manner. The 
VOL. I. — 24 



370 MSS. VOL. III. 

r instance of the half-caste girl referred to in Mr. Williams' post-, 
script is not one of the kind contemplated in the investigation 
■directed by His Lordship. 

IIL — Major G. W. Williams, Superintendent of Police Bat- 
talions, from his long connection with the Cantonment Police, 
his residence of some months at Meerut after the outbreak, and 
his employment in that district with the Volunteer Horse, is 
peculiarly quaUfied to give an opinion which may be relied on. 
His testimony, foimded as well on the evidence of competent 
witnesses, as on the universal impression amongst the natives, 
is that there was no dishonour done to our females at the 
breaking out of disturbances anywhere. 

It will be remarked that Major Williams* evidence extends 
to the massacres at Futtehgurh and Cawnpore. The enquiries 
which he has been prosecuting at the request of Government 
into the conduct of the native officials here have brought him 
into contact with numerous persons able to give evidence on 
the subject. 

IV. — I requested Major WiUiams to procure a wiitten state- 
ment from the Rev. T. C. Smyth, M.A., as he was said to know 
of some cases of the kind. But the deliberate opinion of Mr. 
Smyth, who has been in the most favourable position for sifting 
the evidence, is that no females were violated at Meerut. 

V. — The report of Mr. Saundere, Offg. Commi\ and Agent to 
the Lt. -Governor at Delhi, is most complete and decisive, that 
neither at Meerut nor Delhi was murder preceded by dishonou r, 
like Mr. Williams, it will be observed he thinks it possible that 
some women of colour may have been forced to sacrifice their 
honour to save their lives ; but this is mentioned only as a possible 
•case. 

The evidence of Eamchunder is valuable. He is one of the 
Christians baptized a few years ago at Delhi by Mr. Jennings, 
is an accomplished mathematician, and was Professor in the 
Delhi College. He was present in the City during the massacre, 
and is therefore in every respect a most competent witness as to 
the nature of the proceedings. 

VI. — Although Mr. C. B. Thornhill's views are already 
known to His Lordship, I thought that it would be satisfactory 
to have a further recorded expression of them. Mr. Thomhiirs 
position, officiating as the Secretary to Government, and the 
numerous enquiries which he has personally directed with the pur- 
pose of ascertaining the fate of near relatives, render his authority 
second to no other. He states truly that Hindoos, except of the 



MEMO. ON TREATMENT OF EUROPEAN FEMALES 371 

lowest grades, would have ])ecome outcasts had they perpetrated 
this offence. Neither would Mahoinedans have done so in the 
unconcealed manner which has been supposed at home. Such 
procedui'e would have been repugnant to the fftftlings and habits 
of the country, and would have required strong and direct 
evidence to have secured any credence: — while Mr. Thomhill 
shows that there is ab solutelv none . It must, however, be \ 
admitted that there is nothing in the habits or tenets of the \ x^^ ^ 
Musulman population which would prevent them from taking \ 
females seized at the general outbreak to their homes with 
sinister designa By the Mahomedan law, captives taken in war 
are not lawful to the captors till the expiry of at least a month 
and a half. But since the Mahomedans have set their laws, 
human and divine, at nought throughout the rebellion, it is not to 
be expected that those laws would have checked them even to 
the observance of that period. 

While, however, there is nothing to have prevented the 
Mahomedans from carrying off women, whom they intended to 
preserve alive, to their harems, all the evidence yet obtained is 
entirely opposed to the supposition that ladies of English blood 
were anywhere reserved for that disgrace . There may have been 
instances in which females of colour have been forcibly subjected, 
or, to save their lives, have consented to such treatment. 

Mr. Alexander's communication, numbered VIL, refers to one 
or two cases supposed of this nature. But it must be remembered 
that, as regards Kohilkhund, the evidence cannot be complete or 
satisfactory till our reoccupation of the ProWnca 

There is one point, however, on which His Lordship may rest 
assured, viz., that wherever females, whether English or Eurasian, 
have been taken into the Mehals of natives, the fact cannot 
remain concealed. All such cases will, as soon as we re-enter 
the locality in power, be susceptible of full enquiry and proof. - 

VIII. — The note of Mr. A. H. Cocks (I have extracted from it 
all that relates to the subject) contains no direct evidence excepting 
his belief that at Futtehgurh and Hissar no licentious insult was 
offered, and a statement of the general opinion that at Delhi the 
ladies and children were simply massacred. No stress need be 
laid on the boast of the Mutineers ; even if correctly stated, it may 
have been an impudent and idle defiance, and anyhow, imtil 
closely enquired into, it can carry no weight. Mere hearsay has 
80 often turned out unfounded, or founded upon something 
bearing quite another construction, that it cannot be received 
in this paper at any value. 



372 MSS. VOL. III. 

In respect of Jhanai, there is evidence, dii^ect and indirect, 
that there was there no dishonour done to the women. The 
same is the case with Cawnpoor, — the solitary exception being \ 
the story regaiding Miss Wheeler, the truth of which can be ; 
best sifted by Mr. Sherer on the spot. 

My own views have been, perhaps, sufficiently stated in the 
foregoing remarka But His Lordship may desire a more distinct 
expression of them. 

My connection with the Intelligence Department at the 
Headquarters of the Govt, of Agra has brought me, during the 
past six months, into contact with messengers and spies from all 
parts of the coimtry. I ^ladlv add mv testimony that nothing 
has come to my knowledge which would in the smallest degree 
support any of the tales of dishonour current in our pubhc prints , i 
Direct evidence, wherever procurable, has been steadily ancl^ 
consistently against them. The people — those who must know 
had there been cases of outraged honour, and would have told 
us — imiformly deny that such things were ever perpetrated or 
thought of. The understanding of the i)eople on this point (if, 
as I believe, we have correctly apprehended it) cannot be wrong. 

That there may not have possibly been exceptional instances 
it would be hazardous to asseiii, until the occupation of the whole 
coimtry, and complete re-establishment of our power, shall have 
given us the entire command of all available evidenca Judging, 
however, from the great accumulation of negative evidence, 
supported as it also is in many important jwints by direct and 
positive proof, it may safely be asserted that there are fair 
grounds for believing that violation before murder was in no cas e 
committed: and that, if women of colour have anywhere been 
carried off and dishonoured, such cases must be rare and peculiar, 
and have occurred imder circumstances which in all likelihood 
will hereafter be explained. 

It is necessary, in conclusion, to remark that this Memoran - 
dum appUes specially to the N.W.P.. including Bundelkhund and 
Oudh : to those tracts^ namely, wherft t.lift mutinies were the mos t 
fataL and the ensuing; anarchy the most widespread and dis - 
astrous. They apply indirectly to the mutinies in all other 
quarters, so far as intelligence regarding them has reached us. 

For the stations from Cawnpoor downwards. His Lordship will 
probably be able to collect evidence, more complete and circmn- 
stantial than we can obtain, from the Officers on the spot. 

W. MuiB. 
Agra, 30th Deer. 1857. 



MEMO. ON TREATMENT OF EUROPEAN FEMALES 373 

I. Memokandum by Mb. E. A. Reade, Seniob Member, 
SuDDER Board of llE^^ENUE, N.W.P. 

I AM of opiniou that the stories of %dolatiou, by the Mutineers 
and their associates in crime, of English females at Cawnpoor 
and elsewhere are generally false, and that this aggi'avation of 
horror has existed only in exceptional casea 

I formed this opinion on these grounds : — 

1. That the native informants who have come to the Fort 
of Agra have fully detailed the sanguinary atrocities as they saw 
them or heard them describeil by others, but have not mentioned 
violation, and then* negative answei^s to the question have rather 
indicated surprise at the (juestion being put. 

2. The first written account received here was from -an East 
Indian who had escaped before the entrenchments at Cawnjx)or 
were attacked, who was not an eye-witness of subsequent scenes, 
and wrote from heai'say. This class is apt to indulge in a / 
prurient imagination. 

3. The natives of India, both Hindoos and Mahomedans (and 
tlie latter are much Hindooised in their habits and notions), have 
a repugnance to sexual connection with European females. 
During thirty years of Indian experience the only instances that 
have come to my knowledge have been a few cases of voluptuaries 
sated with Oriental beauty seeking for variety. If it were 
otherwise, would not Indian gold easily procure from England 
and France any number of fallen creatures ? 

4. Let any one reflect how many young girls without any 
escort or protection have travelled alone in palankeens from 
Calcutta to Delhi ; or, again, call to mind cases where such 
traveller on boats have been attacked and plundered in former 
days, and yet I cannot recollect any instance of violation of 
European females, either by their attendants or by robbers. 
Fanaticism and idolatry are equally cruel, but Indian lust is 
almost always the lust of bloodshed and plunder only. 

R A. Beadk 

Agra, 2nd December 1867. 

II. From Mr. Fleetw^ood Williams, CoMmssiONER, 

Meerut, to Mr, Muir. 

Mekrct, December 3rt/, 1857. 

I never heard any sort of mention of European females 
having been violated here, at Meerut. 



^..^ lUl 



374 MSS. VOL. III. 

The horrid work here was executed in such a hurry, and in 
such a bloodthirsty spirit, that I believe the taking of life at 
once was all that was thought of. There was most frightful 
mutilation hera One poor lady who was advanced in pregnancy 
( was ripped open, the child taken out, and was found put round 
] the poor lady's neck. But, as far as I can ascertain, violation 
/ was not added to the other atrocities here as regards Europeana 
y' At Secimdrabad, in the Boolundshahur District, the poor 
/ native women suffered the utmost wickedness of savages in this 
L-Efispect. According to all accounts, except the few killed here 
on the 10th of May, Europeans have been most mercifully pre- 
served from all evil in this Division, with the exception of two 
officers killed by their men. But don't forget CawnpooJ:. 

F. Williams. 

Meerut, Dec, 3, 1867. 

^^"^ P,S. — There was one Eurasian girl found in the Boolund- 
\ shahur District coming with a native, but there was no finding 

\ out who she was, and she objected to being rescued from her 

'. situation. 



III. Memorandum by Major G. W. Williams, Superintendent 

OF Police Battalions. 

Meerut, 2Zrd Dec, 1857. 

My Dear Muir, — You must have already heard from Mr. 
Saunders, as he told me he had written to you, and that he 
knew of no proved cases at Delhi or elsewhere to justify the 
prevalent opinion of our poor helpless ladies having been 
dishonoured. 

To every one from whom I thought it likely I could procure 
information on this painfid subject, especially to witnesses from 
Futtehgurh and Cawnpoor, I have put the question, and have 
been invarial)ly answered in the negative, and most decidedly. I 
beUeve the native idea is as strongly against the opinion as, 
strange to say, the papers are positive in asserting it. Mr. 
Smyth's letter is conclusive as regards Meerut, where dishonour 
is supposed to have been offered. But the dead, it would seem, 
were only grossly insulted. The enquiry I am now making will, 
I trust, clear up the whole of the Meerut affair of the 10th 
May. 

G. W. WiLUAMS. 



MEMO. ON TREATMENT OF EUROPEAN FEMALES 375 
IV. From the Revebend T. C. Smyth, to Major G. W. Williams. 

MsERUT, December 16, 1857. 

My Dear Major Williams, — Since receiving your letter of 
the 11th instant I have made enquiries in several quarters as 
to the painful subject upon which you wi*ite. I have learned 
from several unquestionable sources that the bodies of females 
murdered at Meerut on the 10 th May were brutally insulted 
after death ; but I cannot discover a single case in which it is 
clearly proved that violation was actually perpetrated. I am 
now of opinion that no females were violated at Meerut. 

T he statements which appear in the English newspapeiB 
regarding the atrocities perpetrated by the rebels here and 
elsewhere are, in many inatanfifts. grosslv exa^f^rerated^ as in the 
case of Riding-master Langdale's child of the 3rd Cavalryi who 
was actually killed with one blow of a tulwar while sleeping on 
the charpoy ; whereas she is stated to have been cut in pieces by 
little and little, with every refinement of gi-adual torture. 

The Siixlhanah Nuns were also mentioned in an English 

I)aper as having escaped to " a valley in Thibet," instead of which 

they were houseil from June till early in September within the 

walls of the Rifle Hospital. ,., ^ 

^ Thomas Smyth. 

V. From Mr. C. B. Saunders, Offg. Commissioner and 
Agent Lieutt. -Governor, to Ma Muir. 

Delhi, Deer, 17, 1857. 

My Dear Muir, — With reference to the enquiry which Lord 
Canning's Private Secretary has desired you to make, I would 
beg to state that I believe there is no reason whatsoever to 
suppose that the Eui'opean ladies and girls massacred either at 
Meerut or Delhi were violated or outraged before death put an 
end to their suflerings. I have taken considerable pains to 
ascertain whether there is any foundation for the tales which 
have obtained publication in the public prints regarding violence 
having been offered to poor Miss Jennings and Miss Clifford, and 
am perfectly satisfied that there is no ground whatever for the 
supposition that they were in any way ill-treated before death. 
Every account which I have received confirms the fact that they 
were at once killed by the Palace rabble and others, who rushed 
up into the quartera of the Commandant of the Palace Guards 
and there and then massacred the whole party assembled 
Aiticles like that which I return, and which appeared in a 



376 MSS. VOL. 111. 

Bombay paper pur^wrting to have been communicated from 
TJmritsnr, are in my opinion most dastardly and unwarrantabl e. 
I much wonder at an editor having allowed such a statement to 
have found room in his paper, calculated, as it was, to hari'ow 
the feelings of relatives and to do no earthly good, but, on the 
contrary, nmch evil by hounding on our troops and officials to 
what I cannot but term an unholv and unchristian thirst for 
venyeance. 

I have before written to Sir John Lawrence on the subject 
of the atrocious kiles which obtained cm-rency in the papei*s 
regarding poor Miss Jennings and her companion, and was glad 
to find in the last Lahore Chronicle an authoritative contradiction 
to the rumours. The atrocities which have been committed 
during the rebeUion have been quite sufficiently appaUing 
without the need of any exaggeration, which the papers of the 
''blood and scalp" school have deemed necessary to introduce, 
with a view to inflame the feeUngs of our countrymen and turn 
them into fiends. Poor Wigram Chtford, who was killed at 
\ \ Sonah, was very much distresseil by hearing from England tales 
of his sister having been for days saved and kept in the King's 
harem, and for which there was no possible foundation. 

As you say, there may have been rare and exceptional cases 
in which ladies at other stations have been ill-treated, and 
possibly some half-caste women may yet be aUve who have been 
obUged to sacrifice then* honour, but I doubt much if there have 
been many such. 

I have spoken to Kamchimder on the subject, and he tells 
me that the only instance which came to his knowledge of any 
women having been ill-treated in any way at Delhi was when 
one of the 3rd Cavalry troopers insultingly patted the cheeks of 
some poor creature at J)urayogunge, on which her husband shot 
the man, and both husband and wife were immediately killed by 
the bystanders. 

C. B. Saundeks. 

Deer, 1867. 

VI. Mr. C. B. Thornhill, Offg. Secretary to Government, 

N.W.P., TO Mr. Muir. 

Agra, December 26, 1857. 

My Dear Muir, — I am very glad that my note to Dr. Kay 
has caused an enquiry into the foundation upon which the 
numerous reports of violation of English women are based. 



MEMO. ON TREATMENT OF EUROPEAN FEMALES 377 

My own attention was fii*8t drawn to the question in conse- ] If/^i^ 
qiience of a letter referring to the barbarous murder of a lady / ^^^ft^-^^ 

in Meerut having been amplified, by the persons to whom it was J 

addressed, into a case of \'iolation previous to mui-der. 

The writer had no intention of conveying such an impression, 
and I thought it probable that many other letters, similarly 
worded in general and equally comprehensive terms, might have 
produced a like result, and I have therefore endeavoured to tiuce 
the reports to their source whenever I had an opportunity, and I 
have invariably found that no sort of evidence existed which in 
any way substantiated them. 

We all know that Hindoos would regard coimection with a 
Chi'istian as involving loss of caste, and that the feelings of 
Mahomedans would lead them to veil such act with the closest 
secrecy. It is also contrary to human nature to believe that 
promiscuous intercoui-se could have occurred in the public 
manner which is supposed. 

Again, who have described these occurrences ? All the 
European su(lerei*s were massacred, and the natives most 
positively deny their existence in fact. I feel, therefore, little 
doubt that the more this painful subject is brought under close 
enquiry, the more satisfactory will be the evidence that our 
country-women have not suftereil that last insult which would 
have rendered their awful death, if possible, more, horrible, and 
have caused additional anguish to their relatives and to their 
country. 

C. B. TlIORNHILU 



VIT. From Mr. li. Alexander, Commissioner, Roiiilkhund, 

TO Mr, Muir. 

Nynee Tal, Deer. 21, 1867. 

My Dear Muir, — It is not possible to give a complete or 
satisfactory answer to the question put in your letter of the 
5th Deer, (which I have only just received, the dak having been 
inteiTupteil) until I go down to the plains. 

I have heard only of two cases which I look on Jis crcdibh. 
In the one, a son of Mujeedomldeen Ahmed Khan (a Mujjoo) of 
Moradabad, who is stated to have violated a child of one of the 
Moradabad victims, and afterwards to have caused her death, was 
the guilty actor. In the other, Meerun, one of the Naumuhallea 
Syuds of liareilly, has detained and, it is supi)osed, has defiled, a 
child of one of the clerks (Mr. Fanthome, a Em'asian). When 



378 MSS. VOL. III. 

we go down, the truth and particulars of other cases will come out, 

I beUeva But in those cases I think it not (?) unlikely that the 

victims may also be produced. With the exception of that one 

case at Moradabad, I have not heard of any such horrible case as 

yTthat of violation preceding murder ; but I am incUned to beheve 

( that women or girls have been taken to Zenanaha 

— The Hindoos have sufifered in this way wherever the Maho- 

medan rabble soldiery have had their sway. 

R. Alexander. 



VIII. Extract of a Letter from Mr. A. H. Cocks, Special 
Commissioner of Allygurh, to Mr. Muir, dated 
Mynpoorie, 29 Decr. 1857. 

About the alleged violation of our coimtry-women, I wrote 
that I had felt a distaste to make enquiries on the subject from 
natives, especially as at Allygurh nothing of the kind had 
occurred. I had, however, heard officers who had been at Delhi 
express their opinion that in most instances the poor ladies and 
children had been killed at once; although one Mutineer had 
at his execution boasted of his guilt in this particular. At 
Cawnpoor we can hardly hope that the captives escaped violation. 
AtT5ftehgurh I beUeve the i-ule to have been Instantaneous 
death. I have never heard particulars of Jhansi, but at Hissar 
there was also no brutahty committed in addition to murder. 



Agra, 6th January 1858. 

My Lord, — In reference to my letter of the 30 th ultimo, I 
beg to submit the following additional statement. 

I requested Major Macpherson to ascertain for me freely 
what the views of Dinkur Eao upon the subject of my memo- 
randum were. 

In respect to all other places but Cawnpoor, there was mf^ 
doubt but that my memorandum distinctly indicated the sense 1 
prevalent at Gwalior. The case of the Gwalior ladies is a good ^ 
sample of the general feeUng. They were as much in the power 
of the soldiery as the ladies anywhere else, and were far from 
escaping insult and cruel treatment, insomuch that swords were 



MEMO. ON TREATMENT OF EUROPEAN FEMALES 379 

presented at their throats to extract even their wedding rings. 
Yet the shadow of an attempt at their honour there was not. 

But regarding Cawnpoor, a man who came to the Durbar 
from that place certainly led Scindia and Dinkur £ao to the 
conclusion that during their confinement some of our women were 
taken by the Sowars to their houses; and the impression left 
upon the mind of Scindia and his able and discerning Minister is 
that at Cawnpoor licentious insult was offered. It becomes now 
a matter of greater consequence even than before to probe the 
truth of these suspicions. It may be that they are unfounded, 
for other evidence is opposed to them. 

If otherwise, the Nana's name will, if possible, b e re ndered ^^J^ 
still blacker and more vile by the sti^jma.pfjgucQuraging an 
atrocity elsewhere unknown. 

Should your Lordship make any use of my memorandum as 
already submitted, I would beg the addition of the following 
postscript. 

Postscript, 5th Jamiary 1858. — There are points connected 
with the long detention of the Nana's victims which render 
Cawnpoor a pecuUar case, and may cast a suspicion on the 
treatment of the prisoners there ;— certainly (so far as present 
evidence goes) attaching to no other quarter. I would re- 
commend further particular enquiry there. 

I remain, your Lordship's faithful servant, 



W. MuiR. 



To THE Eight Honble. Lord Canning, 
Governor-General 



INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT, AGRA. 



VOLUME IV. 



FIFTH SERIES. 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH COLONEL GREATHEFS 

MOVEABLE COLUMN, 



l8t October to 20th October 1857. 



BEFORE AND AFTER THE ENGAGEMENT OF THE 

10th OCTOBER 1857. 



[N.B. — The opposite side of the Volume {MSS. No. IV.) contains 
Memoranda^ etc., of Intelligence.— {Sixth Series.)] 



381 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH COL. GREATHED'S 

COLUMN. 

Before and after the Engagement of the 10th October 1857. 



CCXCIX. 



My Dear Sapte,- 



AoRA, Ist October 1857. 



Dholpore 
gnns. 



indore From Dholpore we hear that the Indore Mutmeers intended 

iSwnDSlpore. ^ break ground last night, and they are probably at Jajou on the 
Ootangan, some 18 or 20 miles from this, to-day. They are said 
to be moving via Khyragurh and Futtehpore Sikri on Muthra. 

Our messenger states that they have succeeded in carrying 
off four of the Dholpore Eana's big guns (24 -pounders), tackling 
them to elephants. Colonel Fraser said he wished this point to 
be specially mentioned to Colonel Greathed, who will of course 
see this letter. 

No news in yet from Lucknow ; we are waiting for it with 
great anxiety. The last was all favourable up to the 22nd, 
when we were within 14 miles of oiu* beleaguered garrison. 

The Gwalior Contingent are said to be breaking off from 
Gwalior with the view of moving on Cawnpore. Congratulate 
Colonel Greathed on his successes (if our reports be, as I trust they 
are, true) at Boolundshuhui\ Hoping soon to hear from you. 

W. MuiR. 
B. Sapte, Esq., 
With Colonel Greattied*s Pursuing Column. 



Lncknow. 



Gwalior 
Contingent 



CallBfor 
frequent 
reports of 
€k>lamn. 

BarelUy 
Brigade. 



ccc. 

Agra, 2iid October 1867. 

My Deaii Sapte, — Still we get no letters from your camp. 
But we have great hopes that you must be at Somna, if not 
nearer. In case my previous letters should not have reached, I 
may repeat what I stvid before, that Colonel Fraser is desirous 
that full and frequent reports should be sent in to me of the 
proceedings of the Column. The last we hear of the Muthra 
people is that the Bareilly Brigade had crossed over the Bridge, 
but was yet encamped on the opposite bank 

After writing the above, yours of the 29th to Mr. Reade was 

882 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH GREATHED'S COLUMN 383 

received here. The news is very good, but I fear the delay may 
allow of the Muthra Mutineers escaping with their guns. They 
seem to have heard of the Column on the right bank, and talk of 
moving across to Allygurh. Some of the Neemuch Brigade are Neemuch 
also reported to have crossed over. I do trust you may be able "^ 
to catch them up. 

Colonel Fraser has oi*dered the Hatrass detachment to fall Hatnws 
back on Agra, while the Mutineei*8 are crossing the Doab, as 
he does not think it strong enough to risk the chances of an 
encounter with them. Hoping to hear from you soon. 

W. MuiR. 
B. Sapte, Esq., 
With Colonel Greathed*s Column. 

CCCI. 

Agra, 3rd October 1857. 

My Dear Sapte, — Yesterday we received a letter from 
Delhi, from which we gather that Brigadier Showers* Column is Showers' 
only a local force, not intended to proceed farther than the "™°' 
Kootub ; and there is nothing else which leads to the idea of its 
being destined to move down to Muthra, except the expression in 
your letter, which was too readily construed here according to 
our wishes, mther than according to its strict meaning. The 
Bareilly Brigade is, we hear, to-day at Moorsan, and to-morrow BareiUy 
probably will be at Hatrass, but that may be only the advanced ^"8**^*' 
portion of it. I am sanguine that CoL Greathed will yet be in 
time to intercept and chastise these Mutineers, especially as the 
rest of the force is still at Muthra. A portion of the other 
brigades is said to have already followed the Bareilly Brigade, 
and all will likely go the same way. It will be a point of 
consideration which line to take at the AJlygurh l)ifurcation. 
The Mynpoorie road will probably afford the best chance of 
cutting off the retreat of the Bareilly Column. 

The Indore Mutineers were still at Dholpore yesterday. ludore 

They give orders for a march every day, but have not as yet *^**^*"*®"* 

carried them out. It is still highly probable that they will go 

via Muthra, unless their plans are altered by hearing of your 

approach. The GwaUor people by the last accounts had not yet 

marched ; it was not imlikely that they might go via Dhuttia, 

Jhansi, Jaloun, etc. 

Let us hear often and fully from you. __- ,, 

'^ ^ W. MuiR. 

B. Sapte, Esq. 



384 MSS. VOL. IV. : FIFTH SERIES 



CCCIL 

4^^ October 1857. Sunday morning. 
Warning My Dear Sapte, or CAMPBELL, — Herewith a memo, which 

Column of the I Sent to the Chief Commr. and Colonel Cotton last night, 
appralch of Colonel Fraser is very anxious that news of the actual state of 
the indore things should go on at once to Colonel Greathed, so I send this 

rebels from •••r-iji-i 

Dhoipore. as it la I niuch fear that you are too late to catch these 
«duL^r°" fugitives across the Doab. 

Colonel You SCO how things stand on this side. If the Neemuch and 

Indore forces form a junction and are so foolhardy as to attack 
us, you shall hear. If they move via Etawah, your Column 
might catch them up. 

Pray lay this before Colonel Greathed. 

W. MuiR. 

CCCIII. 

TELEGEAPHIC MESSAGE 

From Col. Eraser, Chief Commr., to Mr. A. H. Cocks, 

C.S., Allygurii(?) 

bth October 1857. 8.30 a.m. 

Greathed to REQUEST Colonel Greathed to follow the Mutineens sharp, if 

MuSneew if there is any reasonable chance of overtaking them at the Kuchla 
reasonable or Kadir Chouk Ghats. 

chance of over- 
taking them, But if his information leads him to suppose that they are 

^^ making for Furruckabad or towards Cawnpore, and that from 

March at once their rapid flight there is little chance of overtaking them in that 

on Agra. direction, then beg him to march at once on Agra, with the view 

of dislodging the Mutineer force from Dholpora 

CCCIV. 
TELEGRAPHIC MESSAGE. 

From the Same to the Same. 

6^^ October 1857. 11.30 a.m. 

Colonel Information just received from Dhoipore renders it still 

instructed to more probable than before that a combination may be forming 
to^Agra."^*^^ there against this place. The Mutineers there must consequently 
be crushed. 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH GREATHED'S COLUMN 385 

Unless there be the near and certain prospect of overtaking 
the Bareilly and other fugitives now at Secundra Eao, I would 
wish Colonel Greathed to move directly and without loss of time 
to Agra, in order that immediate measures may be taken to 
attack Dholpore. 

CCCV. 

Agra, 5^^ October 1857. 

My Dear Sapte, or Campbell, — I trust you will before this 
have received the purport of the two messages despatched by the 
Telegraph through Mr. Cocks. 

Our information is that the fugitive forces are to-day at Fugitive forces 
Secundra Eao, above 25 miles from Allygurh. The only chance Raor^" ™ 
of catching them up would be at the Budaon ghats, if they take 
that course. You will have better information probably than we 
could give you of their movements after Secundra Eao. But 
unless Colonel Greathed has an early and certain prospect of 
being able to attack the retiring force. Colonel Fraser is desirous 
that he should move direct on Agra, with the view of making an 
immediate advance on Dholpore. 

I hope, therefore, we may soon see the whole force over 
here. 

Heera Singh, with the wretched remains of the Neemuch Neemuch 
Brigade, will be at Dholpore to-morrow. ngade. 

As I was writing. Colonel Greathed's letter to me of the 6th Greathed 
instant reached me. Pray thank him for it. I have shown it to Sme"to Agra 
Colonel Fraser, who replies : " Order Greathed over here at once ; ** °"^- . 
he cannot do anything with 400 Europeans only. We can 
shelter and accommodate his sick here, and give him strength 
enough to smash the Dholpore force. 

It is late, and I have no time to add more. 

W. MuiR, 

C. B. Sapte, Esq. 

G. Campbell, Esq. 

CCCVI. 

TEK MESSAGR 

Fkom Col. Eraser, Chief Commr., to A. H. Cocks, C.S., 

Allygurh. 

6th (?) October 1867. 

Are you prepared to hold Allygurh with 150 Europeans, inquires if 
4 guns, and the Militia you now have ? au j^rh! ^""^'^ 

vol, l — 25 



386 



MSS. VOL. IV. : FIFTH SERIES 



Colonel 
Greathed 
instructed to 
march direct 
on Agra. 



CCCVIL 

TEK MESSAGE. 

From Same to Same. 

October eth, 1857. 

Major Montgomery's message of to-day received. The 
fugitive force has got the start of Colonel Greathed by 2 or 3 
daya There seems httle use in pursuing them. The chance of 
overtaking them is gone. The Chief Commissioner still desires 
Colonel Greathed to march direct on Agra. He may now come 
via Secundra Eao. Until he approaches, we cannot arrange for 
occupation of Allygurh. When he reaches Hatrass, orders will 
be given for a part of the Khundowlee force to advance and hold 
Allygurh. 



Soggestfl route 
for Column. 



CCCVIII. 

TEL MESSAGE. 
From Same to Same. 

October 6th, 5 p.m. 

The Chowbey says that the road from Akrabad is better and 
shorter than that via Secundra Eao to Hatrass. The road by 
Sassna may therefore be taken if not too late. Send information 
to Colonel Greathed accordingly. 



CCCIX. 

TEL MESSAGE 

From W. Muir, Sudder Board, Agra, to A. H. Cocks, C.S., 

Allygurh. 

Ith October. 10.15 a.m. 
Dhoipore INTELLIGENCE come in of movements by Dholpore troops this 

Agra. ™°^* ^^ way. Chief Commr. desires that your detachment should come 

in at once. In connection with CoL Cotton, I have orders to 

request that Major Montgomery should fall back without delay 

on Agra. 

Send on express messenger to CoL Greathed to come on 

as quickly as he can without unnecessary fatigue to his troops. 

Repeat by two or three successive messengers at intervals of one 

hour. 



Colonel 
Greathed to 
come on 
quickly. 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH GREATHED'S COLUMN 387 

It is possible that the Indore troops may be in communication 
with the Gwalior Contingent, who may be coming to join thenar 

CCCX. 

* 

TEL MESSAGR 

From Same to Same, Allygurh. 

1 p.m. 

If Colonel Greathed is unable from any cause to push on very Advance 
rapidly, the Chief Commr. desires that he will detach 500 c^^e by forced 
Cavalry and one troop H.A., and despatch them by f orced '""^^•■* 
marches to Agra. 

Send on this message by express messengers as before. 

W. M. 
CCCXL 

Agra, 7^ October 1857. 

My Dear Sir, — I trust you will have received before this 
the instructions I sent you out by Telegraph yesterday to 
Mr. Cocks, under the Chief Commr.'s orders, for you to march 
this way with all practicable speed, but without unnecessarily 
fatiguing your force. 

The reason of this urgent order is as follows : — 
Intelligence has come in that the Indore Mutineers marched indore 
yesterday from Dholpore, a stage 1 miles this way, where they marchin^to- 
were joined by the Neemuch Mutineers. They have 7 or 8 JJ*n^^^^e 
small guns, 6 or 9 -pounders, and have got 3 or 4 heavy ones, weemuch 

Mutineers. 



24-pounder8 or 18 -pounders, from the Dholpore Bana. They 
threaten now to put in execution their long expressed intention 
of attacking A^pra. It may possibly be bravado, to cover a 
movement eeistward, but is certainly the common talk of the 
Sepoys, etc., and if it is their real intention it is not unlikely 
that they have engaged the Gwalior Contingent to follow them. 
We know that there have been communications between them 
of late ; under any circumstances, it is of the first importance 
that these troops should be dislodged from their present advanced 
position and driven from the Doab of the Chumbal and Jumna. 
They cannot be allowed to threaten the Fort and City of Agra. 

If immediate measures are not taken against them, they may 
possibly entrench themselves in some advantageous position near 
Agra, from which it may not be possible to dislodge them without 
losa 



388 



MSS. VOL. IV. : FIFTH SERIES 



Necessity for 

Colonel 

Gresthe<V8 

rapidly 

adfvanciug* 



The moment you anive a movement will be made against 
them — 400 or 500 Europeans can be added to your force. 

You will see from the above statement the urgent necessity 
of your marching on Agra with the greatest rapidity. 

W. MuiR. 
To Col. Greathed, 
Commanding the Moveable Cohimn. 



Urgent call. 



Reiterates 
instructions 
for rapid 
advance of 
Golnmn. 



CCCXII. 

P.S.— li p.m. 7 Oct 1857. 

My Dear Sir, — The above is the duplicate of a letter which 
I sent about two hours ago by Mr. Cocka Since then I have, 
by Colonel Eraser's desire, sent a Telegraphic Message to ask you 
to send on by forced marches 500 Cavalry and troop of H.A., 
if you find yourself unable from any cause to march very rapidly 
this way. We should be much set up by that reinforcement, at 
any rate until you could come up — but pray come on as quickly 
as you can. 

W. MuiR. 
To CoL. Greathed, 

Commanding the Moveable Column. 



Jat Horse. 



CCCXIIl. 

TEL. MESSAGE. 

From W. Muir, Sudder Board, Agra, to A. H. Cocks, C.S., 

Allygurii. 

3.30 p.m. 7 Oct. 1857. 

The Jat horse should go on to Hatrass under a native officer. 
Our officers should come in here. This is in reply to Captain 
Murray's message, 

CCCXIV. 

Agra, October Sth, 1857. 11 a.m. 

My Dear Sir, — Your letter to Mr. Cocks of the 6 th instant, 
and Mr. Campbeirs to me of the same date (for which please 
thank him), have just been received. I am glad to find that you 
have turned your face this way. A movement against the Indore 
tSop«of° °^^ troops becomes daily of more urgent consequence. A portion, 
if not the whole, have quitted Dholpore, so there is no fear of 
their standing a siege, as you apprehend, at that place. They are 



A inovemeut 



urgent con« 
sequence. 




CORRESPONDENCE WITH GREATHED'S COLUMN 389 

certainly advancing a portion of their troops this way^ with the 
intention, as they give out, of attacking us here ; but not un- 
likely with the view of covering a movement either to the east 
or to the west. But in either case it is equally important that 
they should be promptly attacked and destroyed. The Chief chief Ck)mmip- 
Comnir. is therefore decisive in his instructions that you should s|,rSctioiis" 
march without delay this way. And I trust you have received *J«cisive 
the intimation of his desire, despatched yesterday, that in event 
of any delay on the road you should send on 500 Cavalry and a 
troop of Horse Artillery in advance by forced marches to us. 
Hoping soon to have the pleasure of shaking you again by the 
hand, and personally congratulating you on your succesa 

W. MuiR. 
Col. Grkathed, 
Commanding Moveable Column, Hatrass. 

P.S. — I believe you are aware that the Commission con- Explains Chief 
ferred on CoL Fraser invests him with authority over all forces military 
in the field not commanded by a General Officer. authority. 

N.B. — ^A portion of the Dholpore force is now within a long Dholpore 
march of Agra. No time is therefore to be lost. Agra.°^*" 

CCCXV. 

Midday. — The above is the duplicate of a letter I despatched 
half an hour ago by a Cossid, I propose sending this by a 
Sowar if I can get ona 

The Indore troops' camp is believed to be — at least the camp Reiterates 
of a portion of their force — at Jajou, some 18 miles off; and i^J^c^ne 
they have, it is said, ordered supplies at Kukowa, distant some ^jj^^l^f"*" 
8 or 10 milea There is therefore every reason for rapid Indore troops, 
movement on your part. 

To Col. Greathed. 



W. MuiR. 



CCCXVI. 

AoRA, 8^^ OdchtT 1857. 2.30 p.in. 
My Dear Sir, — I enclose an original memo, of local intelli- 
gence laid before the Chief Commr. He has desired me to send 
you " the news of the day," and I cannot do so more fully than by Reiterates 
sending this memo. The Chief Cominr. bids me " again urge on for advance 
you the necessity of sending 500 Cavalry and a troop of H. A. 'letachment. 
on at once, so that they may, if possible, reach this on the 



390 



MSS. VOL. IV. : FIFTH SERIES 



morrow ; for, if not, we may be compelled to fight the Dholpore 
Mutineers alone, and under great disadvantages." 
We are looking anxiously for you. 



W. MuiR. 



Col. Greathed, 
Commanding Moveable Column. 



Indore troops 
18 miles off. 



Urges Colonel 
Oreathed to 
move rapidlv 
to Agra, and 
to send advance 
detachment. 



CCCXVIL 
EXPEESS. 

Agra, October 6U^ 1857. 

My Dear Sir, — The enemy are encamped to-day at Jajou, 

some 18 miles from this. They have made preparations for 

crossing the Kharee to-morrow, and will then Hr within an 

easy march of Ayra. The whole force declares its intention 

of attacking the Fort, and we must be at once prepared to 

repel and chastise them. Colonel Fraser has therefore desired 

me to send out an express to you urging upon you the speediest 

movement to Agra in your power; and desiring that you will 

send forward the 500 Cavalry and troop of H.A. with all 

despatch as before in advance of you. 

,, ^ W. MuiR. 

Col. Greathed, 

Commanding Moveable Column. 



Position of 
enemy. 



Repeats 
request for 
advance 
detachment. 



CCCXVIII. 

EXPRESS. 

Agra, 9^ October, 8 a.m. 

My Dear Greathed, — Many thanks for yours of the 7th. 
Colonel Fraser is writing a few Unes to you himself. 

The enemy is encamped on the other side of the Kharee, and 
professes to intend a passage of that river to-day. They will 
probably find it a more difficult matter than they fancy to 
transport their heavy gims (of which they have got 3 or 4 from 
Dholpore) across the stream, which is deep. But the main body 
of their force may, if they choose to risk the thing, cross over 
to-day, and to-morrow beard us in our Fort and plunder the 
City. Hence our urgent anxiety to be pro\ided with Cavalr y 
and another troop of H.A. We want this in advance of you, 
lest these desperadoes should cast themselves suddenly upon ua . 

AlS far as we can see, our enemy is playing the part of a 
madman, and thrusting his hecul into the Uon's jaws. But you 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH GREATHED'S COLUMN 391 

must come on rapidly, in order yourself to play the lion's part. 
There are not wanting indications of some advisers in the 
enemy's camp who wish to carry the force either towards 
Bhurtpore or Etawah. Some detachments in these directions 
were expected, it is said by them, to return to-day. But it 
would be even more disastrous to allow their escape than to Enemy should 
have to bear their menaces here for a day or two. You have to escape.^^ 
therefore every inducement to hurry on. 

Arrangements can be made to assist your Infantry the last 
stage or more, by bullock train waggons, if you will give us 
details as to your period of reaching each. 

This letter, enclosing Colonel Eraser's despatch, goes by mail 

cart, and the coachman will have instructions to bring back your 

reply in the same manner. ,,^ ^, 

^•^ W. MuiR. 

P,S, — They have given out that they wish to fire their first 
5 shots at the Fort on Sunday next, for luck's sake ! 



CCCXIX. 

EXPRESS. 

AoRA, 9th October, Afternoon. 

My Dear Greathed, — I send a line in case it may catch up 
the mail cart before it starts. 

Our reconnoitring party has come in. Numbers of the informs 
Cavaky have crossed the Kharee, and our party was fired on. g^^lShld the 
300 Infantry about had crossed.^ *"*™Z.Ht^* 

*' crossed the 

This all looks as if thev meant to come on. Kharee. 

The Cavalry are spreading over the country, and will be Their caTalry 
committing all kinds of excesses and outrages. J^e countey!*'^ 

Come on quickly. ^ j^^^ 

Colonel Greathed. 

[Note, — Next day (ie. on 10th October) Agra was attacked 
bv the Indore troops just after Greathed's Column had arrived . 
An account of the engagement, and of the enemy's defeat and 
flight, is given elsewhere. (See CXLV., p. 186 ante, — ^W. M.)] 

^ On the day before, as the enemy were in force within a few miles of 
Agra, and it had become a case rather for military scouts than for the spies 
of the Intelligence Department, in sending the evidence of the enemy's close 
approach to Colonel Fraser and Colonel Cotton, I made the suggestion of 
sending out " a reconnoitring party and continuous mile pickets." See No. 
CCCLV. p. 429, po8t.—W. M. 



392 



MSS. VOL. IV. : FIFTH SERIES 



Mutiaeen at 
Jowar. 



cccxx. 

Agra, 14(^ October 1857. 

My Dear Greathed, — A party of 500 Horse and 500 Foot, 
probably fugitive from the force you routed on Saturday, was 
reported to be at Jowar, half-way between Muthra and Hatrass, 
yesterday afternoon. They spoke of coming on to Hatrass ; — 
what courae they will then take I cannot say, but be on the 
look out. 



W. MuiR. 



Colonel Greathed. 



The same to 
Mi^or Eld, 
Allygorh. 



CCCXXI. 

The same as above to Major Eld, Commanding Allygurh 
Detachment, with the following after the words " look out " : 

It was reported that last night, before they crossed (this side 
of Muthra), they were in a very sorry plight, some with and 
some without muskets, and as they are running away, try and 
have a slap at theuL 

I wrote the above by Muii*'s orders. -wr a p 

No guns were seen — nor are they likely to have any. 



Gwalior Con- 
tinffent aaid 
to be about 
to march. 



Indore force 
broken up. 



CCCXXII. 

Agra, 16e^ October 1867. 

My Dear Greathed,^ — The news to-day, received in various 
fonns and by a reliable communication to Major Macpherson 
from the GwaUor Durbar, is that the Contingent was to march 
on the evening of the 14th. Their "line doree" had gone on 
on the night of the 13 th. Their line lies by the Antree Pass, and 
may either take them via Jhansi or viu Koonch and Orai. If 
the latter route is taken, then the distance to Cawnpore is under 
130 miles. So they are considerably nearer than you; but you 
have the better road, and they have the Jumna and Sind to 
crosa The game will soon thicken at Cawnpore. I trust you 
will have the glory of repulsing the Contingent from Cawn- 
pore in the same brilliant style as that in which the Column 
annihilated the Indore Army. It has broken up, as every day's 
report more fully proves, in the most signal manner, the towns- 
people and the Zemindars even rising on the fugitive parties. 

1 Oldfield's hand.— W. M. 




LETTERS TO BRIGADIER HOPE GRANT 393 

When you may not have time youi-self to write, will you 
kindly charge one of your staff, or some other officer who may 
have the Kakoethes scribendi, to give me occasional details of 
progresa 

I hope to hear both from Campbell and Harington ; but 
when communications are also received from a military Officer, 
a complete and more accurate picture of events is obtained. I 
trust the maps are what you wanted, and now may success and 
victory attend you. 

W. MuiR. 

CCCXXIII. 

Agra, leth October 1857. 

My Dear Grant,^ — Colonel Fraser urged you to come in from Repfarding 
Allygurh here on the impression that you were on your way nSpe Gnint 
down under orders to take the command of the Column. This ^^Jj^^ ^ 
was assumed, perhaps too hastily, on the report current in the 
camp of the Column, that you were coming down, with the 
recruits, for that purpose. 

As this turns out not to be the case, and as the former 
letters were merely intended to make you huriy on to the end 
of a journey supposed to have been then more than half com- 
pleted. Col. Fraser is anxious that you should be stopped if still 
possibla I send this, therefore, by express, and trust it will 
reach you in time to prevent your having set out. 

W. MuiR. 

Brigadier H. Grant, C.B., Meerut. 



CCCXXIV. 

AoRA, October 20th, 1857. 

My Dear Grant,* — Cblonel Fraser is now pressing in his Brigadier 
instructions for you to hurry on towards Cawnpore as rapidly as to^SJrryto 

you can. Cawnpore. 

500 Muzbees are coining down to reinforce us hera So 
that we shall be quite set up. 
Nothing else that is new. 

W MuiR. 
Brigadier H. Grant, C.B., 

Commanding Column. 

1 W. Lowe's hand.— W. M. » Lady Muir'a hand.— W. C. 



INTELLIGENCE DEPARTMENT, AGRA. 



MSS. VOL IV. 



SIXTH SERIES. 



DEPOSITIONS OF SPIES, 

NOTES OP INTELLIGENCE COLLECTED, 



AND 



MEMORANDA OF THE RESULT, DRAWN UP ON IMPOR- 
TANT OCCASIONS FOR CHIEF COMMISSIONER, 
AND OFFICER COMMANDING, AGRA. 



3l8t August to 23rd October 1867. 



sw 



A Delhi Prince 
at Owalior. 



NOTES OF INTELLIGENCE AND MEMORANDA 
FOR CHIEF COMMISSIONER AND OFFICER 
COMMANDING, AGRA. 

31 8t August to 23rd October 1867. 

CCCXXV. 

From Lalla Joogul Kishore {apparently addressed from Gwalior 
to Major Charteris Macpherson, Political Agent with Scindia, 
then at Agra). 

^Ist August 1857. 

Sir, — I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your two letters 
of the 15th and 24th August, and we are happy to learn that 
you are all well and happy. 

The contents of the letters of the 24th of August gave every 
satisfaction to luy Master. He begs to state that he is well aware 
of the British friendship and justice from the time they granted 
him the Guddee (or throne) of Gwalior, and begs to present his 
respects to His Honour the Lt. -Governor, yourself, and all others 
who know him. 

The Mutineers of Indore have lately brought a Mussulman 
who, they say, is the first Prince of the Delhi King. When 
this forge (false ?) Prince arrived into their camp they saluted 
him with 22 guns. A few days ago they wanted that my 
Master should pay the respect to Prince — the answer to my 
Master was that the Eajahs of GwaUor have been several times 
deceived by ... . [Here ends. — W. C.]. 



Proceedings 
of mutinous 
Regiment at 
Owalior. 



CCCXXVI. 

Translation of a vernacular Memo, received by Captain Nixon, 
from Dholpore. Owalior news — Wednesday and Thursday. — 
Yesterday early the . . . regiment marched to the Residency, 
the Bhopal Nawab, and the Shahzada and an assemblage of 
others accompanying and entering the Residency, took from it 
glass articles and other things whatever was worth taking, and 
took flowers and fruits from the gardens, and cut down the 
roadside trees. The Saees (Maharaja) got news of this, and 
was much annoyed, and sent a message to say that all the 
buildings there belonged to him : "Do not commit any excesses ;" 
and he sent orders to the watchmen to beat any one who dis- 




INTELLIGENCE NOTES AND MEMORANDA 397 

obeyed, and drive him off. Narain Kao went there to aiTange 
matters, and took back the house things from them, and made 
them remove their camp half-a-koss from the Residency. The 
messenger is official. 

The fourth regiment stationed at Morar is on the move, and 
will go along with them. 

The Magazine (ammunition) has been distributed. Finis, 



CCCXXVIL 

Khureeta, oh Official Letter from the Eana of Dholpore to 
THE Lt. -Governor at A(;ra, dated 3rd September 1857. 

[TJie original is on Tiative j>a/>c?', sprinkled aU over %oith gold 
leaf, and with gilt floi'al border and heuding. It is vmtten in the 
best style of Persian caligraphy.] 

Nawab Sahib,^ of high dignity, appreciator of merit, affec- 
tionate and kind to me, your humble servant, may your dignity 
increase ! 

After paying sucli respects as a suppliant should offer, and 
expressing my desire for the honour of serving you (your service 
having the virtue of changing the base into the noble), which 
is the dearest wish of my heart, I beg to submit to your exalted 
mind of sunlight splendour the following information. To-day, 
the 3rd September 1857, news arrived, conveyed verbally by a 
trustworthy person, that yesterday, Wednesday the 2nd inst., 
the infantry of Indore with the troops of the Nawab of Bhopal, 
having marched from Mordr, have encamped at the Resident's 
house in Lashkar, Gwalior: and to-day, Thursday, they would 
halt there. The rumour is that on Friday they are marching in 
this direction. The troops of Morar and Ladore are united in 
purpose, " You go one stage ahead, and we will follow stage by 
stiige." It is necessary that you should be informed of this, so I 
now send you this letter. Whatever you wish I am ready to 
do. I am but an old dependent and sincere well-wisher of the 
Government of the East India Company. Night and day do I 
cherish tlie desire that it may prosper, and be victorious. I 
tnist that you will kindly continue to favor me by sending mo 
letters with tidings of your health. 

May the star of your dignity and glory shine brightly ! * 

^ The proper style in addressing the Lt.-Govemor in Persian. — W. C. 
* This letter bean no signature. — W. C. 



398 



MSS. VOL. IV. : SIXTH SERIES 



CCCXXVIII. 

5th of September, — The Tehseeldar of Khyragiirh reported 

that on Friday, the 4th, 70 Sowars, 300 Infantry, and 2 guns 

crossed at Dholpore ; that the rest was at Ghoundee. 

Tehaeeldarof The whole force — 3 " pultuns," 3 troops, and 1200 Gwalior 

repOTtS*'^ Sowars — would assemble at Dholpore on Wednesday, and on 

kTaMBmbiea?' Thursday, having formed a camp, start for Agra.^ 

Dholpore. W. M. 



Indore and 
Mhow insur- 
gent force. 



Part of force 
crossed the 
Chumbul on 
the 4th Sep- 
tember. 



CCCXXIX. 

Major MacpJiersan's Memorandum of the 6th September* 1857. 
— On the 2nd of August the Indore and Mhow insurgents, under 
Shahzada Ferozeshah of Dehli, marched from Morar Cantonment 
to the Kesidency. They consisted of : — 



23rd N.I., strength about 

Irreg. Ist Cavalry .... 

Holkar's Foot ..... 

" Gole " of Hindustanis, under Sirdar Waris Ma- 
homed Khan of Bhopal, late prisoner at Indore 

Ghazees ..... 

Golundaz ..... 

The 4th troop of the 2nd Contingent Cavalry, 
which requested the Maharajah's permission to 
depart because, from having killed English 
oflScers, it considered itself beyond pardon both 
by the Government and the Maharajah 

About 10 men from each Contingent Eegiment, 
excepting the 5th .... 

From the 4th Contingent Infantry, in the same 
position as the 4th troop of 2nd Cavalry 



800 
120 
400 

300 
700 
100 



100 



60 



100 
2680 



This force, on the 3rd, detached by forced marches to the 
Chumbul about 500 men, consisting of three companies of the 
23rd N.I., 100 Horse in English uniforms, 100 Gole and 
Ghazees, and 2 guns. They reached the Chumbul on the 4th, 
and the Infantry and Cavalry crossed at the Katree Ghat 
that evening. 

The object in pushing on this detachment was said to be to 
secure against the supposed advance of an English force the 
^ More tlian a month before they advanced on Agra (Oct. 10th).— W. M. 




INTELLIGENCE NOTES AND MEMORANDA 399 

river Ghats and the Fort at Dholpore on the river's bank, and 
especially, it is said, with a view to depositing in the Fort the 
contents of the Gwalior Magazine. The Fort was left open to 
this party. I have not yet heard of its entrance into it. 

On the 4th the remainder of the Indore insurgent force indore force 
moved from the Kesidency, and was to reach the Chumbul to-day, Dhoiporef °" 
— it has 400 or 500 carts, with very many women and children ; 
they will take at least to-morrow to cross. They had on the 
3rd no share of the Gwalior Magazine, and only 40 maunds of 
powder brought from villages, and from 10 to 20 ... (?) gims. 

Their further movements depend mainly on the course which 
the rebels at Gwalior shall take. 

Charteris Macpherson, 
Political Agent 

CCCXXIXa. 

6th September, St^ement of Suttee Singh Meena, employed 
hy Mr, PhUlipps, Magte, and Collector, — Was with the Indore 
troops when they left, having had no pay for 5 month& . I went 
with them to the Residency on the 2nd. There was no plunder 
or disturbance there. They halted on Thursday, and intended to 
remain there 2 or 3 days in hopes of getting the Contingent to 
go with them. While encamped there, about 10 or 11 a.m., a 
letter was received from some one at Dholpore by the Bhopal 
Nawab, saying that whoever came first, the British or the rebels, 
would take Dholpore — the Fort and Ghats — that there would 
be no local resistance. The Nawab immediately called the 
Havildar Major and Subadar Major (both Mussulmans) and 
ordered 2 companies, 2 gims, 2 troops, and 100 of the new 
levies to go forward and seize the Ghats and occupy Dholpore; 
so they set out alx)ut midday and pitched at Cheounda, and 
started in the morning. 

[Here follo7v$ detail of troops, about 7000; and of arrange* 
merits at ferry, etc,] 

No Contingent Eegiments are with them. Only a few 
here and there from Contingent Eegiments joined the Army on 
Thursday. They have no certain hopes now of the Contingent 
Eegiments coming. They hope the 2nd and 5th will join. The 
5 th has gone to the Body Guard, but not yet got its pay. 

The Magazine of the Contingent has not been opened 
or touched. The Indore people say they have plenty of 



« • 






400 MSS. VOL. IV. : SIXTH SERIES 

ammunition, but little gi*ape ; they hope to get some heavy guns 
at Dholpore. I saw 2 big guns (say IS-pounders) and 5 or 6 
smaller ones — these unmounted. 

The Ootangun is fordable, but the Kharee is deep. I 
crossed on a platform on earthen pots : the boat is taken away. 
He adds that the main force is probably crossing to-day, but that 
it will probably not cross entirely before the third day — i.e. 
Tuesday. They will therefore not march probably till Wednes- 
day. 

cccxxx. 

7th Septj Monday. Statement of Ohoolam Mahomed, oi given 
by Major Macpherson. — He left Dholepore at daylight on Sunday 
morning, 
eportof 250 Foot, 80 Regular and 20 Irregular Horse, with 25 or 

hoipSe. * 30 camp-followers and 2 small guns, had crossed to this sida 
Mewattees of Sont kee Mundee and from Coel and Hatrass were 
coming behind. 

The Bana and Soobah were at Dholepora But the Sana's 
son and his ladies were at Baree. 

The advanced force above described demanded the Sana's 
guns, and took possession of them ; but let them go on getting a 
present of 200 rupees and a meal for each. 

They are pitched at the Dak Bungalow, which they spared on 
its being represented to be Dholepore and not British property. 

An Irregular Sowar told this witness that they were going to 
Agra ; he met him with 4 or 5 Sepoys at Munniah (4 or 5 coss 
this side Dholepore) ordering supplies. 

A man of the Regular Cavalry, on the other hand, said the 
force was going to Dehli. He said the Contingent had given them 
neither guns, powder, nor shells. Scindia was angry with them. 
They were going to Dehli lest he should attack them from be- 
hind. " We are Poorbeas," they said, " and intend going East- 
ward ; you are from the West, and had better go thither." 

CCCXXXa. 

7th Sept Statement of Jemadar belonging to the Magistrate, 
as given by Mr, Ifarington. — Came in from Jajou this morning. 
Yesterday fell in at that place with a party from Dholepore 
consisting of some of the Indore troops and men from Bhopal. 
They said they had come there for " russud." Their report was 
that they were going to DehlL 



INTELLIGENCE NOTES AND MEMORANDA 401 

CCCXXXb. 

Midday. Statement of Mullour Singh, Kachee^ Besident of the 

vicinity of Agra} 

Was at Dholepore yesterday, 1 1 a.m. ; saw the advanced 
guard there. Could see nothing of the main body coming 
behind. The guard said it was following, and that they expected 
the Contingent would come too. 



CCCXXXc. 

Tth Sept. Afternoon. StatemtTit of a man belonging to the 
Vakeel of Dholepore, communicated by Mr. Reade. 

Stated that the advanced guard, principally Horse, have indore people 
crossed the Chumbul. The Infantry had not arrived, but were * ^ ^^' 
commg on with smaU guns. 

The 4th Contingent was certainly expected to accompany 
them. 

Mahomed Waris Khan, said to be a Shahzada of Dehli, is in 
command of the force, but other names are also mentioned. 

They give out decidedly that they are coming to Agra. 
They met with no opposition at the Chumbul. 

The Kharee not fordable. Crossed on a platform on earthen 
pots. 

CCCXXXd. 

Sept. 7th. Midday. Reports recorded by Major Macpherson. 

Maiiomed Zalim. Beached Sesidency on the 2nd ; started 
on the 3rd with detachment, and went to Cheounda ; 4th, across 
the Chumbul. There was but (?) 1 company of the 23rd, and 1 
English Kissalah — 150 Gole, Ghazees, and 2 guns; news that 
" Goras " * and a battery had come to Khetri. Intention, if they 
found " Goras " at Dholepore, to return back ; so they did not take 
the guns across. Sent 6 or 8 Ghazees in advance two hours by insurgents 
Raj Ghat. Say mostly they are going to Dehli by Keraghur, Shoipore. 
but some say "we want to go to Agra." It is generally said, 
however, " our small guns will be of no use against Agra ; we will 

^ Brought to me by Isree Pershad ; gave 5r., and encouraged to go back 
for further intelligence. — W. M. 
2 i.e. Europeans. 
VOL. I. — 26 



402 



MSS. VOL. IV. : SIXTH SERIES 



AttitQde of 

Owalior 

Contingent. 



go and see the state of Dehli, and return upon Agra." They do 
not hope that the Contmgent will come after them. They say 
*' we should have been at Dehli two months ago had not the 
Contingent deceived us, saviny. * We will ^o to-morrow and to- 
morrow.' " They came away hopeless of the Gwalior Contingent. 
The Contingent said, " We stand inseparable from the Magazine : 
let it go first and we follow. Where it remains, there we 
stand." So we came away. They wait two days at Dholepore 
to see if they can get together very many boats for a bridge, and 
tempt Regiments from Morar to come on with half the Magazine 
and big guns. Then they will go to Agra. If not, they will go 
to Dehli. The Indore and Mhow force have but 60 or 70 carts ; 
would arrive at midday on the 6 th. An inunense mass of 
plunderers who want to plunder Agra. 



Attitude of 
Dbolpore. 

Ordnance at 
Dbolpore. 



Mewattis. 



CCCXXXk 

1th September, {Major Macphersan im^.)— Having no news 
from Dholepore since the 4th, received on the 5th, wrote to 
Bana. Vakeel Sunder Lai says 1 rebel Sowar and 5 men 
were seized on road and taken on to Munniah, and then let go. 
... a Chaubay Brahmin of Muthra said we go on to Agra. 
More Eegiments are coming from Gwalior. Had the carriage 
provided for a Eegiment to go to Nirwar. Ordered food to be 
prepared at Munniah. Shore Khan Subadar of the 23rd, which 
came to Dholepore, asked " russud." Ordered to buy. In Baree 
a 24-pouuder, and 5 or 4 other smaller ones, not big; in 
Dholepore, 4 or 5 small, say 6 -pounders ; in the Fort, 4 or 5 
small ; 6 in old Chowni, 3 or 4 small 

N.B. — There are Agra Mewattees with this party who can 
guide the plunderers to every man's house. May make any rush 
when over the Kharee. 



Insurgent 
force. 



CCCXXXf. 

7th September, Afternoon, Evidence of a Meena Informer 

employed by the Magistrate,, 

Left Dholepore after 12 yesterday. The main army, it was 
said, consists of 13 companies and 300 Cavalry. Half had come 
over, and half remained still on the other sida Five guns 
crossed over about 9 or 10 on Sunday morning. Two are left 
on the other sida Expects that all the army will be over to-day 
(the 7th). 




INTELLIGENCE NOTES AND MEMORANDA 403 

They have 10 or 20 hackeries, 15 to 20 camels; not much 
ammunition. What assistance from the Morar Regiments was 
to be obtained {ie. occasional vohmteers) has already joined. Soiudia's 
bcmdia is keeping back the rest. 

Two-thirds of the men say they will go to Delhi. One-third 
sa y they are bound for Ap-a, 

Believes that 30 or 40 have gone into the Fort. 

The Dholepore Itana has three big and 10 small guns, all 
mounted. There are both rebel and Dholepore guards over them. 

Met no Mutineers this side of Dholepore. 

[Not very intelligent, but straightforward. His report differs 
from others in making the main body of the force reach the 
opposite bank of the Chumbul on Saturday (the 5 th), on which 
day 2 guns, and on Sunday 3 more, crossed. They were afraid 
of the Maharaja's attacking the two left on the other side, and 
left a part of their body to guard them.] 

CCCXXXg. 

7th September, .7 p.m. Statement of Danee KvJiar, Servant of Describes 

Chowbee Ghunsham Doss, Dholpore. 

• ••••••• 

No Contingent troops have come with them ; nor are any Attitude of 
exi)ected. Scindia keeps them back. 



CCCXXXh. 

*lth instant. 5 p.m. Extract from Major MacpJurson's Book. 
— Dholpore Vakeel brings letters of Saturday and Sunday, 5 th 
and 6 th. 

On the 5th, 300 or 400 Cavalry and 2 guns of the Indore Reception of 
rebels, crossing by the Khetri Ghat, encamped near the at Dhoi^>re. 
Bungalow at Dholpore. Required that the Bungalow be vacated 
and burnt. The Soobah and the (?) with Chowdhry went to them. 
After a talk, to avoid a row, they took away their guns and 
halted in the Putialawallah's garden. The liana removed the 
boats from the Eaj Ghat. Told them to buy " russud " in the 
Ikzaar. 

(jth. — Bana sent word to rebels to march thence. Morar 
"pultuns" have not marched. They say there are 4000 of us. 
The dak is stopped. We have no power near Khetri Ghat, 
but we have told them distinctly they shall not have the Eaj 



404 



MSS. VOL. IV. : SIXTH SERIES 



Ghat boat& Had any Sahib come, the same arrangement might 
have been made for the Khetri Ghat The Bana has gone to 
Purana Choimi (?), 2 coss from Dholpore. 



RUumi 
of foregoing 
intelligence. 



CCCXXXL 

%th September, Tuesday, 7 a.m, — The reports of yesterday, to 
which nothing has yet to be added for this morning, are to the 
following effect. 

The advanced guard of the Indore force — say 200 or 300 
Sepoys and 100 Cavalry with 2 guns — continue encamped at 
Dholpore. The main body appears to be on the opposite bank. 

The Chumbul rose very high on Sunday the 6th, and 
prevented the remainder crossing. They certainly had not 
crossed up to yesterday morning. 

The statements of the advanced guard as to futui^e inten- 
tions are various. Most say they are going to Agra. Many that 
they are going to Delhi. It is also said that they will stay at 
Dholpore for a time. 

No Contingent Regiment has joined the Indore rebela A 
few men only from the several Eegiments have deserted to 
them. 

Their guns are said to be six and nine-pounders, drawn by 
bullocks. They are not well-off for ammunition. 

The advanced guard have been trying to get some gims from 
the Bana of Dholjx)re. W. M. 



Describes 
position at 
bholpore. 



CCCXXXlA. 

Sth Septemler, Tttesday, 9 a.m, (Brought by the Chowbey.) 
Ram Ghunder of Butesur, 



The Sepoys spoke of crossing yesterday (the 7 th). 

They said the Contingent troops would not move till the 
Dudsehra} They abused them heartily for keeping them back ; 
and abused the Maharaja also, who had become a " Christian." 

A Sowar, with 10 or 12 envelopes in his hand, was on the 
road between the Ootangun and the Kharee. He was stopping 
and searching everybody and seizing papers. 

^ 28th September. 




INTELLIGENCE NOTES AND MEMORANDA 405 



CCCXXXIc. 

Mohkum and Bisasee, Servants of Li. Broivne^ state: — We amved Describes 
at Gwalior from Orai on Friday last. On that day the following Son^ofa^Sa 
troops left for Agra, viz. : — one " pultun," one rissala of regulars, ** G^aiior. 
about 200 or 250 of the Maharaja's cavalry, who cut their names. 
Seven guns of sizes, and a large crowd of plunderers. 

They have 100 or 150 carts containing their families. A 
DehU Shahzada commands them. We left them at the Chumbul A Delhi 
the day before yesterday (the 6 th). A few had crossed, some 60 
or 80 men, and two guns. The river was very full; the boats 
could hardly crosa Half the force say, "We will go to Agra," 
and the rest say, " We have no ammunition, and will go to Dehli " 
(by Muthra from Dholpore). Every day three, four, and five 
men desert from this force, and go off to their homes. The 
Gwalior troops are at Morar ; they have received three months' 
pay, and talk of waiting until after the Dussehra for his orders. 
The " Top Khana " ^ is at Gwalior. We saw many guns on the 
parade, and in one of the bungalows there are guns and waggons 
in great numbers. The Gwalior force say they are ready to 
march upon Agra if the Maharaja will give them a Karindah to Scindia's loyal 
go with them. He refuses to do this. We saw no cavalry in 
Morar. The Maharaja discharged from his army all Musulmans, 
and these men are with the advancing force. The Gwalior 
Seix)ys desert daily. We met on our road via Jalaon (?) 10 and DeMrtions 
1 5 every day, going to their homes with their wives and families, f JJ^ *^ 
without their arms. They all said they were going home, and 
all these men regi^et the Mutiny. Those at Gwalior declare they 
are ready to march upon Agra whenever the Maharaja orders 
them. The Dholpore Bana has run away somewhere. The 
coming force may be 1500 men; that at Morar is about equal 
to 4 regiments. The Kharee Nuddi is very fulL We crossed it 
on a platform with ghurraa* There are 40 or 50 boats in the 
ChumbuL Each boat holds four Sowars and four horses. The 
guns are dragged by bullocka 



CCCXXXlE. 

Information given by Mr. Harington. 

8th September. Afternoon. — Kiddemath, Soukar, had a servant 
in yesterday evening from Dholpore, who left that place in the 
^ Artillery. * Earthen water-pots. 



406 



MSS. VOL. IV. : SIXTH SERIES 



Owalior 
Contingent. 



morning. His report agrees with what we had previously heard. 
A few of the Indore men would appear to be still on the Gwalior 
side of the Chumbul. Five or six himdred of the Gwalior 
Contingent are said to have taken their discharge from the 
Maharaja and to have joined the Mutineers. I think this is very 
likely to be the case. 



Guns of the 

Dholpore 

Rana. 



i; 



Stages from 
Am to 
Dholpore. 



■J 



CCCXXXIF. 

Major Macpherson notes the guns of the Dholpore Eana €is 
follows : — 

At Dholpore . 4 or 5 small ones, say G-poundere. 
At Sheregurh . 4 or 5 do. do. 

At Poorani Chownee 3 or 4 do. do. 

At Bara (10 coss from Dholpore) one 24-pounder, 4 or 5 
smaller, but still big guns. 

At Saj Ghat there are 12 boats. 

At Khentra there are 17 boats (13 ?). 

Agra from the Kharee (Oosra Ghat) 10 milen. 

Jajow . 9 

Moonia . 8 

Dholpore . . 9 



it 



>» 



36 



)) 



»> 



I 

■ I 
I I' 



CCCXXXIG. 

8th September. Evening. — On the evening of the 8th of 
Mr.Courtenay. September Mr. Courtenai/ wrote from the Kharee as follows : — 

The following is the intelligence received from Dholpore this 
Deua of day from good authority. All the Indore troops are at the other 
Indore troops, ^j^^ ^j ^^^ Chumbul, as foUows :— 

7 brass guns. 

300 Cavalry from Mhow. 

600 Bugrungie pultun. 

507 Caraputkee pultun. 

150 Horse belonging to Eaja of Indore. 

327 Ghazies. 

1 prince from Delhi, with 70 followers. 

Their camp groimd is near the staging bungalow at Dholpore. 
They have placed horsemen all along the road into Munniah. 

E. COURTENAY. 




INTELLIGENCE NOTES AND MEMORANDA 407 

CCCXXXII. 
9th September, Wednesday, — 

• •••••• • 

The Eana has not given up his Fort They have asked the 
Bana for three months' pay. 

The Chumbul is so high that they can neither go back nor 
get the rest of the force over; and are in considerable appre- 
hension. 

A hackery crossed over the Kharee yesterday. 



CCCXXXILl 

9th September, Wednesday, 7 a.m. — During yesterday Offidml 
several men came in from Dholepore bringing information up to f©? cSlSel 
the forenoon of Monday the 7th. They add no items of^**^« 
importance to what was stated in yesterday's memorandum, and 
confirm its main pointa 

Mr. Courtenay from the Kharee Nuddee (10 miles oflf) sent 
in a written report yesterday afternoon ; and came in himself in 
the evening. From his letter and verbal statements, it appears 
that the advanced guard on this side the Chumbul consists of — 

2 brass guna 
150 Horse. 
200 Foot. 
50 Ghazies. 
They are encamped near the staging bungalow at Dholepore, 
and have horsemen on the road as far as Munniah. 
He gives the entire force as foUows : — 
7 brass guns, 
300 Mhow Cavaky, 
507 23rd Native Infantry, 
150 Holkar's Horse, 

600 "Bugrungie," probably Holkar's Foot, 
327 Ghazies, 
70 followers of Shazadah, 
or 1177 Foot, 450 Horse, and some 400 Ghazies, etc. 
His information was that the Chumbid was so high that the 
main body coidd not cross, and that the advanced guard was 
consequently cut off and in great apprehension. 

I have just, however, received the following note from Major 
Macpherson : — " I heard late last night, not from any man of my 



408 MSS. VOL, IV. : SIXTH SERIES 

own, but from a fair second-hand source, that the water had 
fallen and the boats were hard at work crossing our enemiea" 
If I receive any information during the day corroborating this 
report I will give immediate information to CoL Cotton. 

An important point mentioned by Mr. Courtenay was that a 
hackery crossed the Kharee yesterday. It would be satisfactory 
to have an examination of the Ghat, and the nature of the 
bottom there, by a competent officer, and Mr. Courtenay can 
send in a gauge of the height of the water daily. 

W. MujR. 
To CoL. Cotton, Commg. Agra. 



CCCXXXIlB. 

Vakeel of 9th September. Midday, — The Vakeel of Dholiiore represented 

gives^eteils that he had news from Dholpore up to Monday evening, the 7th. 

Sag^umbS! Besides the first party, which crossed on Saturday, and 

consisted of — 

300 Sowaral -p,, , 
o } Dholpore, 

2 guns J ^ 

400 Bhopal men stationed at the Ghat, 

there crossed on Monday (none crossed on Sunday) — 

4 Companies foot, 

2 guns, 

1 Ghole of Vilayaties (50 to 100), 

and some Sowars — number not known. 

These crossed notwithstanding the river was very high. 

Yesterday it is probable that more crossed. 



Additional from Major MacpJierson, 

Two or three boats laden with carts went from Khentra 
Ghat to Eaj Ghat, where, from there being no caniage road, they 
remain* The officers of the Indore army have come often to us for 
assistance to move their carta We have answered, " Take them 
to Khentra Ghat. They cannot come this way." These officers say 
that whenever the other guns shall arrive here this advanced guard 
will move forward, and that the army manifests the intention of 
moving on Agra ; and when we ask if they mean to go to Delhi, they 
are silent. For two days there has been no news from Gwalior, 
but we hear that the Morar troops have not yet marched Much 
rain. Jajow Zemindars called upon to furnish supplies thera 



INTELLIGENCE NOTES AND MEMORANDA 409 



CCCXXXIIc. 

lO^A September. 9 a.m., Thursday, Major MacpJcerson's 

Note of the 9th. 



" The main body of the rebels must be on this side the Describes 
Chumbul to-day. tt?,1tb 

"At Dholpore on the 7th their officers said that their JJ'dnh Sep- 
intention was to march on Agra, and that when the main body 
arrived the advanced guard would move forward 

" On the 7th the GwaUor Contingent had not moved, and at 
Dholi)ore it was not expected. 

" A cossid reports that on the 6th or the 7th he saw 4 bodies, 
each of from 300 to 500, of Scindia's Sowars, Poorbeas, at the 
principal villages on the road to the ChumbuL" ^ 

They have left Scindia's service to join the rebels, are at 
heart with them, and several parties already gone to Delhi. 
Eeport wants confirmation. 

The cossid saw along the road many Wilayatees, Arabs, eta, 
who had left the Baiza Bhaee's service. Plundering immense. 

Rebels have 10 Sowars at Jajow, besides party at Muuniah. 



W. M. 



CCCXXXIlD. 



Statement taken before Major Macpherson on the 9th. — Jundoo, Position at 
Soukari Cossid, Aheer of Kalait, uncle Jemadar of Jail : — Dboipow. 

Left Agra at 12 midnight on the 6 th, reached Dholpore at 
8 a.m., and GwaUor before midnight of the 7th. On evening of 
the 7th went to Morar ; returned to Phul Bagh, and thence to 
Dholpore at 1 p.m. ; left Dholpore 3 am., and reached Agra 
3 p.m. of 8th. Monday, saw near Dholpore Bungalow 2000 
men and 2 guns, 300 Telingas, 400 Sowars, some Vilayatees of 
Iki*s, Sikhs, grass-cutters, and plunderers. At Ketri Ghat saw 
2000 or 3000 men and 5 guns; viz. a Bissala and a pultun 
and Vilayatees, 250 or 300. 

1 O^A Sept. — At the village of Jarra, 1 J coss from Chumbul, The Sbah- 
the Shazadah lay with 3000 men, Telingahs, 200 or 300 ;'^** 
Sowars with red coats and black turbans ; 300 or 400 plunderera 
At Bunda, 400 Sowars, and foot, 100 or 150, all black turbans 
and carbines (H.H.'8 men have none); Choimda, 300 Sowars; 
Nourabad, 400 or 500 Sowars. Went to Morar, and asked some 
^ See Brown's servant's statement, CCCXXXIc. ante. — W. M. 



410 



MSS. VOL. IV. : SIXTH SERIES 



Scindia'H 
attitude. 



Sepoys, and they said, "We don't go for a month, till after 
the Diisserah." I saw they were collecting bullocks and carts 
and camels in a compound. A Pool Bagh army (man) said, " If 
the Morar people will send a few bullets at the City we will join 
and loot it." Saw 7 flags of Begiments and Maharatta Sowars, but 
none of H.H.'s regular Sowars. These are all on the road. On 
return saw at the Residency 3000 or 4000 outside, men 
placed there by H.H. Saw the same men (the Sowars above 
specified) on the road, but came by llaj Ghat, and there Sowars 
were crossing as also at Piperi Ghat and Ketri Ghat Courtenay 
not at Kharee, but 3 coss on this side of it. Kharee very deep, 
and no fords, Ootangun fordable. 
At Jajow are 10 Sowars. 

W. M. 



CCCXXXIII. 



RUumi for 
10th Sep- 
tember. 



Old Gooroo 
from Dhol- 
pore. 
Bir Singh 
Omnthee of 
Patiala. 



lO^A Sept, — From to-day's information this appears — the 
main body of the rebels must be on this side of the Chumbul 
to-day. At Dholpore their officers said that when the main 
body arrived the advanced guard would move forward, and that 
the army said " upon Agra." The GwaUor Contingent have not 
moved. 

A cossid who left Gwalior on the evening of the 7 th reports 
that Scindia's regular Soware, Poorbeahs, have left his service, 
and are upon the road to the Chumbul in several bodies ; and also 
that many Wilyaties, Arabs, etc., of the Baiza Bai*s service, have 
done the same, and that the number of plunderera of every kind 
who are following the rebels is immense. Scindia's Poorbeah 
Cavalry, about 3 Regiments, are at heart entirely with the rebels, 
and small bodies of them have been constantly moving off to 
Delhi ever since the commencement of the insurrection. And 
such bodies are probably moving now, but until further informa- 
tion I shall hope the main body may be restmined until after the 
Dusserah. 

The old Gooroo from Dholpore says that Bir Singh Grunthee 
of Putealah wrote from Dholpore on the 8th that 2000 men had 
crossed. They had only 7 small gims — a boat had upset with a 
gun; that the Gwalior Contingent is not expected. The 
hundred Sikhs of the 23rd Native Infantry will meet the 
Grunthi at Dholpore, w^ho will send news. 

W. M. 



INTELLIGENCE NOTES AND MEMORANDA 411 

CCCXXXIILl 

Statement of Hunuman Singh Brahmin, Informer, taken at 8 p,m., 

9th September, 

Sent by the Tehseeldar to Dholpore ; arrived there night of 
the 8th ; left it early this morning (9th), about 7 a.nL There 
were 300 Sepoys and 2 guns formerly crossed; and 400 Sepoys, 
2 guns, and 125 Sowars crossed over yesterday (Tuesday). Saw 
60 horses by which the guns are dragged. Stayed at night in 
the " pultim." The troops say they will stay at Dholpore till 
joined by the Morar troops after the Dusserah. Saw no camels, 
but 15 or 16 hackeries, and about 40 ponies. The Chumbul is 
very high to-day (the 9 th), and no troops will have crossed. It 
rained heavily yesterday. Kharee deep. 

CCCXXXIIlB. 

Note of Intelligence "between 2 and 3 p,m, IQth September, RUunu,\(Mi 
Thursday, — I have had no very good fresh information to-day ^ 
from Dholpore ; nor has any report come in from Mr. Courtenay 
or Mr. Phillipp's men. 

A spy came late last night who left Dholpore about 7 o'clock Rebels at 
yesterday morning. He says that about half the army had crossed ° ^'** 
by Tuesday the 8th ; but that when he left yesterday the river was 
too full for any more to cross that day, I am doubtful as to 
his statement, and inclined to think with Major Macpherson that 
the whole force is most probably now on this side the Chumbul. 

We have nothing decisive yet as to the course they will taka 
The Tehseeldar and Thanahdar of Khyragurh have received a 
perwana from '' Soobah Shere Khan Sahib and Captain Perwana 
Mahommed Alee Khan Buhadur," appointing them servants of S^tl^^^^^^ 
the kin^ from that date, and ordering them to Jajow, where they ^^\ 
will learn the king's pleasure. If they fail to come, the writers 
will go to them. 

If this be addressed only to this Tehseeldar (as Khyragurh 

lies N.W.), it may be symptomatic of arrangements for going to 

Delhi. --- -^ 

W. MuiR. 

Colonel Cotton, Commg. Agra 

CCCXXXIV. 

ll^A September 1857. 4 p,m,, Friday. Memo, regarding the 
Indore Force, — Our information as to the actual state of the 



412 



MSS. VOL. IV. : SIXTH SERIES 



Position at 
Gwalior. 



Perwana sent 
by King to 
Indore and 
Gwalior 
troops. 



Indore force remains doubtful A respectable messenger sent by 
Major Eaikes left Gwalior on Tuesday the 8th, and passed over 
the Kentree Ghat on Wednesday the 9th. He declares that 
only three companies and 4 gims and 100 Cavalry are on this 
side, and that some two thousand men, including rabble and 
plunderers, are yet to crosa He met nobody on the road from 
Dholpore to this. 

The Contingent were quiet at Gwalior when he left on the 8th, 
and had no carriage. Some 100 or 200 of Scindia's own horse 
had deserted to the Indore Mutineers. The Indore Mutineers 
talk of going to Agra and thence to Delhi, according to this 
man. 

Major Macphei-son has authentic intelligence that a perwana 
was sent by the King of Delhi on the 7th or 8th, ordering up the 
Indore and Gwalior troops at once to his assistance. The order 
will probably be not without its effect on the movements of the 
Indore Mutineers. 



W. MuiR. 



Col. Cotton, Commanding Agra. 



Position at 
Gwalior. 



cccxxxv. 

Memo,, etc., 14fA Septerribcr. 2.30 p,m, — The Indore force 
seems to intend remaining still at Dholpore, and awaiting the 
Contingent. 

Major Macpherson's news of this morning from Gwalior is 
serious. The Contingent, excepting the 5 th and 6 th Regiments 
and a couple of Mehidpore gims and some cavalry, have broken 
with the Maharaja, and seem to be arrayed against him. It 
seems improbable that he will be able to detain them long. 

If they march soon it will gravely complicate our position. 



To Col. Cotton. 



W. MuiR. 



CCCXXXVa. 

14th. — Moolah (Caste Koorie), inhabitant of Alexandra 
cantonment at Gwalior, sent by Manuel Smith to Mr. Horn. 
Left Gwalior on Friday the 11th at 9 am., and arrived here last 
Mutinous sute night. States that two Contingent Eegiments with 1 7 guns are 
GwaSo? * ill position on the Cantonment side of the Nullah near the Phool 
Bagh. The other Eegiments and guns still at Morar demanding 
carriage, which the Maharaja declines to give ; also money. The 



INTELLIGENCE NOTES AND MEMORANDA 413 

Maharaja says he will give 5 lakhs, but they demand 25 lakha Scindia's loyal 
The Maharaja has placed guns in position opposite to those of the **^^*^"* ** 
Mutineei-s, as also 1 1 guns on the Fort bearing upon the Canton- 
ment. Zemindari levies are collecting, and have arrived in Zemindar 
large nimibers to assist the Maharaja. Moolah further states j^*^^^*" 
that he reached Dholpore on Saturday evening. Some of *^« M'^^*^*^* 
Scindia's Cavalry had still to cross the river; the guns and 
Infantry are encamped on the Maidan. The Gwalior troops ask 
the Maharaja to lead them on : he refused : also the Nana Sahib, The Nana, 
but he also declined. At Munniah saw 50 Sowars, who, I was 
told by a villager, had come on to mark out the camp. I saw no 
Sowara on this side of Munniah. 



W. M. 



CCCXXXVL 



15th, — Asculas, Brah7nin, who was sent with a Sowkaree Aflfairs at 
letter to Gwalior, left that place on Saturday morning, states: ^ ^^^' 
Some of the Contingent troops with 12 guns had taken up a 
position near the Phool Bagh. They demanded money from 
the Maharaja, which he refused to give them. The Maharaja 
was supplying them with carriage. They intend marching for . 
Agi*a on the 18 th, with all their guns, etc. 

One Kegiment of Infantry had gone over to the Mahai^ja, 
and it was not expected to join the others. He also states that 
he left Dholpore yesterday morning. The rebels were still there, 
and waiting for the Contingent troops to join them. Saw a few 
Cavalry at Munniah. Heard that the Dholpore Banee had left 

Dholpore. ,rrr ^r 

^ W. M. 

CCCXXXVIL 

Letters seized — 

(1) Letter addressed to Ameer Aly and Moneer Khan 
Bisaldars by Aulad Aly and Azim Aly, SmvarSy Troop 
K, Begiment 1st, from Hingowna, 

19th Mohurrum, — All well here. On 14th, 15th, Doonda 
Khan, Sowar, and nearly 80 Sowars Regiment I., Rissala, 
marched. 

On the 6 th Mohurrum they had an interview with the Shahzada 
Shahzada, Feeroze Shah (daughter's son of Mirza Ilahi Buksh, who Jh^^uhi 
had been to Mecca). The Sowars and Bissaldars were present Buksh. 
on the occasion. 



414 MSS. VOL. IV. : SIXTH SER